Cause Of The Growing Data Leakages From Social Media Databases

In the contemporary digital world, social media has taken over several lives of people, mainly social media users, making them feel insecure about the information they share through these online communication channels. This emerging new phenomenon of engaging in social media presents significant risks associated with the privacy of personal information due to increased levels of leakages involving personal sensitive information. In particular, the databases used by social media firms are at risk of these leakages because the social media firms do not run updated databases, leading to leakages of private data and information of the users. For instance, in a report published by Forbes magazine, the personal data of approximately 87 million Facebook users was leaked by the Cambridge Analytica Leak from the firm’s database due to ineffective control of its databases (Chaykowski 1). Even though the data leakages are causing increased mistrust among social media users, the respective social media firms are not trying to resolve this challenge. In this context, this essay contends that in the contemporary digital age, social media companies present significant privacy threats to personal information because of a lack of control of shared information between different social media databases, the lack of working together by social media platforms to regulate databases from authorized storage, access and use of private information of users and because of the absence of implementing appropriate structures of governance and responsibility in addressing the issues voiced by users concerning data leakages.

The problem of data leakages from social media databases is primarily caused by a need for more efforts by the respective social media firms to help resolve this challenge by regulating data shared with third-party entities. In particular, one of the reasons that cause leakage of private data from social media databases includes lack of prevention of use and access to personal information like emails and phone numbers by third-party users offered access to these databases. In support of this contention, Chaykowski showed that Facebook’s private data leakage was a result of allowing access to the use of the users’ email addresses and phone numbers to the Russian-backed entities that aimed to spread political division across the United States during the 2016 US general elections (1). In this context, data was extensively leaked through the Cambridge Analytical Leak, resulting in the widespread leakage of approximately eighty-seven million Facebook users’ private information, including their phone numbers and electronic mail addresses. Additionally, Chaykowski showed that data from nearly 50 million Facebook users during the previous year was inappropriately shared with the Cambridge Analytica (1). This statement highlights the lack of efforts by social media to regulate data sharing with third parties, resulting in the leakages of their user’s private information from their databases to third-party users. Therefore, the need for more efforts in regulating data shared with third parties by the respective social media platforms contributes to the challenge of privacy concerns associated with the leakage of private information from the sites’ databases.

Data leakage from social media databases results from a lack of working together by the respective social media sites to control private data sharing between different social media sites. Cerruto et al.’s study showed that information frequently available on social media networking sites like Facebook includes information concerning phone numbers, dates of birth, email addresses, and training and education information (18). Third parties or hackers can easily access this information, making it vulnerable to potential privacy risks. Moreover, privatized information in one social media channel like Facebook can be retrieved by other channels like LinkedIn, such as information concerning email addresses (Cerruto et al. 19). In this context, data from one database of any given social media platform can be easily retrieved in another social media communication channel by individuals aiming to cause harming using that information. This evidence suggests a need for more cohesion between social media communication platforms in working together to address the challenge of data leaks through social media databases.

Data breaches and leakages from respective social media platforms are also associated with a need for the respective social media companies’ efforts to implement governance structures and responsibility in addressing the issues voiced by users concerning data leakages. In this context, Cheng et al. found that social media firms like Twitter reflect ineffective information responsibility and governance by neglecting to address voiced concerns involving regulating existing data protection mechanisms and access by third-party vendors (9). This contention implies that the current leakage of private information from social media databases results from a need for more efficient social media responsiveness in dealing with the challenge of the respective social media platforms. Moreover, social media platforms embody a social and moral benevolence approach, in which they act in favor of others, such as third parties, for the advancement of their necessary and legitimate interests, usually by using collection intersection techniques that preserve local features and which allows modification of sensitive data rendering it at risk for of access to third parties (Cheng et al. 8). Therefore, the negligence of social media companies’ efforts to implement structures of governance and responsibility in addressing the issues voiced by users concerning data leakages is a significant challenge contributing to the data privacy problem associated with social media communication channels.

