Change And Conflict Management In Nursing Writing Sample

Introduction

Conflict and change are commonly occurring issues in any organization where people interact in the working environment. Nursing is not an exception because a fundamental dependence of the healthcare field on evidence-based practice, research, and policies implies continuous updates and changes. However, the changes as the basis of development should be managed by leaders to ensure timely implementation and relevant results. Thus, the present essay will explore and discuss change theories, conflict theories, and the role of a leader in organizational conflict and change management.

Change Theories

Several change approaches theorize the causes, processes, and outcomes of change in the organizational setting. The identification of the most common change theories might demonstrate the variety of approaches to change management for effective organizational outcomes. Firstly, one of the first change theories, Lewin’s change theory, was introduced to the change management literature in 1951 and approached change as a process impacted by two opposing forces (Udod & Wagner, 2018). They are driving forces, which direct and enforce change, and restricting forces, which resist change. Lewin introduced a three-stage approach to change management, including unfreezing which encourages the employees to abandon old practices, moving (change implementation), and refreezing, which implies solidifying new practices (Udod & Wagner, 2018). Secondly, Lippitt, Watson, and Westley’s theory emphasizes the role of the change agent rather than the process of change management and allocates responsibilities for assessment and implementation to a leader (Udod & Wagner, 2018). Thirdly, Havelock’s theory consists of six steps, including relationship building, problem identification, resource acquisition, solution finding, change acceptance, and maintenance.

Fourthly, similarly to Havelock’s theory, Roger introduces five concisely presented steps: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation. These elements are considered essential for informed decision-making and effective change implementation in an organizational setting. These theories might apply to the healthcare environment since they provide a structured approach to timely problem-solving by addressing the opposing forces and leading change professionally and effectively.

Conflict Theories

Since change often occurs with conflicts that involve a disagreement between several parties on important issues, the discussion of conflict theories is relevant. However, in the contemporary organizational discourse, conflict is referred to as a “natural, inevitable phenomenon that can have beneficial effects and lead to personal, as well as organizational, growth” (Arveklev et al., 2018, p. 210). In nursing, as in any other professional setting, various types of conflicts might occur, which necessitate different models for their resolution with positive outcomes for the organization and its employees. One of the conflict theories is the ABC theory developed by Galtung. It implies that a conflict consists of “(a) attitudes and assumptions, (b) behavior, and (c) contradiction,” all of which must be considered to ensure constructive conflict resolution (Arveklev et al., 2018, p. 210). In essence, conflict theories address specific steps toward reaching an agreement between conflicting parties by eliminating emotional tension, misunderstanding, and harm to relationships.

Leader as a Change Agent

A change agent is an individual who is responsible for the proper implementation of change in an organization. These are the professionals who have the legitimate power to initiate and guide change (Udod & Wagner, 2018). In nursing, change agents are nurse leaders who are in charge of decision-making. According to Udod and Wagner (2018), “Leading change is a challenge for nurse leaders amid the complexities and challenges of evolving health care environments in providing quality patient care” (para. 2). The very necessity of change might be an implicit issue that only leaders with access to particular data and resources might be aware of. It is within leaders’ scope of competencies to analyze the quality of organizational processes and environment, identify areas for change, and initiate successful change management interventions. Therefore, the knowledge and the skills of using change theories are essential for a competent change agent to follow all the necessary steps of the change management process to ensure the implementation of the plan.

Conflict Management and Effective Leadership in the Healthcare Environment

Similarly to change management competence, the ability to manage conflict is also a decisive element in the role of a leader in a healthcare organization. In nursing, conflict is an unwanted but unavoidable occurrence, the elimination and successful resolution of which guarantees proper patient care. Since patient health outcomes are prioritized in the nursing setting, the leader must be capable of timely and effective application of conflict management models. Otherwise, the incompetence of a leader in this area might cause harm to patients’ safety and the overall performance quality of a whole unit.

Conclusion

In summation, the overview of common change and conflict theories demonstrates the variety of management approaches to competent and positive result-oriented problem-solving. The variety of change and conflict theories provides nursing leaders with sufficient information and tools on how to handle these issues effectively. Competent handling of change and conflict by organizational leadership predetermines the effectiveness of workplace management and allows leaders to direct their organizations toward high-quality patient care.

References

Arveklev, S. H., Berg, L., Wigert, H., Morrison-Helme, M., & Lepp, M. (2018). Learning about conflict and conflict management through drama in nursing education. Journal of Nursing Education, 57(4), 209–216.

Udod, S., & Wagner, J. (2018). Common change theories and application to different nursing situations. In Leadership and influencing change in nursing. Pressbooks.

