Causes And Treatment Of Autism In Children Free Sample

Introduction

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition connected to brain development that impacts how people perceive and communicate with others. It also eliminates problems in the child’s social interaction and socialization. Autism spectrum disorder poses numerous challenges for treatment, although more significant research studying brain illnesses is increasing as time progresses. Recently, problems have arisen with the increasing number of children diagnosed with ASD. Accordingly, the report focuses on determining the symptoms, causes, and treatment of this disorder in kids.

Sherman indicates that 1 in 6 American children live with some form of developmental disability. A significant portion of these problems is related to an inability to communicate interpersonally, in other words, autism (Sherman, 2017). The author points out that this disease has a profound effect on kids and their families and offers options for improving children’s health. Perritano (2017) refers to autism as a complex mental development disorder characterized by social maladjustment and an inability to interact, communicate socially, and stereotype behaviors. The author provides facts about conduct disorder and tips for supporting children and their siblings and parents working to overcome the conduct disorder.

Hyman et al. (2020) pointed out that ASD is difficult to diagnose in children of all ages because of the variability of symptoms. The most crucial to treatment is identifying the patient’s diagnosis promptly. This is because they can also demonstrate the behavior. However, they vary with age, speech, and cognitive functioning. Hyman et al. (2020) highlight the essential traits that people can crucify a child’s abnormal behavior. That is, the first manifestation of autism is a child who does not understand people’s intentions, has low eye contact, and explicitly understands gestures. The writers argue that identifying autism at an early age (18 to 24 months) can help kids gain a chance at a normal life.

Genetics is another significant factor that influences the appearance of autism in a child, although degrees of genetic diseases are variable. In some cases, “prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors” can affect genetic vulnerability (Hodges et al., 2020, p.59). Prenatal exposure to thalidomide and valproic acid has been attributed to a higher risk. In contrast, other research suggests that prenatal folic acid administration in individuals receiving antiepileptic medications may reduce risk. A study by Monz et al. (2019) concentrates on different therapies for ASD in children. The authors state clinicians use non-pharmacological treatments such as behavioral therapy, speech and language training (SLT), and occupational therapy in all pediatric age groups. The implications of these medicines are positive, but there are differences depending on where the family lives, not only in terms of the type of care but also the location that provides it.

Causes of Childhood Autism

It is significant to note that parents and physicians can detect the first symptoms of ASD in early childhood. That is, the first evidence of the disease is already visible between 12 and 24 months of age, although symptoms may appear earlier or later depending on individual characteristics (Hyman et al., 2020). Early symptoms include problems with communication, social interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviors.

Although, the child must have both features in order to establish a diagnosis. Communication difficulties appear in children by the age of five; for example, by nine months of age, the infant does not respond to their name or express any emotion (Hyman et al., 2020). Additionally, the first indicators of autism are if the child demonstrates no interest or gestures until twelve months of age. Similarly, if kids are not responding to the moods of others or toys at two or three years of age, parents need to screen their infant’s health. If not intervened in the early stages of the disease, it is challenging for a child with autism to develop speech ability later. However, kids with autism can learn to read quickly but usually do not understand what they are reading. It is significant to mention that 84 percent of children with hyperlexia are on the risk spectrum (Perritano, 2017). When these infants interact with others, autistic kids may have difficulty showing their emotions and interests to others.

In addition to communication issues, autism also includes body movement and behavioral symptoms. This may consist of repetitive activities such as swaying, waving arms, or running back and forth. For example, a person with the disorder raises toys strictly and becomes upset when someone else disrupts that order. Perritano (2017) also lists characteristics of autism as excessive anxiety or stress and hyperactive, scattered, or impulsive behavior. At the moment, physicians diagnose based on five types of autism. Sherman (2017) indicates the following types: with or without accompanying intellectual impairment; with or without accompanying language impairment; linked to a medical or genetic condition or environmental factor; linked to other neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorders; with catatonia. Nevertheless, doctors have not yet determined the exact cause that leads to autism in children.