Even though the problem of data leakages through databases presents a significant concern for social media users, critics contend that social media companies use security and privacy setting features to deter access to personal information by third parties. For instance, Nawaz et al. argued that social media users like Instagram and Facebook allow users to hide their posts from third-party access and attackers by preventing access to friends’ lists, dislikes, or comments (15). This evidence is used to demonstrate the effort of social media networking sites to control access to private information by other online social media users. Additionally, the authors indicate that social media platforms use authentication mechanisms for preventing authorized access of confidential information by other users, such as Captcha and sending verification codes to authenticate user information to social media users (Nawaz et al. 16). This statement supports the fact that social media users use personal data of clients like phone numbers to authenticate their social media accounts. However, this approach needs to explain social media firms’ efforts to protect their databases from accessing their users’ private information like emails and phone numbers by third-party entities like enterprises and other social media networking sites.

In conclusion, this essay shows that the issue of private data leakages from databases arises from the social media companies’ lack of control of shared information between different social media databases, lack of working together by social media platforms to regulate databases from authorized storage, access, and use of private information and the absence of implementing appropriate structures of governance and responsibility in addressing the issues voiced by users concerning data leakages. In this context, all social media platforms must unite and develop universal strategies for sharing information between respective databases to address the challenge of private information leakages. Additionally, social media platforms should implement appropriate governance structures and responsibility for reporting and managing their individual social media users’ concerns about confidential information protection. Finally, social media users should not tailor their data protection and privacy policies to end-users only but to other third parties such as Cambridge Analytica, which renders this information vulnerable to external online attackers not associated with these enterprises.

Works Cited

Cerruto, Francesca, et al. “Social network data analysis to highlight privacy threats in sharing data.” Journal of Big Data 9.1 (2022): 19. Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

Chaykowski, Kathleen. “Facebook says data on 87 million people may have been shared in Cambridge analytica leak.” Forbes, 4 Apr. 2018, Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

Cheng, Long, Fang Liu, and Danfeng Yao. “Enterprise data breach: causes, challenges, prevention, and future directions.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 7.5 (2017): e1211. Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

Nawaz, Naeem A., et al. “A comprehensive review of security threats and solutions for the online social networks industry.” PeerJ Computer Science 9 (2023): e1143. Accessed 9 Nov. 2023.

Comparison Between The Marketing Mix Of PlayStation 5 And Nintendo Switch

Executive summary

Using the 4Ps marketing mix strategy, this paper thoroughly analyses the distinctions and similarities between the Nintendo Switch and Sony’s PlayStation 5 (PS5) game systems. With Nintendo and X boxer game consoles as its primary rivals, the PS5 currently holds a 52% market share. The marketing and distribution approaches used by Nintendo and the PS5 are frequently comparable. Their product characteristics and prices, however, range significantly from one another. Nintendo should create a brand-new, exclusive product with cutting-edge features to maintain a larger market share. Conversely, Sony has to make more significant investments in advertising and marketing to preserve its market share and competitive edge.


For most people in today’s world, gaming consoles are a given. To a large degree, though, they are pricey, and each gaming console offers a distinct experience in terms of design, graphics capability, and game availability. Di Domenico (2021) claims that the Play Station 5 (PS5) is the peak of next-generation gaming, providing smooth 4K @ 60 frames per second gameplay and quick load times thanks to a specially made SSD. It features an opulent design and an unparalleled dual-sensing controller. Currently, PS5 holds a 52% market share.

Conversely, most customers believe that the Nintendo Switch (OLED) has a slight advantage over the PS5 console regarding graphics capability. However, Nintendo provides a comparatively substantial OLED display, reduced bezels, and longer battery life. Compared to the PS5 console, it is less costly and does not enhance graphics performance. This report compares and contrasts the Nintendo Switch and PS5 game systems.

