Causes Of Unemployment In An Economy


Unemployment is a state of being unemployed despite one’s ability and willingness to work, yet one cannot find any income-generating activity to earn capital. Unemployment is a key indicator of the health of an economy. The government collects unemployment data in different ways, yet many governments may offer unemployed individuals some money through unemployment insurance as long as they meet some requirements. In some countries, the unemployment rate has increased because people can be selective when it comes to the jobs available in the market. There are four types of unemployment: institutional unemployment, structural unemployment, cyclical unemployment, and frictional unemployment. In an economy, causes of unemployment can be occupational immobilities, technological change, geographical immobilities, and structural change in the economy.

According to Dankert (1941), Occupational immobility is one of the causes of an economy, which refers to the difficulty in learning skills applicable to a new job. However, the skills required for the jobs available in the market differ from one new skill. For instance, an unemployed driver may struggle to find work in a Cement Manufacturing Factory, yes the gap for him or her is available in the factory so he or she can work, but his or her skills are not suitable for him or her to work in the Cement Manufacturing Factory. The government should develop a strategy to educate people and give them skills for the jobs available in the market. By doing so, everyone will be in a position to work, and the level of unemployment will decrease. Failure to do this will increase unemployment because as days go by, people in an economy will not be in any income-generating activity.

According to Rip & Kemp (1998), technological change is one of the causes of unemployment, and this is due to the inventory of machines that is used to work in industries instead of the people doing the same job that machines do. Some machines like computers may fasten work, store information and are more accurate than people. Hence, in some industries, they use computers to do such jobs. People with the ability and willingness to do such jobs will be jobless because computers are doing the work they are supposed to do, which increases unemployment. Employees in industries and other places of work are supposed to eliminate machines and employ people in the industry’s gaps other than buying machines and making them work. Failure to do that, people in the economy will continue being jobless, and this will make the level of unemployment increase. Governments are also supposed to establish some industries and employ peoples that are jobless so that they can minimize the level of unemployment in an economy.

Geographical immobility occurs when there are costs facing people who need to move to find new work. This problem affects families and makes the family earn a low income, and this is due to housing costs to buy and also to rent ( Dankert, 1941). For instance, if you sold a house for Ksh 120 000, y could not afford to buy another in America because of the higher house prices. Therefore, the cost of buying or renting may hinder a worker willing to work for other countries from moving to areas with higher demand for the worker. The government should ensure that the country has enough resources that the citizens can utilize or has available jobs so that the citizens will not travel from one country to another. This will minimize the level of unemployment in a country.

Structural change is an industry or market function shift, usually brought by major economic developments. For instance, the shift from agriculture to manufacturing to services may facilitate structural change, thus increasing the level of unemployment in an economy (Uy et al., 2013). Four factors may contribute to structural change: intersectoral wedges, nonhomothetic tastes, sector-biased technological progress and international trade. Some circumstances may lead to structural change: process or policy changes, job duplication and mergers and acquisitions. The government is supposed to ensure that there is no shift in an industry so that the level of unemployment will decrease. Failure to do this will cause the level of unemployment will continue to rise as days go by, thus affecting people living in an economy.


This study is all about the causes of unemployment in an economy. Some causes discussed are occupational immobility, technological change, geographical immobility and structural change. Governments have devised measures to control or decrease the level of unemployment in an economy. Some of the measures that government can use to reduce unemployment rates: are partnering with the private sector to create employment, adopting a relevant education system, control of population growth, diversification of economic activities, and adopting policies that encourage labour-intensive methods of production. When the government in an economy implies some of these measures, the level of unemployment will decrease, and this will make people living in a certain economy to earn income; hence their standard way of living will be high.


Dankert, C. E. (1941). Labour immobility and technological unemployment. Social Forces, 426-434.

Rip, A., & Kemp, R. (1998). Technological change. Human choice and climate change2(2), 327–399.

Dankert, C. E. (1941). Labour immobility and technological unemployment. Social Forces, 426-434.

Uy, T., Yi, K. M., & Zhang, J. (2013). Structural change in an open economy. Journal of Monetary Economics60(6), 667–682.

