One of today’s significant environmental threats facing the world remains Global Warming which has resulted in a devastating impact on various elements, including ecosystems’ health status. As climate threats like irreversible habitat destruction cause worldwide worries regarding possible impact on future generations’ life conditions, unveiling gaps amongst contributing reasons and ways of mitigation on greenhouse gas generation could lead us towards betterment. Each person around the world has an obligation to take action aimed at decreasing surging temperatures and conserving our planet for forthcoming generations. The reasons behind global warming, its impacts, as well as possible solutions will be examined in this paper to determine their significance. Global warming is a serious environmental threat caused by human activity, and its effects will have dangerous consequences for our world if left unchecked, which is why concerted efforts must be made in order to mitigate the causes and reduce the impacts of climate change.
Causes of Global Warming
Humans contribute to global warming primarily through actions like burning fossil fuels or engaging in practices like deforestation that cause landfills, methane emissions, and ozone depletion.
Burning Fossil Fuels
As per Uddin, due to our extensive use of transportation systems powered by combustion engines using petrol or diesel fuel along with large-scale energy production facilities run primarily on coal, oil, or natural gas, constant emission of CO2&CH4 creates a green-house effect which leads to sudden spikes in global warmth. Burning Fossil Fuels adversely affects global warming by releasing CO2 and Methane, which builds up huge gas concentrations allowing radiation to elevate temperatures worldwide. The primary cause of greenhouse gas accumulation which traps solar heat, increasing earth-surface temperature, is primarily attributed to Carbon Dioxide(CO2)and Methane–emitted through burnt-fossil fuels like Oil, Gas, and coal. In Uddin’s view, “these activities are mostly driven by human activity and our reliance on the burning of fossil fuels for power and energy.”
Deforestation and Landfills
Global warming can be attributed to both deforestation and landfills. Items such as wood and palm oil require deforestation causing vital habitats for animals and plants leading, negatively impacting the ecosystem, deforestation being its primary cause Deforestation is not only impacting ecosystems but also contributing heavily towards global warming along with activities such as landfill creation. This was explained by author Uddin through an environmental piece called “Causes, Effects,and solutions to global warming”, “human activities are largely responsible for driving these actions that lead to catastrophic consequences if no measures are taken”.
Methane emissions caused by humans originate from activities like rice cultivation, oil/gas extraction, landfills as well as livestock farming involving mainly cows. Major culprits contributing towards inducing man-made Methane includes but is not limited to; Rice fields used for cultivation purposes , extraction & refinement procedure followed in Oil/Gas sectors respectively coupled with Disposal Methodologies adopted at Landfill Sites besides Combustion methods executed in Biomass industry. Seddon et al., have pinpointed various causes for climate change including “quick increases in populations around the world, more frequent utilization of fossil fuels producing methane emissions which raise overall temperatures globally through trapping heat within our atmosphere”. Melting of Earth’s polar ice is caused due to its attributes whereby after its release into the atmosphere, Methane generates unique heat-absorbing contributors that speed up Climate Change.
Ozone depletion caused mainly by human-related activities greatly contributes to climate change. With increasing level of CO2 causing further reduction in Ozone plus rising global temperatures resulting in catastrophic effects on environment/ecosystem making it imperative for humans start taking corrective measures which shields us from harmful UV rays. As humans continue their activities related to personal care products and industrial practices, they’re depleting natural gases like Ozone. Human activities are causing slow depletion of Ozone via personal care products and industrial processes, which is reducing sunlight protection over Earth
Effects of Global Warming
Numerous damaging consequences can be attributed to the phenomenon of global warming. Shrinking ice sheets and legal habitats are also being caused by warming temperatures due to global warming’s impacts. Warming used intermediately by global warming has direct impact like melting mountain/glaciers resultantly putting coastal areas at peril with the increased risk of storm/tsunami.
Rising Sea Levels
Global warming has led to rising sea levels, thus putting coastal cities and communities at significant risk. The increasing temperature of both atmospheres is causing both glaciers on land as well as snow to melt into the ocean thereby raising its level As a result of rising temperatures on land and sea ice melting into the ocean depths; sea-levels increase whereby causing probable submergence future wise for coastal shores, docks, or any such structures. Seddon et al. argue that “Rising ocean levels can cause beaches, ports, infrastructure and other low-lying areas to be submerged in the future”.