STP Strategic Approach

Businesses may develop a targeted and practical marketing strategy by following the three steps of the STP Model (segmentation, targeting, and positioning). It makes it possible to market a good or service more successfully to draw in specific clientele. Demographic segmentation is the primary segmentation strategy used by Sony and Nintendo. People in the age range of 15 to 40 are considered gamers. The primary target demographic for the Nintendo and PS5 game consoles is those who like gaming (Egami et al., 2022). Compared to Sony, Nintendo uses a distinct positioning strategy. Nintendo markets its gaming systems as appropriate for casual and competitive players.


Target market

The Nintendo Switch’s target market is relatively clear-cut. They mainly target those between 15 and 30 who enjoy playing video games in specific settings. Men, women, educated families, and friends who are video game aficionados make up the prospective groups. Most of these people are active on the internet. The target market for the Sony PS5 is primarily men, with a small percentage of women between the ages of 17 and 40. Males who have just transitioned out of being gatekeepers and seem more accessible than teens or young children are usually the primary target consumers. However, it is essential to note that middle-class and upper-class people comprise most of both consoles’ customer sectors.


According to Grzybowska-Brzezińska et al. 2020, Levitt’s theory of total product idea states that each product consists of three main layers: The core layer specifies what the customer is purchasing. Actual layer: transforming the primary advantage into the product’s natural features, premium style, packaging, and name. Finally, the enhanced layer offers more services and advantages to customers. The three levels mentioned by Levitt are also present in the PS5 and Nintendo Switch consoles. Both items are utilized by gamers based on their physical look, branding, and design. Their primary utility is limited to gamers who, price aside, would rather play on the PS5 than the Nintendo system; the underlying relationship and requirements are focused on meeting commercial objectives and giving players the best possible experience. Sony PS5 produces gaming systems for adults and children to play video games at home. The PS5 has an SSD drive with better speed and 4K resolution at 120 frames per second for fluid, high-definition video. It is backwards compatible with the PS4, 3, and other early PlayStation system models. Switch Nintendo offers a fantastic gaming experience at a quicker frame rate and with comparatively high visual levels. The Nintendo Switch is often a significantly more petite version of the system. They are allowing for more mobility and transferability for players. Considering the PS5 and Nintendo Switch devices, we can comprehend them and apply the Aaker brand personality model. Both names embody the entire “Ruggedness” brand personality of Aaker. The items are strong, long-lasting, and of excellent quality.


The PlayStation 5 system is priced higher than other consoles in the market due to the intense rivalry. The video game business has become increasingly interactive, with Microsoft, Sony, and Nintendo among its top rivals and market leaders. The price of the PS5 is shown in Appendix 2 and varies somewhat depending on the location and model chosen. Regarding the PS5 game system, the pricing plan often offers significant advantages. However, according to statistics from Stead and Hastings (2018), the new Nintendo Switch costs between £299 and £349, significantly less than the PS5. Because it offers comparable pricing and produces more exclusive games than its main rival, Sony, the Nintendo Switch has been the most well-liked device among consumers in most areas for the past three years. Nintendo is renowned for differentiating pricing to increase the game console’s final profit. The PS5 costs a significant amount more than the Nintendo Switch system. However, the majority of gamers have been purchasing PS5s in recent years. Nonetheless, because Nintendo systems are less expensive, most buyers have previously chosen them.


Russia, India, the United States, the United Kingdom, and China are among the many countries where Nintendo Switch game systems are more widely available. About 120 countries comprise Sony’s worldwide market, including South Korea, the United States, Oceania, and India. The PlayStation 5 is accessible globally through physical and virtual stores, much like the Nintendo Switch. In addition, Sony has several support centres throughout the globe for anyone experiencing issues with the PS5 system. Sony also provides an online training platform for customers who purchase the gaming system online—which is far less expensive than doing it in a store.