Challenges And Opportunities Of Securing Government Critical Infrastructure: A Case Of E-Government


In the current digital era, critical infrastructure for the government, especially in e-government, is confronting never-before-seen difficulties. As governments throughout the world continue to incorporate technology into their operational procedures and the delivery of public services, maintaining the security and resiliency of these systems becomes crucial. With a focus on the E-Government sector in particular, this article provides a detailed study of the various opportunities and difficulties that occur in protecting government critical infrastructure.

The article looks at the growing dangers that governments’ projects for electronic governance are facing. Significant risks arise from the quickly changing cyber scene, including sophisticated attacks by state-sponsored and non-state actors, internal flaws, and unintentional human errors. In order to protect critical infrastructure from these dangers, a flexible and all-encompassing strategy combining cutting-edge cyber security techniques, adaptable policies, and qualified personnel is required. The article explores the particular difficulties that governmental organizations have in safeguarding their E-Government infrastructure, building on this foundation. These difficulties include dealing with the complexity of legacy systems, observing continually changing data protection laws, protecting citizen privacy, handling vast volumes of sensitive data, and overcoming financial limitations in the face of conflicting demands.

The article explores the primary obstacles governments confront while securing their vital infrastructure within the E-Government framework, drawing on empirical research and real-world case studies. The integration of legacy systems, the ongoing growth of cyber threats, the need to comply with onerous data protection laws, and the increasing difficulty of securing a wide variety of digital services are all included in the list of obstacles. The article also emphasizes the delicate balance between safeguarding citizens’ civil liberties and privacy while implementing strong cyber security safeguards. E-government systems frequently deal with enormous volumes of personal data; therefore, keeping this data secure without violating people’s rights calls for creative security measures and moral concerns.

Despite these difficulties, the article emphasizes the bright prospects of good critical infrastructure security for e-government. Governments may create the conditions for improved resilience, cyber deterrence, and adaptive threat response mechanisms by investing in cyber security research, development, and innovation. Adopting emerging technologies like blockchain, biometrics, and secure cloud solutions provides a further opportunity to improve authentication, data integrity, and transparency in governmental operations. Governments must form alliances with influential business and academic institutions to pool resources, share threat intelligence, and implement best practices. To give government employees the skills they need to identify, reduce, and respond to cyber threats in a proactive manner, capacity building, and ongoing training are also essential.

The article suggests a complete framework for ensuring the crucial E-Government infrastructure to exploit the potential and solve the difficulties. This framework encourages using a risk-based strategy to rank security measures, ongoing threat monitoring and intelligence sharing, effective incident response plans, and creating cyber crisis management teams. A complex and dynamic panorama of opportunities and problems surrounds the security of vital government infrastructure within e-government. This article provides a thorough overview of the challenges involved in protecting e-government systems for politicians, government employees, and cyber security professionals. Governments can strengthen their cyber resilience, defend national interests, and increase public trust in the digital age by admitting the problems, taking advantage of the opportunities, and encouraging collaboration.



In an era of unprecedented digitalization and pervasive information technology use, governments worldwide are increasingly embracing e-government initiatives to modernize public services, increase administrative effectiveness, and promote citizen engagement. E-Government promises to transform cumbersome bureaucratic procedures into streamlined, citizen-focused services. E-Government is the integration of digital technologies into the operation of governmental institutions (Kassen, M., 2016). The government’s critical infrastructure must be immediately secured to safeguard national security, data integrity, and public confidence due to the various sophisticated cyber threats it faces.

To maintain E-Government systems’ secure and reliable operation, a complex web of issues that must be negotiated has been created by the rising reliance on digital technology and associated networks in government activities. The risks related to cyber-attacks and breaches increase as these systems become more networked and data-driven, impacting how well the government can serve its constituents, national security, and public confidence (Li et al.; Q., 2021).

This journal article examines the complex terrain of protecting critical government infrastructure within the context of e-government while exploring the abundance of options that can be tapped to increase cyber resilience. This journal paper examines the complex context of securing government critical infrastructure, specifically focusing on E-Government systems. By carefully examining the challenges and opportunities currently available, this study seeks to shed light on the complicated concerns of preserving digital assets within government institutions. This article examines real-world case studies, synthesizes empirical research, and takes into consideration global best practices to provide intelligent analysis and helpful solutions to enhance the cyber resilience of E-Government operations.