Although recent research suggests that there is no single cause and clinicians may consider them in conjunction. Hyman et al. (2020) identify factors that may potentiate the onset of this disease. The presence of the closest family member with autism, specific genetic mutations, fragile X syndrome, and other types of genetic disorders. Hodges et al. (2020) add other influences, such as low birth weight, metabolic imbalance, exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins, and exposure to valproic acid or thalidomide medications. However, Sherman (2017) refers to data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, indicating that genetics and environment affect the occurrence and development of ASD in an infant. The author mentions that vaccines do not lead to the emergence of this illness. Sherman (2017) reviews a 1998 study that established a connection between autism and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and points out that as early as 2010, repeated research invalidated its results.

Treatment of Autism in Children

Worldwide evidence-based practices guide all methods used to treat autism symptoms, including behavioral, educational, biomedical, and alternative approaches. However, Monz et al. (2019) observe that the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry recommends multiple treatments for autism spectrum disorders. Behavioral strategies have more evidence for treating ASD symptoms. One known method of behavioral therapy is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Its action is that the technique encourages desired behaviors and deters unwanted behaviors in order to improve various skills.

Clinicians often use ABA by clinicians in metropolitan areas than in rural areas and apply it in settings that are familiar to the kid (Monz et al., 2019). When using this technique, practitioners use staged instructions and divide lessons into small parts to help children better absorb the information. The method operates on the principle that experts ignore unwanted actions and reward desired behaviors (Perritano, 2017). One example of a core skill is the initiation of communication with others.

Another treatment for autism in kids is developmental approaches that focus on improving specific growth competencies, such as language or physical abilities. Monz et al. (2019) remarked that a combination of developmental and behavioral approaches greatly benefits a child’s progression. The most common developmental treatment for infants with ASD is speech therapy; because language training enhances understanding and application of language. Occupational therapy is also aimed at teaching kids how to live independently; for example, this method includes self-dressing, eating, and bathing. Monz et al. (2019) mention the effective application of the early start Denver model. Its advantage is the early intervention beginning at twelve months of age.

Learning treatments in the classroom are also used to manage autism. Perritano (2017) refers to the TEACCH technique, which suggests sequential and visual instruction for kids with autism. A positive consequence of this approach is improved academic outcomes. Social-relational treatments also focus on enhancing social abilities and emotional connections. The advantage of this process is that children interact with the community, which expands opportunities for communication, and specialists listen to the kid’s requirements. Therefore, it contributes to developing the individual’s interests and motivation to explore the surrounding world. Hodges et al. (2020) discuss pharmacological therapy but notes that no medication treats the main symptoms of autism; instead, their goal is to treat related illnesses. The objective of drugs is to help with high energy levels, inability to concentrate, or when a kid is self-harming.

For example, risperidone is the first FDA-approved drug to treat aggressive behavior and tantrums. Stimulants such as methylphenidate can help with inattention and hyperactivity in infants. Sherman (2017) indicates that nearly half of children with autism benefit significantly from stimulants, although some experience negative side effects. Stimulants also address co-occurring disorders such as anxiety or depression, sleep problems, or stomach issues. Hyman et al. (2020) argue that the physician should prescribe drug therapy because the negative side effects do not predominate over the beneficial ones. Finally, there are also psychological approaches to managing the disease; doctors often recommend cognitive-behavioral therapy (Monz et al., 2019). This is because it focuses on changing the kid’s thoughts and emotions to modify their reactions to certain types of situations.