Changes in Weather Patterns
The impact of these changes extends beyond just the rising sea levels. Al‐Ghussain says that “global warming causes changes in various weather patterns such as air temperature, precipitation, and frequency of particular type of extreme weather events”. These extreme weather events cause harm to people, plants and animals alike. Droughts result in fewer water supplies which leads to scarcity while Longer spells of hotter days commonly referred to Heat waves contribute towards dehydration incidence with resultant symptoms such as sunstrokes. The alteration of weather patterns globally is also attributed to global warming, which heats up the atmosphere persistently. Changes in temperature & rainfall patterns due to melting ice sheets retain more water which leads to further warming & more frequent/intense extreme weather conditions. In addition, melting ice sheets retain more water and absorbed more of the sun’s energy, causing further warming and changes in temperature and rainfall patterns.
Shrinking Ice Sheets
Both increasing temperature in Arctic &Antarctic region are consequences for melting down Ice leading towards risk with Glaciers, Sea Ice affecting widely over Water Supplies ,Global Temperatures & Sea Levels. According to Mikhaylov et al., “the melting of ice sheets, due to global warming, leads to an increased contribution of freshwater to the world’s oceans, causing sea levels to rise”.
Loss of Habitats and Ecosystems
Global warming causes consequences such as loss of habitats and ecosystems due to its far-reaching effects. Climate change results in changes to weather patterns which can have far-reaching implications such fluctuations impacting our oceans’ currents by raising sea levels while also triggering polar ice sheet melting located within both northern/arctic region(s)/Antarctica (southernmost continent on earth). Seddon et al. posit that “nature‐based solutions should be considered with respect to their potential to reduce the impacts of global warming on habitats, ecosystems, and their services”. Global warming is also having a devastating impact on our planet’s biodiversity. Species struggling with adapting to the changing climate are creating shifts in how and where they live. Species facing diminished living conditions will uproot themselves from unlivable surroundings in search of new homes while having no choice but compete alongside others seeking similar areas. Global warming is also having a devastating impact on our planet’s biodiversity.
Possible Solutions to Global Warming
The present-day issue that confronts us significantly is global warming as it poses many critical aspects to consider for humans and nature alike. With climate change causing a steady increase in overall temperature, humanity is facing tremendous obstacles including the devastating effects on both our world’s ecology as well as us.
Renewable Energy Sources
Renewables such as geothermal and biomaterials possess the potential for finding sustainable solutions towards curbing global warning. Among the best ways to address issues related to conventional energies are renewable systems such as those involving solar, hydroelectricity or biomasses. As a result these provide a more friendly approach towards our environment through their capacity in cutting down on carbon footprints whilst meeting our needs. Cost reduction is possible when switching over to a renewable source of energy which could be either solar or wind because they tend to be more affordable than conventional fossil fuel-powered options. Seddon et al. claim that renewable energy sources are a “viable and cost‐effective solution to tackle climate change”.
Another solution to global warming could be sustainable agriculture. Practices employed towards achieving sustainable agriculture incorporates several undertakings: Sustaining natural resource usage thus reducing pollution rates including but not limited to minimizing Green House Gases (GHG) emission are only but a few. According to Uddin “sustainable agricultural practices can lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the effects of climate change (2)”.
Reduction of Emissions
Combatting global warming necessitates taking a crucial step, which is decreasing emissions. The reduction of deforestation, increased urban green spaces and improving industrial processes are other methods that also help achieve reducing carbon footprint. Another effective method is through investing and properly managing infrastructure for renewable energies and efficiencies. The renewable energy sources are a viable and cost‐effective solution to tackle climate change.
Carbon pricing encourages companies and individuals alike in reducing greenhouse gas emission, by giving them financial motives. Carbon pricing is an efficient method to encourage businesses to lower carbon emissions and transition towards cleaner energy sources. Both direct emission prices and cap-and-trade structures allowing for allowances buying are viable methods through which carbon pricing can be implemented. Seddon et al. explain that, “By implementing carbon pricing policies, businesses and organizations can adjust their behaviors and become more sustainable (1518)”.