Over the past few decades, E-Government programs have revolutionized how governments communicate with their constituents and provide public services. The implementation of E-Government technology has increased the effectiveness, transparency, and accessibility of government, from online tax filing and e-voting portals to applications for public service and digital identity verification. However, this digital revolution has also exposed crucial government infrastructure to sophisticated cyber threats, including state-sponsored assaults, ransomware, data breaches, and other cyber-espionage activities (Weerakkody et al., 2015).

In addition to creating new attack vectors, the move to e-government has exacerbated already tricky problems. The security and resilience of government networks face considerable challenges due to outdated legacy systems, a lack of competent cyber security personnel, compliance with changing data protection rules, and financial limitations. Additionally, the connectedness of digital services inside the E-Government raises questions about the possible snowball effect of cyber disasters.

Despite the difficulties, there are many prospects in the field of e-government security. Governments may strengthen their cyber defenses and create strong and adaptable security postures by implementing advanced cyber security measures, embracing emerging technologies like blockchain and artificial intelligence, and forming public-private collaborations (Hassija, V. et al., 2020). To address the issues and seize the opportunities, a multidisciplinary strategy involving cooperation between policymakers, governmental organizations, cyber security professionals, academia, and the corporate sector is necessary.


  1. What are the main obstacles that governments encounter when securing vital infrastructure in the context of e-government?
  2. What can be done to improve the cyber resilience of E-Government systems using upcoming technologies like blockchain, AI, and biometrics?
  3. What policies and best practices may governments implement to encourage productive PPPs to strengthen the security of vital government infrastructure?


  1. To identify and assess the various issues and weaknesses related to safeguarding critical government infrastructure in e-government.
  2. To investigate the possibilities offered by cutting-edge cyber security techniques and emerging technology for improving the defense and resilience of electronic government systems.

  • To secure crucial E-Government infrastructure and to suggest realistic tactics and proposals that allow governments to encourage successful public-private partnerships and cooperative projects.

Literature Review

In recent years, the security of crucial government infrastructure, particularly in e-government, has become a matter of intense interest and worry. As governments worldwide continue to digitalize their operations and services, they are exposed to a broader range of cyber threats that target sensitive data, interfere with crucial services, and erode public confidence. With an emphasis on E-Government specifically, this literature survey intends to look at the scholarly publications and current research on the opportunities and challenges of safeguarding government critical infrastructure. This review thoroughly overviews the complex E-Government security landscape by integrating the essential findings and insights from earlier studies.

Empirical Literature Review

Identifying and Evaluating Problems and Weaknesses in the Context of E-Government for Protecting Government Critical Infrastructure

The digitalization of government operations has transformed the delivery of public services through e-government projects, which has raised productivity, accessibility, and transparency. However, this move towards a technology-driven governance approach has left critical government infrastructure open to various cyber threats. In the context of e-government, this empirical literature analysis aims to pinpoint and evaluate a range of problems and vulnerabilities relating to protecting vital public infrastructure. This review intends to illuminate the difficulties and risks government agencies face in protecting crucial digital assets by examining the empirical research and case studies that have already been conducted.

  1. Cyber security Threats and Attacks in E-Government:

Numerous empirical studies demonstrate the wide variety of cyber security threats encountered by governmental infrastructure in E-Government. Government organizations face various cyber risks that can lead to data breaches, system outages, and reputational harm, such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) assaults that target online services and phishing campaigns that aim to compromise user credentials. These studies underline that proactive threat detection and incident response capabilities are essential to managing potential risks successfully.

  1. Legacy Systems and Technical Complexity:

Empirical research demonstrates that many government agencies continue to operate their E-Government services using legacy systems. These antiquated systems frequently need more security safeguards and can be taken advantage of by hackers. A full defense of vital government infrastructure is difficult to achieve because of the technical complexity of integrating contemporary security measures with legacy systems.

Challenges with compliance and data protection:

According to empirical research, government organizations need help protecting sensitive citizen data while adhering to ever-changing data protection requirements. For E-Government systems managing enormous amounts of personal data, ensuring data privacy, data integrity, and secure data exchange policies is difficult. It is essential to balance transparency and data protection to increase public trust in government services.