Conclusion

Therefore, ASD is a widespread neurodevelopmental disorder, and 16% of children have the condition. There are various symptoms of ASD, and the most common are antisocial behavior, unusual interpretation of people’s intentions and gestures, and avoidance of eye contact. Although doctors have not thoroughly investigated the causes of autism, many researchers prefer to believe there is a genetic connection. Still, other factors can also stimulate the development of the illness itself. Scientists also list environmental issues, neurological trauma, or biochemical imbalances in the brain as reasons that contribute to autism. According to research, there are non-medical treatments such as behavioral, educational, biomedical, and alternative methods. At the same time, experts recommend medical therapies to treat related illnesses. In order to provide timely treatment to kids, it is essential for parents to identify the disease at an early stage. Thus, early intervention will enhance the child’s opportunities for holistic development.

References

Hodges, H., Fealko, C., & Soares, N. (2020). Autism spectrum disorder: definition, epidemiology, causes, and clinical evaluation. Translational Pediatrics, 9(1), 55-65.

Hyman, S. L., Levy, S. E., Myers, S. M., Kuo, D. Z., Apkon, S., Davidson, L. F., Ellerbeck, A., & Foster E. A. (2020). Identification, evaluation, and management of children with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 145(1).

Monz, B. U., Houghton, R., Law, K., & Loss, G. (2019). Treatment patterns in children with autism in the United States. Autism Research, 12(3), 517-526.

Perritano, J. (2017). ADHD and other behavior disorders. Mason Crest Publishers.

Sherman, R. (2017). Autism and other developmental disabilities. Mason Crest Publishers.

The MeToo Movement And Protest In The Digital Age

The Economic Impact of Protest

An Environment of Violence

In order to establish the influence of sexual harassment on the economy, accurate assessments and research conducted in various workplace contexts should be provided. Thus, in 2013, more than 10,000 complaints from workers about sexual harassment in the workplace were filed with government agencies (Parramore). During their research, it can be ascertained that the main category of victims is women who are constantly exposed to violence in the working environment. However, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) data indicate that not even half of the women who suffer sexual harassment are pressed for charges. It is worth remembering the recent letter of Alianza Nacional de Campesinas, sent by the first national women’s organization of agricultural workers (Parramore). It stated that violence and harassment in their area were routine.

The Economic Effects on Businesses

It should be highlighted that even though CEOs tend to be the initiators of sexual violence, they have a negative impact on business. At the same time, even before the #MeToo movement, the economic consequences of violence were exacerbated by losses for companies. For example, businesses were forced to waste budgets on resolving lawsuits. Research conducted by the Society of Managers indicates that in 2010, one in three companies in the U.S. market had a case for violence (Parramore). Moreover, they have repaid nearly seven hundred million dollars to employees discriminated against and sexually abused. Moreover, in 2016, Fox News Channel was in the center of controversy and refunded almost twenty million dollars to a television host. Former broadcaster Gretchen Carlson filed sexual assault charges against former Fox News CEO Roger Ailes (Parramore). Accordingly, this kind of expense is significant for the operations of large companies economically.

Although it is important to emphasize that indirect costs and economic consequences for businesses also exist, they can include the problem of job performance, increased employee turnover, and damage to reputation. In 1988, studies showed that typical Fortune 500 companies lost nearly seven million dollars a year due to employee inefficiency, sick leave, and strikes that arose from sexual harassment cases. Likewise, these costs are no less now; for instance, Fox News has had advertisers refuse to work with it through former host Bill O’Reilly after allegations of harassment (Parramore). Another example is the Weinstein Company, which sold movie distribution rights due to significant economic damages.

The Economic Impact on Women

In fact, it is common knowledge that women who are sexually abused also suffer economic damages, but it is hard to assess these casualties. The effect of claims on wages, productivity, and career opportunities restrains women from making public statements and litigating. Advances by sociologists indicate that eighty percent of women are fired from their jobs because of sexual violence (Parramore). The negative economic impact is that these incidents occur more often at the beginning of a career and prevent women from progressing, which entails tremendous financial losses throughout their lives.