Dealing With Obesity As A Societal Concern

This essay shall discuss the health issue of obesity, a social health problem that is, unfortunately, growing at a rapid rate. More people are becoming obese at present due to much easier access to unhealthy foods and less effort to maintain a regular exercise routine for fitness. For example, in America, the convenience brought about by “fast food”, instant meals, TV dinners, and other quick fixes have become a normal alternative to food cooked “from scratch” with natural ingredients and a meticulous cooking process. Processed food and drinks have found their way to supermarket shelves, ready to be purchased and consumed, and provide the satisfaction of hunger or thirst faster than traditionally prepared dishes and beverages (Ahima, 2011). The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) has come up with reports that the rate of obesity has grown, nearly doubling since the eighties. In 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and above have been diagnosed as overweight. Of this number, over 200 million men and almost 300 million women were considered obese. This means obese people have an excess of fat tissue in their bodies. Mascie-Taylor and Goto (2007) claim that it is the level of fat that signals if the individual is at risk of more serious diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and many more.

Although it is overweight and obese individuals who directly suffer the consequences of unhealthy lifestyles, it is a society that carries the burden (Finkelstein et al., 2003). Obese individuals have come to that state due to their unhealthy habits and they should be responsible for amending their lifestyles to get back to the path of health. The consequential illnesses associated with obesity contribute to increased health care utilization, increased health care expenditures, and loss of productivity (Finkelstein et al., 2003). Regardless of socioeconomic status or educational level achieved, the lack of awareness among those who are just a little overweight leads to a consistent increase in obesity among them causing them to gain weight excessively over time thus leading towards prolonged suffering for themselves as well as their families (WHO, 2006). In addition to this, the fact that the overall costs for health care systems have risen alarmingly high means that there is even more strain on governments to meet these needs (WHO, 2006).

Media has contributed much to the prevalence of obesity as well as instilling bias against obese individuals. It seduces consumers with advertisements of high fat, high caloric processed foods that look irresistibly delicious and then criticizes overweight and obese people with negative feedback (Pearl, Phul & Brownell, 2012). Such negative bias creates discrimination towards overweight and obese people who may suffer from low self-esteem because of it. It is likely that instead of being encouraged to adopt more healthy habits, they may engage in even more self-destructive behaviors, for example, eating more unhealthy food with the belief that it will ease their pain or become more physically inactive, so as to avoid being seen by others. Emotional pain can exacerbate the negative outcomes of obesity.

Hence, society in general needs to do its share in disseminating relevant information to the public about obesity prevention. This can be achieved by teaching people to make lifestyle changes that help them manage their weight well (Johnston & Harkavy, 2009), such as maintaining a healthy balanced diet and a regular exercise regimen. It would be ideal if this is achieved from the grassroots level. School children should be educated on the perils of obesity as early as possible, especially since they are still at an age when they are impressionable and docile. With regard to adults, health promotion efforts to help individuals modify their lifestyle behaviors that contribute to obesity involve much motivation and empowerment to have more control over their health (Mizock, 2012). Information on the adverse consequences of engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as the overconsumption of junk food coupled with idleness may push people to change their behaviors into more healthy ones based on the information provided to them (Yang & Nichols, 2011).

Indeed, health care providers and everyone concerned with people’s health should adopt a more “sociological lens” when addressing the issue of obesity if they are to reach more people to shift to a healthier lifestyle and significantly reduce the risk of developing more serious illnesses caused by obesity.

References

Ahima, R.S. (2011) Digging deeper into obesity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 121(6), 2076-2079.

Finkelstein, E. A., I. Fiebelkorn, & G. Wang (2003) National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: How much, and who’s paying. Health Affairs, 3(1), 219–226.

Johnston, F., & I. Harkavy. (2009) The Obesity Culture: Strategies for Change. Public Health and University-Community Partnerships London: Smith-Gordon.

Mascie-Taylor, C.G.N., & R. Goto (2007). Human variation and body mass index: A review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26, 109–112.

Mizock, L. (2012) The double stigma of obesity and serious mental illnesses: Promoting health and recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35(6), 466-469.

Pearl, R., L., Puhl, R. M. & Brownell, K. D. (2012) Positive Media Portrayals of Obese Persons: Impact on Attitudes and Image Preferences. Health Psychology, 31(6), 821-829.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Body Mass Index (BMI) Classification.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Obesity and Overweight, Web.

Yang, Y.T, & Nichols, L.M. (2011) Obesity and health system reform: private vs. public responsibility. The Journal Of Law, Medicine & Ethics: A Journal Of The American Society Of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 39(3), 380-386.

“The Autobiography Of An Ex-Colored Man”: Book Review

Introduction

The emergence of racial differences presents a scope to investigate the nineteenth-century indications of African American male liberty and citizenship. The torture and abuse of the black parties reveal the widespread hypothesis about similarities and cultural regimes. This research about The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man reviews and investigates the complexities of racial identification. The narrator, born in Georgia, describes his boyhood experience in Connecticut. The author’s mixed-race mother worked under continuous supervision from the writer’s white father, which presents a “secure social environment” (Dale 103). Discovering his black culture simply by chance, the narrator experiences the first of many personalities that finds him choosing to associate in white society. Under the support of a prosperous white man associate, the European drama raises the topic concerning generative uniqueness, yet the fiction never addresses this argument explicitly. In his story, Johnson engages characters, regions, episodes, and themes from his biography: but, the protagonist is not an intelligent example as the narrator expected. He seems to struggle to connect to his identity and decide whether he is black or white. Instead, he uses his ambivalent appearance to adjust to various life situations.