Cyber security threats, technical difficulties, compliance issues, insider risks, financial limitations, and incident response tactics significantly shape the security environment for government organizations. The government’s critical infrastructure can be strengthened, cyber resilience can be improved, and public confidence in e-government services can be increased by policymakers and cyber security experts tackling these problems and vulnerabilities (Krishna et al.; S., 2021). The empirical results discussed in this analysis provide a solid foundation for formulating sensible policy suggestions and methods for safeguarding crucial government resources in the digital era.

To investigate ways to make electronic government systems more resilient and secure utilizing cutting-edge cyber security techniques.

E-Government (Electronic Government) solutions are essential for upgrading public service delivery and enhancing governance. However, as digital technologies are used more frequently in government activities, this exposes these systems to sophisticated cyber threats. Researchers have looked into the opportunities provided by cutting-edge cyber security strategies and developing technologies for boosting the protection and resilience of E-Government systems to meet these difficulties. This empirical literature review aims to investigate the body of research on the subject, synthesizing empirical data, case studies, and practical implementations to comprehend the potential of cutting-edge cyber security measures and emerging technologies in enhancing E-Government security.

Advanced Threat Detection and Prevention:

Research has shown that advanced threat detection and prevention strategies successfully defend E-Government systems from cyber-attacks. Machine learning techniques, behavioral analysis, and anomaly detection have been used to recognize and respond to emerging threats in real time. These studies highlight how big data analytics and artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to improve government infrastructure’s defense capabilities.

Blockchain for Data Integrity and Transparency:

Empirical research shows the potential of blockchain technology for maintaining data integrity and transparency in E-Government systems. Blockchain can secure transactions, protect sensitive government data, and stop illegal access by using decentralized, tamper-proof ledgers. For safe voting, identity management, and document verification in e-government applications, case studies have looked at the usage of blockchain.

Zero Trust Architecture for Secure Access:

Empirical research demonstrates the advantages of implementing a zero-trust architecture in e-government systems. This strategy follows the maxim “never trust, always verify,” necessitating constant authentication and authorization for any user and device trying to access official resources. An improved level of security is provided by zero trust architecture against insider threats, illegal access attempts, and attacker lateral movement within the network.

The empirical literature evaluation has illuminated the wide-ranging potential of cutting-edge cyber security methods and emerging technologies in enhancing the defense and resilience of electronic government systems. While blockchain improves data integrity and transparency while biometrics and MFA fortify authentication mechanisms, machine learning and AI enable proactive threat detection. IoT security protects vital infrastructure, quantum cryptography offers unbreakable communication channels, and cloud security defends government data and apps (Bhattacharjee, S., 2018).

To secure crucial E-Government infrastructure, suggest realistic tactics and proposals that allow governments to encourage successful public-private partnerships and cooperative projects.

The safeguarding of essential e-government infrastructure is a high priority for governments everywhere. Collaboration projects and public-private partnerships are becoming vital strategies in fending off the continuously evolving cyber threats and boosting cyber resilience. This empirical literature review aims to assess realistic approaches and suggestions that enable governments to support fruitful public-private partnerships in preserving the infrastructure of the electronic government. This analysis investigates the benefits, challenges, and best practices of establishing practical cooperation between governments and the private sector to strengthen critical government systems. This is accomplished through looking at empirical research, case studies, and practical applications.

The Value of Public-Private Partnerships in Addressing Cyber Security Issues:

Empirical studies have looked into the importance of public-private partnerships in addressing cybersecurity issues. Through these collaborations, the public and private sectors pool their resources, expertise, and knowledge to manage cyber threats effectively. According to research, public-private partnerships encourage information sharing, allow for the collection of improved threat intelligence, and enable collective defensive strategies—all of which contribute to a rise in cyber resilience.

Giving the Private Sector Enough Incentives to Participate in Collaborative Security Initiatives for E-Government:

Empirical data underscores the importance of giving the Private Sector Enough Incentives to Participate in Collaborative Security Initiatives for E-Government. According to case studies, providing financing, tax incentives, and access to public resources to private firms may persuade them to invest in cybersecurity research and development. Governments can also promote cyber security training and knowledge-sharing platforms to produce a skilled workforce, improving public-private partnerships’ attraction.