Regional and Local Policies
Seddon et al. argue that regional and local policies are important for promoting the use of nature-based solutions to climate change (1518). To reduce greenhouse gas levels, local governments may opt to introduce policies such as encouraging renewables or discouraging burning traditional fuels. Likewise, alongside government mandates that aim towards limiting air pollution from various sources such as automobiles and industry factories; legislation passed at the interregional scale accomplishes similar goals through monetary rewards/penalties based on sustainability results.
It is clear that global warming is caused by human activity and that it has a number of serious effects on our environment. To protect our planet, we must take actions to reduce emissions and shift to more renewable energy sources. We must also implement regional and local policies to mitigate the effects of global warming. By doing this, we can help to ensure a healthy future for our planet and its inhabitants.
Al‐Ghussain, Loiy. “Global warming: Review on driving forces and mitigation.” Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 38.1 (2019): 13-21. https://aiche.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ep.13041
Mikhaylov, Alexey, et al. “Global climate change and greenhouse effect.” Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 7.4 (2020): 2897. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alexey-Mikhaylov/publication/342372335_Global_climate_change_and_greenhouse_effect/links/5f576af2299bf13a31ab136c/Global-climate-change-and-greenhouse-effect.pdf
Seddon, Nathalie, et al. “Getting the message right on nature‐based solutions to climate change.” Global change biology 27.8 (2021): 1518-1546. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.15513
Seddon, Nathalie, et al. “Understanding the value and limits of nature-based solutions to climate change and other global challenges.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 375.1794 (2020): 20190120. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rstb.2019.0120
Uddin, S. “Causes, Effects, and Solutions to Global Warming.” Academia Letters (2022): 2. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Shahab-Uddin-4/publication/358869412_Causes_Effects_and_Solutions_to_Global_Warming/links/6219919e579f1c04171a1619/Causes-Effects-and-Solutions-to-Global-Warming.pdf
Ukaogo, Prince O., Ugochukwu Ewuzie, and Chibuzo V. Onwuka. “Environmental pollution: causes, effects, and the remedies.” Microorganisms for sustainable environment and health. Elsevier, 2020. 419-429. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128190012000218
The Impact Of Development On Inequality: Addressing Disparities Among Humans And Non-Humans Through Political Mobilization Sample Essay
- Explain how an endangered animal like a panda or a rhinoceros can become an asset and to what end.
Although endangered animals like pandas or rhinoceros face risks of extinction, they can become useful assets when protected. This can be achieved through conservation approaches aiming to protect their populations and habitats. For instance, a panda can become a useful asset to the local economies through ecotourism. In this way, tourists can visit and pay to see rhinoceros in their natural habitats thus generating jobs and revenue for the local community.
- In what ways are the temporalities of development and humanitarianism different? How and why are the two frames of aid and intervention increasingly converging? Give one example.
The temporalities of development and humanitarianism are closely related but are different approaches. For instance, while development focuses on achieving long-term structural changes in society, humanitarianism provides immediate relief to respond to crises and emergencies. In recent years, the two interventions have demonstrated convergence and one reason for this is the increasing recognition that development efforts must consider the immediate needs of the people. Additionally, it can be attributed to the growing awareness that emergencies and crises are often the manifestations of poor underpinning structural issues requiring long-term solutions. An example of how development and humanitarianism converge is through the concept of resilience which has become popular in the development and aid sector. Resilience is the ability to withstand and recover from shocks and stress either natural or economic. A recent example is the 2023 earthquake in Turkey and Syria. Humanitarian and international organizations provided immediate relief to the affected individuals but also recognized the need to address the vulnerability of these countries to other earthquakes. Efforts are in place to move people from the fault lines and build resilient structures like those in Japan.
- How does the 1994 Zapatista uprising in Chiapas mobilize both residual and emergent cultural practices and symbols in their struggle against a dominant order?
The 1994 Zapatista uprising in Chiapas, Mexico is popular for its resistance against the dominant order. The uprising was exceptional as it mobilized both emergent and residual cultural practices and symbols while struggling against the dominant order. Residual cultural practices and symbols are those inherited from the past and continued to persist in the present regardless of the efforts of the dormant cultures to suppress them. These included indigenous language, music, dress, communal agriculture, and traditional forms of governance. The Zapatistas mobilized these cultural practices and symbols to assert their own identity challenging the dormant order. Equally, the Zapatistas mobilized the emergent cultural practices and symbols such as new resistance forms and a ski mask. This reflected the uprising’s efforts to create a new and more inclusive form of resistance.
