Chapters 25-26 Of Jordan’s “Fundamentals Of Choral Conducting” Free Sample

Basics for choral conductors working with instrumentalists include such aspects as verbal and gestural communication, using the baton, articulation, and bowing. Verbally, the conductor is recommended to address instrumentalists in the same fashion he or she would attend a choir. The best course of action in terms of tuning the ensemble would be to rely upon pitches familiar to them. To create an understanding of harmony for a group, it is advised to check if the score is transposed or untransposed, which will also ensure the orchestra’s respect. In some cases, it is better to let the performers adjust their technique before any commenting if only there is no solid reason to persist. In terms of gestural communication, it is necessary to avoid beating “rhythms” not to confuse players. As the conductor is considered responsible for every beat, clarity, and familiarity of the gestures will be most influential.

As for the use of the baton, a conductor is allowed not to use it at all. In case the baton is used, it should be gripped and directed correctly to become a natural extension of the arm. Yet, one of the essential skills that profoundly affect the quality of the sound is understanding the sounds of various articulations. Thus, in terms of successful bowing and articulation, it remains vital to arrive at successful tempo decisions working with the principal players. To decide whether bowing will benefit at all, it is recommended to work with the concertmaster to mark them in every string part before the music is distributed. In general, the essential thing that is required from a successful conductor is a defined idea of the music. They should be able to express in basic terms what is necessary to adjust the current sound to match their mental image.

The chapter Facing the Orchestra includes such essential aspects as building a relationship with orchestral players, preparation, the physical layout of the orchestra, the use of the baton, communicating, planning rehearsals, and anticipating the concert. The first thing recommended for a conductor in terms of the orchestra is to prepare psychologically and not to be overcome either with one’s shortcomings or the sense of power a full symphony orchestra can create. It is useful to remember that the quality of the choir singing is dependent on the choir member’s behavior and discipline. This crucial factor was also emphasized by Garnet (2017), who insisted on policing the boundaries while maintaining the choral culture. The next recommendation concerns the proper preparation, which includes knowing the score in detail, confidence about tempi, ensuring that vocal scores match orchestral parts in bar numbering, and marking in bowings for the string players.

A conductor’s attention should also be given to the orchestral layout based on their instincts and concerns. Using the baton as an extension of the conducting arm might be helpful with a large ensemble, although it is required to keep the gestures contained and efficient, making the true leader. Another hint here is to communicate with the orchestra allowing the whole body to demonstrate unity with the players, where the conductor’s priority is to give a good, clear beat. The power of cooperation has been accentuated in Varvarigou’s (2016) article as well.

Another suggestion is to work out a rehearsal schedule in detail to know which instruments are required for each part of the rehearsal. Forethought will allow to avoid embarrassing confrontations and demonstrate a high level of awareness and control. It is not recommended to change the schedule for the convenience of one player. During the rehearsal, the conductor should talk a little and keep their directions brief and clear. While anticipating the concert, the conductor is responsible for the professional reputation of the players by creating the circumstances for the best performance, such as acknowledging all the participants. Appendix 1 (Jordan 2009) is dedicated to the string resource guide and provides general guidelines for approaching choral/orchestral works, and a glossary of terms. It also suggests that those conducting an orchestra should be familiar with the mechanics and techniques of an orchestra.


Garnett, Liz. 2017. Choral Conducting and the Construction of Meaning: Gesture, Voice, Identity. London: Routledge.

Jordan, James. 2009. Evoking Sound: Fundamentals of Choral Conducting, 2nd Edition. Chicago: GIA Publications.

Varvarigou, Maria. 2016. “‘I Owe It to My Group Members… Who Critically Commented on My Conducting’ – Cooperative Learning in Choral Conducting Education.” International Journal of Music Education 34(1): 116-130.