The Split Between Black and White Americans

The mixed-race narrator of James Weldon Johnson’s The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man leads to drive back and forth between the rigidly divided lives of white and black Americans at the shift of the twentieth century. The narrator recognizes that judicial liberation cannot promote the possibilities obtainable to black Americans without a comprehensive and maintainable difference in white discriminatory stances. Even though this sense of prejudice and bias is relatively uncontroversial now, it was a fundamental interference in public discussions about culture when Johnson published his book. At the moment, African-American governments are focused on the puzzle of whether the Blacks should strive to enhance their status within an inequitable civilization and “obtain esteem from whites or oblige civic justice as human beings” (Dale 105). Essentially, the author’s capacity to steer both black and white Americans further reveals how the definite racial classes that proceed to form American history are doubtful cultural conceptions.

Unlike in captivity, where discrimination of black lives is high, and white Americans live in secure areas, the status had changed by the crossing of the twentieth-century era. The planet split into two uneven civilizations, and racism progressed in black residents’ suspension from white establishments that granted financial fitness, cultural influence, and legislative authority. However, in the raconteur’s notably mixed boyhood city in Connecticut, race remains a critical separating structure. He stares down at his black colleagues until the instructor explicitly separates the black and white scholars, and he understands he is influenced by this issue.

The Antagonism and Domination of Communities

When he shifts from Connecticut to Atlanta, the story focuses on how the black community appears to have acquired its personal, solely distinct civilization in the white-governed South. The author is incapable of patronizing white outfits and gets restricted to specific regions. Likewise, in New York City, the fiction’s black characters are mostly limited to a miniature and separated black area in mid-town Manhattan. As an effect of this disconnected system, the storyteller explains that white and black souls are defined to particular, countrified aspects and cannot understand the entire truth. For instance, the narrator explains that he lives because of his chances to turn back or move forward.

The narrator argues that separation comes from racism, suggesting attitudinal transformation is a vital ingredient of racial equity. He comes to this conclusion when he meets a person from Texas and a retired Union soldier. The two argue whether the Anglo-Saxon community deserves to rule over other cultures or whether alternatively separate racial associations in America should own similar possibilities and privileges. The Texan believes in several traditional outcomes for the Anglo-Saxons and announces he would preferably hold no land at all than have blacks commanding over him.

Benefitting from Both Sides

The author associates the relevant therapeutics needed to confirm this approach to the large perversions obliged to declare the Earth is the heart of the solar system. The writer maintains that white individual’s racism is created through or by contradictory customs concerning a given group of African-Americans. He also believes that the White domination is internalized between black Americans, particularly elites; for instance, the raconteur’s social snobbishness and ultimate choice to give up his skin color are sufficient evidence.

The narrator’s desire to benefit from both black and white reservations because he is racially ambivalent threatens the racial ideas in the White association. Perhaps, it comes from the assumption that culture can be rigorously confirmed and has remarkable natural reality. In other words, his life as a fellow who can qualify as both white and black demonstrates how ideas of culture and racialism grow ethically envisioned. The raconteur’s racial adaptability generates a handful of ironic flashes. As an example, when he separates himself from dark gentlemen or passes for white in provincial Georgia cities until attending the dark missionary’s residence.

In Jacksonville, the narrator enters the cigar industry and studies Spanish so swiftly that he gets the position of presenting journals and books to the whole industry workforce. The explanation holds up the fictiveness of culture explicitly, claiming that the novel reveals the appearance of crossing to provide a bird’s-eye sense of the American race feud. Whether the author looks white or black, it relies on other characters’ expectations of him as well as the cultural setting. For example, when he performs music at the club, no one doubts his black excellence. However, when the narrator smokes a cigarette in a vehicle full of white people on his way to Atlanta, nobody disputes his whiteness.

Conclusion

Many doctrines and researches on racial sincerity and supremacy have comforted oppressive American traditions like servitude and imprisonment. However, James Weldon was justifying their arbitrariness and mechanisms in American experiences at a pivotal time. Weldon approached in a dialogue regarding racial balance and the means for obtaining it. The research shows that the main character is clearly confused about his identity and does not fully understand which community he has to support and classily himself with yet. Dale is confident in his conclusion that, although the protagonist’s intentions are pure most of the time, there are situations when he abuses his mixed nature, consciously or unconsciously. The man has yet to determine and develop his beliefs, attitudes, and parts of himself that are associated with either white or black culture. After all, race has no relation to being a decent human being, and at the end of the day, everyone should feel confident in their identity and be honest with themselves.

Work Cited

Dale, Isaih. “Psychological Distortions of Black Masculinity: an Exploration of Black Masculinities in Imperium in Imperio, the Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man, and Native Son”. 2020, University of Wyoming, Department of English.

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