- How might an infrastructural project of development inspire both terror and admiration? What is the name given to such an aesthetic of exaltation? Was it always related to technology? Give one example.
An infrastructural project of development can inspire both terror and admiration because of its scale, size, and impact on the community as well as the environment. This phenomenon is referred to as the technological sublime. The term technological sublime describes the experience of awe and wonders often attributed to the scale and power of technology as well as infrastructural projects. The term was not always related to technology and was popularly known as sublime dating decades ago. However, with the booming of technology in the twentieth century, the term took to the technology itself. An example of an infrastructure inspiring both terror and admiration is the Hoover DAM in the U.S. It is massive and impacted the community. For instance, its construction displaced thousands of people and led to the rerouting Colorado River affecting the downstream ecosystem. On the other hand, it provided hydroelectric power and water to transform arid areas of Southeast regions.
- True or False? Provide a justification.
* Most infrastructures can be considered as existing in a state of unfinishedness.
True. This is because most infrastructures are always under progressive development thus, they are subject to persistent maintenance and repair. Also, most infrastructures may require modification and expansion due to technological advancements and changes in economic and social conditions.
* The same economic relations underpin both development and sustainability.
False. The same economic relations may not necessarily underlie both development and sustainability. While development is the economic growth and expansion of markets and trade at the expense of environmental sustainability as well as social equality, sustainability is the balancing of social, economic, and environmental factors to meet both current and future needs without overexploiting natural resources. Hence, although economic conditions are crucial in development and sustainability, the objectives of the two approaches are different.
Development produces different forms of inequality that affect humans and non-humans alike. What are the different forces implicated in that? How do affected communities respond? Discuss at least three examples of inequalities and one example of political mobilization and make sure you provide a conceptual definition for each in your own words.
Development in its entirety has been associated with improved living conditions and reduced independence among communities. This has to do with improved economic and social factors. However, although development is associated with better life quality, it should be noted that the occurrence of development may result in numerous social inequalities. Professionals have different views and understandings of development. For instance, Li in her Land’s End describe development as prosperity in which she explains how her community in Indonesia was betrayed by settlers. Li’s approach toward development is embedded in the fact that development is an improved lifestyle. She notes that her communities were promised goodies in terms of infrastructure and land use improvement to increase their income and livelihood only to realize that elites were just taking advantage of the land owners. Her understanding of development significantly differs from Annand, Gupta, and Appel’s perspective. This is because Annand, Gupta and Appel discuss that development is multifaceted ranging from the individual level to the government or state levels. They note that personal development is associated with increased knowledge and better economic, social, and well-being of an individual. They also observe that development greatly relies on the interaction between a person and others which in essence creates a social interaction. However, both Li and Anand, Guiupta, and Appel bring out the broader issue of development by exploring the changes needed. Rodney on the other hand accuses the settlers of developing Africa. They note that the whole of Africa is underdeveloped due to dependence on the colonizers.
Even with numerous positive outcomes, development can result in numerous inequality forms affecting both humans and non-human beings. Forces, contributing to these inequalities may include resource extraction, economic globalization, and environmental degradation. Such forces often result in wealth and power concentration in the hands of a few while disenfranchising and marginalizing others which prompts the affected communities to respond. They may respond through political mobilization, social movements, and grassroots organizations ranging from protests to advocacy for policy change like the one experienced by the movement Black lives matter.
Many inequalities are associated with development. For instance, development can lead to economic inequality and uneven distribution of wealth and income in a society. While development may promise a fruitful future, it often exacerbates economic inequalities by facilitating a small elite group to benefit while leaving many behind. For instance, Anand, Gupta, and Appel state that,
“The settlers’ town is strongly built, all made of stone and steel. It is a brightly lit town; the streets are covered with asphalt, and the garbage cans swallow all the leavings, unseen, and unknown and hardly thought about. . . . the town belonging to the colonized people . . . is a world without spaciousness; men live there on top of each other, and their” huts are built one on top of the other. The native town is a hungry town, starved of bread, of meat, of shoes, of coal, of light” (Anand. Gupta, and Appel 2018, p. 1).