Women suffer from the fact that in a new job, they have to start gaining credibility and proving their professional competence. One can use the example of Sean Hannity, who worked as an anchor at Fox News. She publicly stated that in 2017, a former Fox News guest invited her to a hotel room, but the woman declined his proposal (Mason). Consequently, she was added to the Fox News blacklist; in this way, the woman experienced moral humiliation and lost a financial earning opportunity. The publicity of this story harms her career because company owners, not confident in the virtues of their employees, do not want to work with her, not to provoke a new conflict.

Significance of the Protest

Importantly, it is noteworthy that the protest is supported by many women, even though they have not been abused but fear it in the future. At the same time, #MeToo has started to work on strengthening legal remedies and redress. Victims of sexual violence can now receive compensation and protection from the government and community organizations. Moreover, in the wake of the protest, there was a need for a broader strategy to address gender inequality. As an example of the positive impact of the protests, Jeff Franklin was charged because he made inadequate comments about sexual violence against women in the workplace (Sharf). Consequently, he was fired from the show, and his contract with the network was terminated. In this way, this case demonstrates the value of the protest.

One of the significant issues in the case of Harvey Weinstein and other influential persons was the use of nondisclosure agreements. For example, Zelda Perkins, Weinstein’s former assistant, signed a settlement agreement preventing him from telling family members about Weinstein’s crimes (Parramore). However, the #MeToo movement was attracting attention, which is why states started passing laws banning the use of such agreements. As a result, women had additional security guarantees and could report abuse without fear of large payments if the deal was broken.

At the same time, the value of the protest was that women gained access to management positions, thus improving their financial situation and ensuring gender balance. Companies’ human resources departments have recently changed to handle sexual harassment complaints fairly and timely. Therefore, employees received additional protection and protection in the workplace (Parramore). Moreover, employees received medical, psychological, social, or legal services and other restitution or compensation forms due to the abuse.

The Relevance of the Issue at this Time

In the age of the latest technology, information can be disseminated quickly, which is why this is how the protest received significant publicity and support. The hashtag #MeToo on social media enabled women to read victims’ stories and publish their own. Thus, the audience that could learn the truth about the crimes increased through the internet and social media. Moreover, different organizations and companies started to establish mass media that also reported in the press; thereby, everyone was fully informed about the situation and could participate in the protests. Another factor contributing to the rise of this issue in modern times was freedom of speech and growing investment in feminism (Parramore). Women were not afraid that society would not understand them or would not respond to the problem.

Summary

Hence, the movement prompted by the scandal against Harvey Weinstein influenced people’s consciousness, and society quickly re-evaluated its priorities. In general, workers across the state demanded fair treatment and dignified behavior, and employers began assessing their companies’ labor climate. It should be noted that sexual pretensions in the workplace had a negative effect on work-life and economic trajectories that suffered. The changing culture, attitudes, and disclosures about the #MeToo movement have enabled discussion about the economic factors of this global challenge, which has been largely ignored.

Works Cited

Mason, Aiden. “Sean Hannity Invited Female Show Guest to Hotel Because Of Course He Didt.” TVOvermind, Web.

Parramore, Lynn. “MeToo: The Economic Cost of Sexual Harassment.” Institute for New Economic Thinking, Web.

Sharf, Zack. “‘Fuller House’ Creator Jeff Franklin Removed as Showrunner After Inappropriate Behavior Complaints.” IndieWire, Web.

Thailand: Culture, Tourism, International Trade

The majority of the Thai population belongs to the Thai group (75-80%), and more than 90% rofess Buddhism. About two-thirds of the Thai group are Thais, and a third are Lao. In the Isan region, the percentage of Lao is much higher; in many areas, they constitute most of the population. Most Thais and Lao are Buddhist. Malays live in the south, most of them profess Islam. On the border with Myanmar live Karen, Miao, and Mon, who have widespread Christianity, and the Thai-Cambodian Khmer. After the Vietnam War, the number of Vieta increased, mainly in the northeast of the country. Every seventh person in Thailand is an ethnic Chinese. The Chinese live throughout the country, but mostly in isolation, in separate neighborhoods.