Sony uses game expositions, YouTube, shopping centres, E3 events, other online shopping platforms, and social media to market the PS5 system to its target consumer base. The PS5 platform is becoming increasingly well-known due to its aggressive media promotion tactics, which include TV stations, online training resources, and the availability of demos for recently released titles. Because of the Nintendo Switch’s well-liked exclusive features and very affordable pricing, most gamers are also buying it. Nintendo markets its products using cutting-edge technologies. Additionally, several retail centres have been unable to provide Nintendo game console demos, where customers can play test games in gift shops. Since its introduction in 2017, the Nintendo brand has grown in popularity, outselling the PS5 and even the Xbox series. However, at the moment, PS5 is dominating the market (D’Amore, 2022). There is an online community for both the Nintendo Switch and PS5, where users can purchase titles at a discounted price for the Switch, while PS5 Plus subscribers may play two previous games and new demos for free.


The suggestion that follows could be beneficial to both brands. By letting customers pay for its products according to their capacities, PlayStation 5 can leverage and boost its profitability (cost-effectiveness). In order to gain or maintain a larger market share, Nintendo has to release a new system that is more feature-rich and sophisticated than the Switch and PS5. If Nintendo wishes to increase its market share, it should also target the non-gaming demographic using the blue ocean strategy. Sony has to make more aggressive investments in advertising and marketing and increase the number of deals it makes to keep its market share of the PS5.


In conclusion, the PS5 and Nintendo Switch are cutting-edge, competitive game systems. However, with the PS5 coming out in 2020 and the Nintendo Switch coming out in 2017, the PS5 has more cutting-edge and unique features than the Nintendo Switch (Koyama, 2023). This depends on several factors, including Ethernet, weight, graphics, and storage, among many others. As a result, the PS5 is currently outselling the Nintendo Switch. Nonetheless, as the 4Ps marketing mix illustrates, the consoles have several similar features. For instance, their distribution methods and marketing approaches are essentially the same. On the other hand, their pricing tactics and product characteristics differ somewhat. They vary somewhat in terms of their target market as well.


Koyama, Y. (2023). Present. In History of the Japanese Video Game Industry (pp. 245–273). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore.

D’Amore, R., (2022). Console war: PS5 vs Xbox series X: a sentiment analysis.

Stead, M and Hastings, G, (2018). Advertising in the social marketing mix: getting the balance right. In Social Marketing (pp.29–43). Psychology Press.

Egami, H., Rahman, M.S., Yamamoto, T., Wakabayashi, T. and Egami, C., 2022. The causal effect of video game play on mental well-being: a quasi-experimental study among the Japanese population.

Grzybowska-Brzezińska, M., Kuberska, D., Ankiel, M. and Brelik, A., 2020. Consumer behaviour in a multi-attribute concept of a food product.

Early Intervention In Mental Health

Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that can expressively cause an impression on an individual’s power to function in day-to-day life. Schizophrenia cause is idiopathic, but it is supposed to result from an amalgamation of hereditary, biological, and ecological factors (McCutcheon et al., 2020). It is a multifaceted and chronic mental disorder that has an impact on people globally, exceeding cultural and social margins. Early interference in Schizophrenia due to cultural and societal factors has been a theme of extensive debate with influences both in contradictions and in favour (Vaskinn and Horan, 2020). Incorporating formal and informal support, alongside culturally sensitive satisfying methodologies donates to a universal framework for regaining and continued mental health.

Neuroplasticity and brain growth are some of the arguments for early intervention. This is the capability of the brain to reorganize and adjust. Proponents argue early involvement benefits the brain’s neuroplasticity (Lieberman et al., 2019). Intervening during the initial stages of Schizophrenia may alleviate long-term consequences by influencing neural circuits and synaptic networks. Secondly, early intervention may inhibit or reduce the efficient decline often related to Schizophrenia. Rapid treatment can mask the symptoms, improve intellectual functioning, and enhance general daily functioning, potentially lessening the effect on education, occupation, and interpersonal relationships (Lieberman et al., 2019). Moreover, it is thought to reduce the economic load linked with the disease. By averting severe symptoms, individuals may need less demanding and overpriced long-term care, leading to latent financial savings for both entities and society. Lastly, early intervention proposes to enrich the quality of life for individuals with the disorder. Timely management may reduce the harshness and duration of symptoms, permitting individuals to lead more satisfying lives with healthier social integration.