They try to paint the picture of the false promises by the settlers. In this case, settlers came with promises of developing the local community only to end up favouring the few elite groups. This is a similar case to the farmers in Indonesia as described by Li. While reflecting, she observes that farmers were cheated on the issue of customary rights of land ownership in which many farmers ended up losing their land to settlers and foreign powers. While explaining the basis of her title “Land’s End” she states that
Land’s End is about the attempt made by indigenous highlanders to join the march of progress promised in modernization narratives, only to encounter the polarizing effect of the capitalist relations that soon emerged among them. Farmers able to accumulate land and capital prospered, and those who could not compete were squeezed out. (p.1)
Li in this statement provides the picture and unfolds how indigenous farmers were lured and lost their land through the enticement that development will enable them to diversify their cultivation. To their surprise, very few farmers retained their land ownership while the majority lost to the capitalist.
Also, development can result in cultural inequality whereby the dormant cultures suppress or eradicate traditions, language, and knowledge associated with the marginalized. This is often through imposing dominant cultural norms and practices to displace marginalized cultures and minority groups. For instance, Black people residing in Detroit, U.S.A have experienced discrimination based on colour and race to appoint of being denied water supply. Another inequality due to development is environmental inequality, which is the distribution of environmental hazards. They may include toxic waste and pollution across communities. Marginalized communities as well as low-income neighbourhoods are more likely to be disproportionately affected by environmental hazards causing health-related issues, economic challenges, and declined life expectancy.
Political Mobilization in response to inequalities may take different forms. For instance, the movement for black lives matter in the U.S is an example of political mobilization addressing social inequalities and discrimination based on colour. Anand Gupta and Appel write that “Detroit and Flint are predominantly black cities. Here, water infrastructure is a socio-material terrain for the reproduction of racism.” It implies that water resources have been used to discriminate against Black people. The movement often advocates for policy change to prioritize the needs and concerns of Black people. It utilizes many approaches such as efforts to increase equality and reduce discrimination.
Anand, Nikhil, Akhil Gupta, and Hannah Appel, eds. The promise of infrastructure. Duke University Press, 2018. Pp. 223-243
Li, Tania Murray. Land’s end: Capitalist relations on an indigenous frontier. Duke University Press, 2014.pp1-29
Li, Tania Murray. The will to improve: Governmentality, development, and the practice of politics. duke university Press, 2007. 1-374
Rodney, Walter. How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Verso Books, 2018.pp.1-394
 Li. Land’s end: Capitalist relations on an indigenous frontier. Duke University Press, 2014.pp1-29
 Rodney. ‘How Europe Underdeveloped Africa’ 1981, pp1-29
 LI. ‘The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics’. 2007. pp. 1-30
 Anand, Gupta, and Appel. The promise of Infrastructure. 2018, p. 1
 Anand, Gupta, and Appel. The promise of Infrastructure. 2018. Pp. 223-243
 Anand, Gupta, and Appel. The promise of Infrastructure. 2018. Pp. 223-243
EC Classroom Assessment Tool Review Sample Assignment
Infant/Toddler Environmental Rating Scale
The Assessment Tool Description
Infant/Toddler Environmental Scale (ITERS-R) is an assessment tool designed to measure the quality of a group of programs toddlers and infants use. The assessment tool focuses on the full range of needs of toddlers and infants ages 1 to 3. The process involves collecting data through classroom observations and interviews done by staff and teachers (Harms et al., 2017). The scale does asses a variety of aspects, including teacher-child interactions and environmental provisions, which affect the vast developmental milestone of toddlers and infants. The assessment is a 39-item rating scale organized into seven subscales: one parent/staff-related sub-scale and six environmental subscales. Each of the items has a rank between 1 to 7. A ranking of 7 describes excellent, high-quality, personalized care, while a ranking of 1 means that the care does not meet custodial care needs. The instrument gives accurate information to the staff of areas where care needs to be improved and areas with high-quality care. Considering that it is a self-assessment tool, it is very effective because the results are practical and easy to evaluate.
The ITERS is a self-assessment tool with seven significant components, which this section will discuss and are also known as subscales.