Building Trust and Information Sharing:

An empirical study looks at the advantages and disadvantages of developing trust between organizations in the public and private sectors for fruitful collaboration. According to research, building trust is necessary for open and private information exchange, enabling quick threat intelligence and coordinated incident response. The importance of data protection and privacy laws in fostering private sector participation in the business of cybersecurity-related knowledge is also emphasized by studies.

Collaborations between the public and private sectors that are successful increase cyber resilience by facilitating efficient information exchange, group defense strategies, and coordinated incident response. Governments must offer financial incentives to the private sector, cultivate open dialogue to engender confidence, engage in collaborative cyber security exercises, and create favorable legal and regulatory frameworks to promote successful public-private partnerships (Skopik F. et al., 2016).

Theoretical Framework

Systems Theory

In the context of e-government, the Systems Theory offers a comprehensive view of the difficulties and potential in safeguarding essential government infrastructure. This paradigm sees e-government systems as intricately linked with many parts, stakeholders, and procedures. The framework considers the interactions between various components of the e-government ecosystem and how they affect cyber security. It investigates how weaknesses in a single system component can influence the entire security posture and the possible snowball effect of cyber incidents (Whitchurch., et al., 1993)

According to the Systems Theory, the framework looks at issues brought on by system complexity, such as the need to integrate legacy systems and the requirement for safe data transmission between agencies. The effectiveness of system resilience in responding to new threats and recovering from cyber-attacks is also evaluated. The theory also emphasizes how system dynamics and feedback mechanisms can be used to strengthen cyber security. Collaborative incident response frameworks, adaptive security systems, and platforms for sharing threat intelligence are just a few examples. The methodology uses the Systems Theory to offer a thorough understanding of the linked aspects affecting E-Government security and to pinpoint possibilities to increase cyber resilience throughout the system.

Institutional Theory

The Institutional Theory provides insights into the opportunities and difficulties of safeguarding government critical infrastructure by considering how institutions and social norms shape cybersecurity practices. This theory investigates how internal and external institutional pressures affect the adoption of cyber security measures inside government organizations and the broader E-Government environment. The framework examines the effects of organizational culture, policy, and leadership on risk management, resource allocation, and cyber security decisions (Cram, W. A., et al., 2017).

The Institutional Theory informs the framework’s assessment of the difficulties in integrating cyber security practices with institutional norms and rules, particularly when bureaucratic processes and opposition to change are present. It looks at how a weak cyber security culture might challenge implementing advanced security measures and promote complacency. On the other hand, the theory also highlights chances to use institutional backing to support efforts that aim to increase cyber security awareness, training, and capability. It looks at how senior leadership may support cyber security initiatives and encourage a culture of cyber resilience inside government entities.

Research Methods

A thorough and multifaceted approach combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will be used in the article on the difficulties and potential of securing government critical infrastructure in e-government. A complete examination of the literature, which will include academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, and pertinent policy papers, will be done to fully grasp the body of knowledge already available on E-Government security. The crucial issues, research gaps, and best practices in safeguarding government critical infrastructure will be determined using the findings of this literature study as the basis.

Additionally, the article will use qualitative techniques like focus groups and interviews to get in-depth opinions from necessary parties concerned with the security of the electronic government. There will be semi-structured interviews with cyber security professionals, government representatives, and business partners involved in public-private partnerships for the security of the electronic government. In-depth discussions of their viewpoints, experiences, difficulties, and suggestions for improving cyber resilience will be conducted in these interviews. Focus groups will be set up to encourage interactive discussions between cyber security experts, government employees, and private sector representatives, enabling group brainstorming and the investigation of cooperative prospects in securing vital government infrastructure.

The article will also use quantitative techniques to collect information on views and practices related to cyber security today. Government agencies and other relevant parties will be given surveys and questionnaires to gather quantitative information about their cyber security plans, employed technologies, expenditures on security measures, and perceived problems. These surveys will offer valuable insights into the methods that are currently in use and assist in identifying prevalent difficulties encountered in safeguarding E-Government infrastructure. Case studies will be used in the research to analyze further specific instances of successful cyber security deployments and events in electronic government. Case studies will provide a greater understanding of government organizations’ real-world difficulties and chances in securing vital infrastructure. These actual cases will teach us important lessons and best practices that we can use to improve cyber protection and resilience in other E-Government systems.