Arguments against early interventions include overdiagnosis and stigmatization. Opponents argue that it may result in overdiagnosis as indications of Schizophrenia can overlay with other mental health conditions. This may result in stigmatization and avoidable treatment for individuals who do not advance to full-blown Schizophrenia (Valery and Prouteau, 2020). Also, there are moral concerns concerning the employment of early intervention, mainly in circumstances where persons may not wholly understand the probable long-term consequences of treatment. Opponents highlight the significance of knowledgeable consent and independence in decision-making. Cultural dissimilarities in symptom perception and appearance may complicate early intervention struggles (Lin and Lane, 2019). What might be reflected as a symptom in any cultural context could be observed contrarily in another, leading to encounters in the identification and management of Schizophrenia constantly across different populations. The evolving course of Schizophrenia differs among individuals. Some dispute that not all initial symptoms tip to a chronic system, and involvement might be generally warranted. Lastly, early intervention agendas entail significant resources, and availability may be challenging, mostly in lower-income constituencies. Critics debate that incomes might be more efficiently used to enlighten more comprehensive mental health organizations rather than concentrate on detailed early intervention programs (Lin and Lane, 2019). Introducing treatment early may expose individuals to the side effects of antipsychotic prescriptions, which might have long-term magnitudes on physical health.

The subsequent discussion will focus on the life stages and cultural or social differences in Schizophrenia. In some cultures, infancy and adolescent behaviours that might be considered strange in a Western setting may be average differences (Malla and McGorry, 2019). This variance in cultural beliefs can influence the acknowledgement and interference of early symptoms. On educational complications, the impression of primary symptoms on academic production is notable. Artistic approaches concerning education play a fundamental role in deciding the level of alarm and intervention families want. Differences in cultural perceptions can lead to differences in identifying and addressing these challenges. In the early stages of adulthood, people can be highly affected by signs of Schizophrenia due to it being a vital phase for achieving freedom and creating social relationships (Malla and McGorry, 2019). Cultural prospects neighbouring independence may outline the feeling concerning seeking assistance, thereby manipulating the route of early intervention and reliance on behaviours. Next is the cultural indicator of symptoms, where the appearance of symptoms connected with Schizophrenia moves how individuals articulate their anguish or psychotic understandings, leading to alteration across beliefs. Cultural proficiency is paramount in guaranteeing precise valuation and culturally sensitive interferences during this critical evolving stage (Vaskinn and Horan, 2020).

Majoring in adulthood, many cultural frameworks such as marriage and family life hold vast implications, mostly in stigma and marital ties. Stigma related to Schizophrenia can undesirably influence marriage prospects. Cultural attitudes towards mental health play a crucial role in defining the degree of family livelihood or possible rejection (Valery and Prouteau, 2020). The interaction between cultural outlooks and familial predictions develops a critical aspect in the lives of entities with Schizophrenia. Lastly, on the professional challenges, the capacity to withstand employment is vital to adulthood. It may be predisposed by cultural hopes associated with mental health. Additionally, the point to which employers provide places and maintenance can be shaped by cultural standards. The connection of cultural perspectives and workroom subtleties funds the exclusive challenges encountered by people with Schizophrenia in their occupational undertakings. Appreciating these cultural and social dissimilarities through life stages is crucial for tailoring involvements that respect individual variances and endorse effective support schemes.

