Chapter 12 Of Introduction To Women’s And Gender Studies By Gills & Jacobs Homework Essay Sample

Part II of Chapter 12

Intersectional feminism seems to have appeared as a response to the predominant paradigm of radical feminism that was characterized by the oversimplification of a phenomenon as complex as gender disparities. Radical feminists allegedly strived for the establishment of the global sisterhood, and yet, they never clarified the eligibility criteria for “joining.” Initially, the concept of women uniting and meeting common goals as friends, companions, and ultimately, sisters did not appear so bad. After all, it appealed to the idea that all women had similar challenges that they could bond over. However, as I see it, soon, the proclaimed sisterhood acquired another meaning that was easier to exploit by those who wanted to impose their dominance in feminist politics. Being a sister to any woman meant extrapolating your struggles onto her and the ability to refuse her unique problems if they were not relatable enough to yours.

I suppose that that was where the issue of race stepped in. The leaders of the radical feminist movement were mostly White women. Their Whiteness did not mean that their lives were comfortable. Yet, it must have prevented them from sympathizing with women of color who had a very different social standing back in the 1960-1980s. As Gillis and Jakobs put it, people of color were subject to the following forms of mistreatment:

  • being forced into a country;
  • forced assimilation into the dominant language and culture;
  • denial of citizenship rights, and often
  • being channeled into low-paying, low-status jobs (375).

White feminist leaders never cared to factor those particularities of the racial experience in. It seems like even today, intersectional feminism that sees oppression as a sum and interrelation of various factors has yet to gain higher ground. White female celebrities are gaining more attention in the press, and while they may propagate the right causes, their experience is not inferential.

Part I of Chapter 12

This chapter made me think that feminism is often misunderstood due to the diversity of opinion. Indeed, liberal, radical, intersectional, and socialist feminists, as well as feminists of other minor branches, hold unique views on women’s issues that are often in conflict with each other (Gillis and Jakos 354). Thus, it is safe to say that there are two types of disputes inherent to feminism. The first one is an obvious clash between feminism and antifeminism, which is the most apparent. The second one, however, deals with disagreements and misunderstandings within the political movement itself. The history of feminism dates all the way back to the 19th century, and it seems that with time, it did not attain much clarity on the key issues. Yet, I firmly believe that if feminists cannot put the differences behind them, they should put them to good use.

Feminists do not hold the same views, and none of them can represent the entire cohort. Conflicts are only natural because otherwise, it would mean that women are homogenous and think alike, which is somewhat sexist. The freedom of opinion is a beautiful thing that members of the political movement in question should use to advance the cause. I think that the diversity of thought in feminism presents two significant advantages. First, the ever-changing nature of philosophical concepts accounts for its flexibility and ability to provide a meaningful response to the challenges of each era (example: First, Second, and Third Waves of feminism). Second, political pluralism means that no social, racial, or ethnic group is neglected as they can all weigh in on the conversation and contribute.

Work Cited

Gillis, Melissa, and Andrew Jacobs. Introduction to Women’s and Gender Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Oxford University Press, 2019.

Influence On The Published Scientific Information

Introduction

Science is a field that is highly sensitive to such concepts as credibility and reliability of the obtained results. However, in numerous cases, these notions are neglected, and the published information is inaccurate as a result of many reasons. This paper is dedicated to the research of the causes of the influence of magazines, sponsors, and researchers on the published information, and to learn the possible results of this phenomenon.

Types of Influence

One of the main types of influence on the published materials is the editorial policy of the publishing houses, journals, magazines, and online resources. It pre-determines the kinds of materials that have to be published and causes an impact on public opinion. Scientific publications might present wrong information in several possible ways. These are publication, time-related, language, and geographical biases. The importance of further citation of the published material defines another type of influence – the citation bias. The editorial policy, which means selecting specific materials and declining others, is strongly connected with financial support. All the listed types of influence happen because of the strong motivations of researchers, editions, and investors.

The Motivations for Influence

The reason for a publication bias is a result of the fact that the release of positive research results prevails over the publication of negative or neutral information. Time-related influence happens for the reason that the positive results get issued faster than neutral or negative ones, with a motivation of getting more citations and impact for the magazine (Bergh et al. 432). The same reason pre-determines the phenomenon of appearing of many materials on the same topic in multiple sources in a short period.