Public displays of passion in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers, are discouraged. However, this custom is not always observed among young people. In Thailand, the social norm states that touching someone else’s head can be considered rude. It is also considered rude to place legs above someone else’s head, especially if this person has a high social status. This view comes from the fact that Thais consider the feet as the dirtiest part of the body and the head as the most respected part. This also affects the way Thais sit – they keep their legs away from those present. Conflicts and expressions of anger are foreign to Thai culture.

Disagreements or disputes are resolved with a smile; one should not try to blame another. In daily life in Thailand, there is an emphasis on the thought that life should be fun. By following this principle, Thais can be happy at work and in everyday life. Displaying positive emotions in communication is essential in Thai culture. During disagreements, Thais often use the phrase may pen rai, which translates to “it does not matter.” The ubiquitous use of this phrase in Thailand reflects a tendency to minimize conflict and discord.

Agriculture in Thailand is a competitive, diversified, and specialized industry; its export products are successful in international markets. Rice is the country’s crucial agricultural crop; Thailand is one of the world’s top rice exporters. Other agricultural products produced in significant quantities are fish and seafood, tapioca, rubber, wheat, and sugar. Exports of industrially processed foods such as canned tuna, pineapple, and frozen shrimp are on the rise. Black ivory coffee is produced in the north of Thailand.

Thailand is an agro-industrial country. The country’s economy is highly dependent on international trade, with exports accounting for two thirds of GDP. The main export goods are electronics, in particular, components for computer technology, cars and components for them, agricultural products, including canned and frozen products. Agriculture provides about 10% of GDP and employs a third of Thailand’s working-age population.

In 2015, electricity production amounted to 167.9 billion kWh (24th globally), and its consumption was 168.3 billion kWh (23rd in the world). Electricity imports exceed exports – 14.41 billion kWh versus 2.267 billion kWh. The total nominal generating capacity of power plants in Thailand is 40.97 million kW (24th in the world), of which 76.7% are from thermal power plants (mainly natural gas), 8.9% from hydroelectric power plants, and 14.2% to alternative renewable sources. Thailand’s oil demand is partially covered by its production, which in 2016 was 257.5 thousand barrels per day (33rd place in the world), but oil imports far exceed exports – 830.5 thousand against 12.2 thousand barrels per day. Thus, Thailand is one of the most successful countries in Southeast Asia: its economy is quite strong and reliable.

One of the crucial trade areas in Thailand is retail. The demand of consumers is growing, so it is essential to develop this field. The biggest retail segments are food and beverage since the goods produced in the country are not expensive but high-quality. Some of the biggest competing retail companies are CP All Public Company Limited, 7-Eleven, Tesco Lotus, FamilyMart, and 108 Shop. These shops replaced old traditional markets and small businesses which helped satisfy buyers better.

Thai consumers do not like buying goods from foreign companies with unknown names because they do not have enough information about them. Thus, it is hard for big international companies to join this market. Notably, Thailand is still a cash-driven society, and cards are still not too relevant for payment. Cash is still much more convenient for daily activities such as taxi or street food.

Tourism in Thailand is one of the most significant sectors of the country’s economy. Tourism revenues account for a substantial proportion of Thailand’s GDP. The beginning of mass tourism in Thailand can be traced back to the 1960s, when the country played the role of a home front for American soldiers who fought in Vietnam. Large military bases were located here, as well as recreational facilities for US military personnel on vacation.

Since the late 1960s, massive construction of hotels, bars, massage parlors, and related tourist infrastructure began in southern Thailand. At the same time, numerous travel agencies were opened. They organized excursions to the most exciting sights. After the war, soldiers who were at home returned to Thailand with their families and spent their holidays here. There are still numerous people who are coming to Thailand for weeks or months, and their number keeps growing, strengthening the country’s economy.

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