Moreover, based on the procedures of support and therapeutic approaches, we will first discuss formal approval. On early intervention services, the dedicated ones, such as the Early Psychosis Intervention (EPI) model, propose a variety of supports incorporating psychoeducation, prescription management, and psychosocial interventions (Lin and Lane, 2019). These services highlight a crucial part in the providence of organized support during the initial stages of Schizophrenia. All-inclusive community mental health agendas encompass continuing support, reintegration services, and chances for social amalgamation. These curriculums address the complex needs of individuals with Schizophrenia, endorsing persistent well-being and community commitment. Now, family arises as an essential familiar support mechanism for Informal support. The degree of family participation may differ based on cultural expectations, emphasizing the need to understand and assimilate cultural distinctions in the delivery of informal support. Peer support collections and networks donate to decreasing social seclusion and stigma (Valery and Prouteau, 2020). The recognition and efficiency of peer support may be affected by cultural factors, highlighting the necessity for culturally sensitive approaches in nurturing these networks.

A broadly applied therapeutic approach, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT), has established efficacy in handling symptoms, improving functionality, and avoiding deterioration. Adapting CBT to integrate cultural deliberations guarantees its significance and effectiveness across various populations (Guaiana et al., 2022). Given the pivoting dynamics of family structures through cultures, family-centred therapy assumes significance. Tailoring beneficial methodologies to house cultural differences in family roles and communication improves the therapeutic alliance and general results. Medication management antipsychotic drugs add a fundamental facet of treatment. However, cultural opinions and preferences concerning medication can considerably influence devotion. Recognizing and addressing cultural thoughts in medication management is critical for heightening treatment outcomes.

They are promoting reclamation and well-being majors on strategies. First is integrating cultural proficiency into mental health care, which guarantees interventions that echo various cultural outlooks and nurture trust and commitment (Lysaker et al., 2020). This tactic acknowledges the exclusivity of each person’s cultural experience, enhancing the efficiency of therapeutic interventions. A recovery-oriented approach alters the emphasis from symptom decline to empowering individuals, identifying their assets, and backing up their personal goals (Lysaker et al., 2020). Emphasizing retrieval nurtures a sense of intervention, endorsing holistic well-being past the control of symptoms. Community awareness battles perform a crucial role in dropping the stigma associated with Schizophrenia. Ethnically sensitive campaigns are essential for echoing with diverse onlookers, fostering a more understanding environment for individuals steering the encounters of mental health. Aiding educational and professional hunts is crucial to community integration. Modifying support to cultural potentials and workplace rules augments the likelihood of fruitful integration, funding a sense of persistence and belonging.


Guaiana, G., Abbatecola, M., Aali, G., Tarantino, F., Ebuenyi, I.D., Lucarini, V., Li, W., Zhang, C. and Pinto, A., 2022. Cognitive behavioural therapy (group) for Schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (7).

Lieberman, J.A., Small, S.A. and Girgis, R.R., 2019. Early detection and preventive intervention in Schizophrenia: from fantasy to reality. American Journal of Psychiatry176(10), pp.794-810.

Lin, C.H. and Lane, H.Y., 2019. Early identification and intervention of Schizophrenia: insight from hypotheses of glutamate dysfunction and oxidative stress. Frontiers in psychiatry10, p.93.

Lysaker, P.H., Gagen, E., Klion, R., Zalzala, A., Vohs, J., Faith, L.A., Leonhardt, B., Hamm, J. and Hasson-Ohayon, I., 2020. Metacognitive reflection and insight therapy: a recovery-oriented treatment approach for psychosis. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, pp.331-341.

Malla, A. and McGorry, P., 2019. Early intervention in psychosis in young people: a population and public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health109(S3), pp.S181-S184.

McCutcheon, R.A., Marques, T.R. and Howes, O.D., 2020. Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA psychiatry77(2), pp.201-210.

Vaskinn, A. and Horan, W.P., 2020. Social cognition and schizophrenia: unresolved issues and new challenges in a maturing field of research. Schizophrenia Bulletin46(3), pp.464-470.

Valery, K.M. and Prouteau, A., 2020. Schizophrenia stigma in mental health professionals and associated factors: A systematic review. Psychiatry Research290, p.113068.