This thorough approach provides a nuanced and complete view of the potential and challenges in safeguarding critical government infrastructure in e-government by utilizing various research approaches. Researchers will be able to create effective plans, regulations, and team projects that can improve cyber resilience, reduce risks, and take advantage of new opportunities for securing E-Government systems thanks to the integration of qualitative and quantitative data.


In e-government, securing crucial government infrastructure presents a challenging yet exciting picture. The continually changing cyber threat landscape, where highly skilled cyber attackers use cutting-edge ways to target government networks, is one of the main issues. Another issue is integrating legacy systems into contemporary security frameworks, as these older systems might need more robust security controls. Insider threats are still a concern; thus, monitoring privileged users and carefully managing access permissions are required. Challenges arise from limited resources, which prevent government organizations from allocating adequate funds and cyber security skills.

Nevertheless, many opportunities exist despite these difficulties. Better threat intelligence and coordinated incident response may be made possible by collaboration and public-private partnerships that pool resources and knowledge. Embracing upcoming technologies like artificial intelligence and blockchain can significantly improve data protection and authentication capacities. By utilizing a risk-based strategy, governments can prioritize their cyber security efforts, concentrating on the most critical assets and potential attacks. Investing in cyber security education and training can also enable government employees to serve as the first line of defense against online threats. A more solid and resilient E-Government infrastructure can be achieved by addressing the issues and seizing the available opportunities.


Underscoring the complexity and importance of cyber security in the digital era are the difficulties and potential of securing government critical infrastructure in e-government. Given the constantly changing cyber threat landscape, a proactive and adaptable strategy is required to protect critical government systems and services. Careful planning and ongoing efforts to close security weaknesses are necessary for integrating older systems and reducing insider threats. Governments are urged to prioritize cyber security investment wisely because of the ongoing challenge of limited resources. However, amid these difficulties, promising chances appear. A robust method for information exchange, resource pooling, and group defense against cyber threats is provided by collaborative public-private partnerships. Adopting cutting-edge technology like quantum cryptography, artificial intelligence, and blockchain creates new opportunities for improved data security and authentication. Using a risk-based approach, governments can better prioritize vital assets and allocate cyber security resources. A cyber-aware workforce capable of recognizing and minimizing risks is also produced by investing in cyber security awareness and training. Addressing cyber security challenges while taking advantage of opportunities becomes crucial as governments continue their digital transition and embrace e-government. It is necessary to have a strong and resilient E-Government infrastructure in order to preserve sensitive data, uphold public confidence, and guarantee the continuation and functionality of crucial government services. Governments can create a safe and reliable digital future by proactively addressing issues and seizing opportunities. In doing so, they can protect the foundation of vital government infrastructure for all stakeholders, including citizens.


First, governments ought to place a high priority on the formation of solid PPPs, encouraging teamwork with industry experts and stakeholders. Second, investing in cutting-edge technologies like quantum cryptography, blockchain, and artificial intelligence can dramatically improve threat detection, data protection, and authentication capabilities. In order to keep one step ahead of cyber enemies, governments should allocate funds for research and implementation of these cutting-edge solutions. Thirdly, creating and implementing a risk-based approach is crucial to allocate cyber security resources effectively. Fourth, strengthening cyber security awareness and training programs is essential to equip government employees to serve as the first line of defense. Employees can be given the skills to recognize and respond to cyber threats successfully through regular training sessions and capacity-building initiatives. Fifth, it is critical to address the integration of legacy systems. Governments should commit funds to modernize and update existing systems with solid security features or look into switching to more secure platforms when practical. Then the sixth legislative and policy frameworks need to be updated on a regular basis to accommodate new cybersecurity issues. Governments should provide enabling legal frameworks that encourage cooperation, data protection, and exchange of information while also holding those who violate cyber security accountable. In order to secure vital infrastructure, protect sensitive data, and maintain the resilience of E-Government systems for the benefit of citizens and society at large, governments can implement these recommendations.


Bhattacharjee, S. (2018). Practical Industrial Internet of Things security: A practitioner’s guide to securing connected industries. Packt Publishing Ltd.