The information that the editorial board considers more significant tends to be published globally and in English when numerous studies that get rejected are issued in other languages. Thus, the situation where the magazines hunt for papers that ensure a high citation rate creates a background where many articles are turned down. The policies of sponsorship create an environment where the published information has to support the needs of the sponsor. Researchers and journalists in their turn try to get into a popular research field, which receives funds from the sponsors, and the results in which are more likely to be published. Thus, a considerable amount of information remains with no attention from both researchers and publishers.

Examples

The study of the reproducibility of the data published in scientific works found that 40% to 73% of the articles do not contain sufficient information for checking the results (Bergh et al. 430). It can mean that the researchers falsify the data, making the results of research satisfactory for magazines and sponsors. Another example is an analysis, which revealed that the sugar industry has been funding medical studies proving the impact of cholesterol on coronary heart disease (Kearns et al. 1682). It was shown that not cholesterol, but sugar is the factor that promotes the development of coronary heart disease (Kearns et al. 1683). Thus, the decades that could be spent on finding appropriate treatment were lost due to the behavior of sponsors and editorial policies.

The Possible Consequences

Publication of results under the pressure of the interests of sponsors, magazines, and researchers can cause ineffective or even destructive effects. When such influence happens in the medical field, the treatments developed based on such research can be idle or dangerous. Such mistakes cost millions of human lives. Fighting this influence on obtaining and publishing the information is crucial. The published works need to be examined for reliability, credibility, and possible bias. A global approach aimed at checking the presented information can ensure that the published data are complete and representative, which is essential to keep the logical integrity of the scientific publications.

Conclusion

A big part of the published results of scientific research happens under pressure. This phenomenon may mislead the scientific community, resulting in the development of ineffective or dangerous techniques. Addressing the issues of credibility, reliability, and the presence of influence is crucial for maintaining the integrity of scientific literature.

Works Cited

Bergh, Donald D. et al. “Is there a Credibility Crisis in Strategic Management Research? Evidence on the Reproducibility of Study Findings”. Strategic organization, vol. 15 no 3, 2017 pp. 423-436.

Kearns, Cristin E. et al. “Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research. A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents”. JAMA, vol. 176, no. 11, 2016, pp. 1680-1685.

Frederic Chopin And His “Minute Waltz”

Historical Background

Chopin was born in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1810, and this territory became a part of the Kingdom of Poland five years after his birth (Bellman & Goldberg, 2017). A son of an immigrant and a Polish aristocrat, Chopin attended the University of Warsaw (Bellman & Goldberg, 2017). As a boy, he demonstrated incredible talents in music composition, which allowed him to attend classes at the Warsaw Conservatory where he wrote some of his first works (Bellman & Goldberg, 2017). After becoming famous, he traveled a lot and created more than a hundred compositions for piano and other musical instruments before his death at the age of thirty-nine.

Chopin’s Minute Waltz: Background and Analysis

The composer’s “Valse du Petit Chien” also known as the “Minute Waltz” is a waltz for piano created two years before his death. In 1847, he wrote the work and dedicated it to Delfina Potocka, a countess getting personal lessons from him – Chopin and Potocka had special relationships, and he considered her to be his muse (Palmer, 2018). When creating the work, Chopin was inspired by a little and restless dog Marquis who was running near his work-room – this is why a very lively tempo was utilized (Palmer, 2018). The waltz’s popular nickname is not reflective of its key features since the work typically takes from 1.5 to 2 minutes to play; at the same time, it resembles other Chopin’s works due to frequent changes in loudness making the composition more dynamic (Palmer, 2018).

Historical/Cultural Impact

Frederic Chopin can be justly listed among the most well-known and productive composers whose impact changed the world of music. His historical and cultural influence includes the popularization of mazurkas, Polish folk music, and folk-inspired classical works (Wojtkiewicz, n.d.). Chopin’s musical genius inspired many of his contemporaries and even modern composers to imitate his unique and romantic style (Wojtkiewicz, n.d.). In the 1830s, his works heavily impacted the repertoire used by private teachers giving lessons to the bourgeoisie. They also gave inspiration to many composers in Imperial Russia and Hungary such as Liszt and writers, including George Sand (Wojtkiewicz, n.d.).

References

Bellman, J. D., & Goldberg, H. (Eds.). (2017). Chopin and his world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Palmer, E. (2018). Here’s what you may not have known about Chopin’s ‘Minute’ Waltz

Wojtkiewicz, M. (n.d.). The impact of Chopin’s music on the work of 19th and 20th century composers (J. Ossowski, Trans.). 

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