Space and furnishings are the first subscales as an environmental subscale, and it assesses the use of indoor spacing. The room arrangement and the furniture that the toddlers and infants access should be constantly checked. The provision for comfort and relaxation should be available. The second subscale is the personal care routines. This subscale assesses the nap time, safety and health practices, meals and snacks, diapering and greetings and departing. It is essential because it directly affects the child’s health and mannerisms. Thirdly, listening and talking is another assessment component. It does deal with helping the child understand more about language as they start to listen and talk. It also assesses the child’s ability to use language in their daily activities and helps them know how to use books that help them read and learn. The fourth component involves the toddler’s activities (Harms et al., 2017). These include physical play, art activities, fine motor, music and movement, blocks, drama and plays, sand and water play, nature and sciences, electronic gadgets use, and promoting diversity acceptance. These activities require the toddler or infant to engage in these activities, which help in actively; the child’s cognitive, physical and psychosocial development.
The fifth component in the ITERS is the child’s interaction within their environment. Such interaction includes peer interaction, child-staff interaction, supervision of play and learning and discipline. These aspects play a critical role in the ability of the child to interact with people around their environment, and the assessment is to know the level the children engage. Sixth is the program structure, which touches on; free play, group play activities, schedules and provisions for children with disabilities. This subscale aims to know how much the children would adhere to a given structure and program. Lastly, the parent and staff subscale deals more with the parents and staff have on children. They include; provision for parents, personal and professional needs staff, staff interaction, supervision and interaction and opportunities for growth.
The Research Foundation
The ITERS is an essential tool in assessing a child’s growth in various scopes because of its measurable scales. In the process of a child growing and developing, they interact with various external and internal factors, which do alter their growth and development patterns. ITERS aims to assess how the factors affect the various growth aspects of toddlers and infants (Harms et al., 2017). ITERS does assess how environmental factors affect the growth and development of the child. It assesses the children’s interactions, the activities they engage in and the resources they access in their environment. Assessing these scales alters these children’s cognitive, physical and socio-emotional growth. ITERS also assesses the interaction of the children and other people around their environment. Interactions are essential in creating bonds and developing a child’s emotional abilities. The ITERS ensures that it can measure the interaction levels of a child and hence be able to know their personalities.
The Process of Administering Assessment
The ITERS 3 is a scale designed to assess the quality of the environmental factors during the learning process. During the process of assessment, the learner gets to interact with both the teachers and the parents; hence, the process of administering assessment has certain conditions. It involves close interaction between the learner and the teachers. The teachers get to deal with their learners close because they interact with them regularly. The process of administering assessment happens on a learner-by-learner basis. The personal interaction during the assessment ensures that the assessment is correct and tailored to each learner. Lastly, the assessment process happens over a given period because the teacher gets to know the different aspects of the child.
The training procedure has to achieve the following objectives:
Ensuring that the teacher is familiar with the ITERS 3 tool. Being familiar with the tool makes it easier for the teacher to approach the assessment practically. The teacher can assess how the learner uses their spaces, their awareness of their environment and such activities. The training process involves the teacher knowing the components of a quality early learning environment such that they assess and give accurate information. Lastly, being able to create awareness of the importance of the ITERS tool in the further development of the learner such that they can excel in their studies.
Data Collection Procedure
These data collection procedures were both traditional methods and other methods that matched the various assessment. Observation over a given period is an appropriate procedure for collecting data. Since children are quite interactive, asking these children, questions is another procedure for collecting data.
Reporting procedure of the entire ITERS tool assessment involves processes such as; describing what is observable, such as skills and abilities. Ensuring that the reporting describes the entire assessment time and should focus on the seven subscales. The report should be objective, evaluate all the observations and follow all the requirements of an ECD assessment.
Space and Furnishing
Personal Care Routines
Listening and Talking
|Environmental and staff scales
The scale ratings are divided into six environmental scales and one staff and parent scale.
|INFANT/TODDLER ENVIRONMENTAL RATING SCALE (ITERS)
Parents and Staff
Harms, T., Cryer, D., Clifford, R. M., & Yazejian, N. (2017). Infant/toddler environment rating scale (ITERS-3). Teachers College Press. 1234 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027.