Cram, W. A., Proudfoot, J. G., & D’arcy, J. (2017). Organizational information security policies: a review and research framework. European Journal of Information Systemspp. 26, 605–641.

Hassija, V., Chamola, V., Gupta, V., Jain, S., & Guizani, N. (2020). A survey on supply chain security: Application areas, security threats, and solution architectures. IEEE Internet of Things Journal8(8), 6222–6246.

Li, Y., & Liu, Q. (2021). A comprehensive review of cyber-attacks and cyber security; Emerging trends and recent developments. Energy Reports7, 8176-8186.

Kassen, M. (2016). Understanding Systems of e-Government.

Krishna, B., & MP, S. (2021). Examining the relationship between e-government development, nation’s cyber-security commitment, business usage, and economic prosperity: A cross-country analysis. Information & Computer Security29(5), 737–760.

Skopik, F., Settanni, G., & Fiedler, R. (2016). A problem shared is a problem halved: A survey on the dimensions of collective cyber defense through security information sharing. Computers & Security60, 154-176.

Weerakkody, V., Irani, Z., Lee, H., Osman, I., & Hindi, N. (2015). E-government implementation: A bird’s eye view of issues relating to costs, opportunities, benefits, and risks. Information systems frontiers17, 889-915.

Whitchurch, G. G., & Constantine, L. L. (1993). Systems theory. In Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach (pp. 325–355). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Healthcare Coverage And Vulnerable Population


Vulnerable populations experience adverse health outcomes because they live in areas excluded from services which makes them unable to participate in health programs due to a lack of awareness. Health coverage is important because it makes it easy to afford healthcare services and protects people from financial strain when unexpected illness or accident happens. Insurance helps people avoid huge medical debts and protects the acquired financial assets. Vulnerable populations do not have access to healthcare coverage because their socio-economic status does not favor them. Another advantage of healthcare coverage is that it connects people to a constant source of care which enables easy access to the infrastructure where the providers work with patients in providing continuous, comprehensive, and coordinated healthcare services.

The vulnerable populations often struggle to get healthcare coverage because of their backgrounds such as financial strain, homeless, elderly, and people with disabilities (De Chesnay & Anderson, 2019). Healthcare coverage makes people more productive because they can lead better lives by ensuring they get healthcare services conveniently because of constant premium contributions. A reduction in mortality rates of people is important to vulnerable individuals in society as it increases awareness of leading healthy lives and ensuring they improve their status.

Purpose statement: To identify how healthcare coverage is linked to vulnerable populations, describe the purpose for diagnosis of related groups, select a major and alternative healthcare plan, and the impact of nursing interventions.

Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG)

Diagnosis Related Group is utilized when grouping patients who have the same conditions and treatment. DRG is used by Medicare to help reimburse hospitals for inpatient stays depending on patient diagnosis and care given during the stay (Enewold et al., 2020). It means that the hospitals get paid a fixed amount for every patient depending on the DRG assigned to the patient. DRGs are more specific because they represent specific groups of people with similar conditions or diseases and they classify them according to diagnosis and treatment.

The Diagnosis Related Groups make hospital funding depending on a predefined payment rate on the diagnosis processes in the 495 classification. It incentivizes the appropriate utilization of services provided which lowers the length of stay, appropriate use of treatment and diagnostic procedures, and a reduction in the general bed capacity. Implementation of a DRG system in a hospital contributes to a reduction in admissions and advocates for more outpatient services and a steady decline in the bed occupancy rate and per capita hospital bed supply (Shi & Singh, 2022). Despite its positive impact, it is affected by falsification of reported case severity to increase revenue collection which ensures a balanced health service system is achieved.

Payment for DRGs has contributed to reduced overuse of health services because it has a financial risk to healthcare providers. DRGs have contributed to an improvement in efficiency, control of the cost of treatment, and a reduction in the length of stay which contribute to the maintenance of the standards of care. It is important to note that providers’ behaviors determine the quality, efficiency, cost, and equity of healthcare services provided to patients.

Medicaid Healthcare plan (major option)

Medicaid has been considered the major healthcare option for patient X aged 67. Medicaid covers many people like people with disabilities, the elderly, children, pregnant women, and low-income adults. It covers both state and federal governments hence it caters to the health of many Americans (Geruso et al., 2023). Patient X qualifies for Primary Care Case Management Option in Medicaid coverage. In this case, patient X is to be provided with a primary care physician who will provide the required care (Shi & Singh, 2022). The physician will be paid every month for the services given. Another option is the Comprehensive Risk-based Managed Care which is an additional treatment choice that can be used for patient X. The additional plan offers services such as X-ray tests, home healthcare, outpatient services, and therapeutic and diagnostic therapies. The additional treatment option provides a variety of home-based services needed by patient X.

Unfortunately, both care plans may limit access to care for patient X because of the Medicare Advantage Care plan. There are some restrictions such as the use of physicians only in the plan’s network which may be utilized by this choice. The restriction limits Patient X’s choice of healthcare providers and services. Another restriction is that there are care programs available for children which have particular eligibility criteria and needs that patient X will have to meet to get care. Medicaid long-term care services may limit a patient’s access to medical services because of the need to incur an additional cost from the patient. Patient X is likely to experience care restriction because of the financial burden (Lloyd et al., 2019). Medicaid’s long-term care services and eligibility depend on the children’s care program which limits patient X’s access to healthcare.

Medicare (second major healthcare plan)

Medicare is designed to care for 65years or older individuals. Patient X is 67 years; thus, he will benefit from the program. The Original Medicare option has Part A and B insurance plans where patient X has the power to choose any healthcare organization or doctor under Medicare. Another option available is the Medicare Cost Plan which also facilitates care for patient X since it does not have restrictions. Medicare Advantage restricts access to care services and patients under the option may be required to meet a certain criterion such as choosing doctors under the plan’s network (Enewold et al., 2020). Additional costs restrict access to care services by the patient making it difficult to seek comprehensive care services.

Impact of nurse interventions

Nurse interventions to promote self-care for patient X include monitoring of the recovery process. The nurse should regularly assess the condition of the patient to determine if there is an improvement or deterioration in outcomes. It becomes easy for the nurse to set both long and short-term goals with the patient. The anticipated outcomes of care are controlling symptoms, preventing complications, and direct care based on self-determined options (Shi & Singh, 2022). The second intervention is guiding the patient in accepting the needed amount of dependence because the patient at times needs help in determining the safe limits of trying to be independent and when asking for assistance. The third intervention is presenting positive reinforcement for all activities done through education and noting down partial achievements. Patient X may have a challenge seeing progress. A nurse can promote positive reinforcement through daily activities by organizing them into achievable steps which makes the patient a sense of accomplishment. The last intervention is focusing on the patient’s strengths and optimal level of function as patient X receives support and guidance in learning to perform self-care activities.


In conclusion, the paper identifies how healthcare coverage is linked to vulnerable populations, describes the purpose for diagnosis of related groups, selects a major and alternative healthcare plan, and the impact of nursing interventions. Insurance allows many people to access healthcare services including the vulnerable populations. Insurance helps people avoid huge medical debts and connects people to a constant source of care. Programs such as Medicare and Medicaid have been encouraged by various governments to ensure that vulnerable populations access healthcare services. Implementation of a DRG system in a hospital contributes to a reduction in admissions and advocates for more outpatient services and a steady decline in the bed occupancy rate and per capita hospital bed supply. Nursing inventions for a patient include close monitoring, guiding the patient in accepting the needed amount of dependence, presenting positive reinforcement for all activities done through education, and focusing on the patient’s strengths and optimal level of function.


De Chesnay, M., & Anderson, B. (2019). Caring for the vulnerable. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Enewold, L., Parsons, H., Zhao, L., Bott, D., Rivera, D. R., Barrett, M. J., … & Warren, J. L. (2020). An updated overview of the SEER-Medicare data: enhanced content and applications. JNCI Monographs2020(55), 3-13.

Geruso, M., Layton, T. J., & Wallace, J. (2023). What difference does a health plan make? Evidence from random plan assignment in Medicaid. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics15(3), 341-379.

Lloyd, J. T., Maresh, S., Powers, C. A., Shrank, W. H., & Alley, D. E. (2019). How much does medication nonadherence cost the Medicare fee-for-service program? Medical Care57(3), 218-224.

Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2022). Essentials of the US healthcare system. Jones & Bartlett Learning.