Veteran Treatment And Florida’s State Strategies


The accessibility of health management services has been an issue for numerous vulnerable groups in Miami, FL. Therefore, considering the reform that was expected to handle the described concern and propose a solution to it seems quite legitimate. The needs of veterans living in Miami, FL, have been addressed quite poorly for a while, with the access to mental health services having been severely restricted (Hester, 2017). Therefore, the healthcare act known as Alternative Treatment Options for Veterans (Florida Senate, 2019) has been an important addition to the current set of standards of veteran care since it provided a chance to increase the nurse-patient ratio and introduce a patient-centered formula.


The reform known as the Alternative Treatment Options for Veterans was introduced to the Congress for further consideration in 2019 (Florida Senate, 2019). The specified regulation is believed to lead to the creation of a greater number of options for the aging population living in Florida (Florida Senate, 2019). The regulation provides a greater range of treatment options for veterans and ensures that the offered care is of the highest quality possible (Hester, 2017). The changes in the assessment policies and the structure of the communication process between patients and nurses are expected to cause an increase in the efficacy of the delivered healthcare services. Moreover, the specified regulation will give a chance to spot a health issue before it develops into a major problem that may jeopardize a veteran’s life (Hester, 2017). As a result, a health issue will be addressed in a timely manner and with the help of the due tools, ensuring that a veteran maintains good health. Finally, the described legal change will prompt a better patient education due to enhanced communication between nurses and patients.


Being a part of the federal course aimed at tending to the needs of veterans, the Alternative Treatment Options for Veterans is completely state-funded (Florida Senate, 2019). While the identified source of financial assets can be seen as legitimate, the introduction of additional financing opportunities may be considered a necessity due to the need to create the healthcare services of the finest quality. Therefore, there is the reason to seek investors outside of the state-related sources. However, introducing an intricate funding structure should be considered with caution since it may lead to an increase in the levels of bureaucracy and reduce the extent of accessibility to care for veterans. Nonetheless, the current funding system can be seen as quite effective, even though it is a bit basic. For the Alternative Treatment Options for Veterans Act, government support implies the opportunity to deliver the necessary services effectively.


The reform has made quite an impact on the Florida community. Specifically, the well-being of aging people has been addressed by increasing the ease of access to healthcare services and creating additional opportunities for nurse-patient communication. The proposed solution to the management of aging patients’ needs can be seen as a perfect compromise between the constraints of the current health management system and the health concerns of the target demographic. However, for this purpose, additional options for education should be provided to nurses so that the issue of the nurse-patient ratio should not affect the further implementation of the regulation. Specifically, training courses and other opportunities for increasing the range and level of nursing competencies should be provided (Tucker et al., 2018).


Florida Senate. (2019). Alternative treatment options for veterans. Web.

Hester, R. D. (2017). Lack of access to mental health services contributing to the high suicide rates among veterans. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 11(1). Web.

Tucker, C. M., Smith, T. M., Hogan, M. L., Banzhaf, M., Molina, N., & Rodríguez, B. (2018). Current demographics and roles of Florida community health workers: Implications for future recruitment and training. Journal of Community Health, 43(3), 552-559. Web.

Wasted Efforts In American Healthcare

To provide proper medical and nursing care, it is of great importance to developing a good resource management strategy. For instance, any assets available to care providers should be used in a way that maximizes their effectiveness and prevents extra expenses. Nowadays, waste resources in modern healthcare systems include money and healthcare professionals’ time spent on excessive diagnostic interventions, unnecessary treatment, and ineffective patient education.

The examples of resource waste include overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to professionals’ willingness to err on the side of caution. Overdiagnosis involves spending money on medical tests that are not necessary and often results in the treatment of conditions that do not contribute to patients’ primary medical problems (McCaffery et al., 2016). Apart from the misuse of financial resources and personnel’s time, the tendency is associated with detrimental health outcomes for patients. In some instances, extra interventions may reduce the effectiveness of indispensable treatment, thus affecting patients’ recovery (McCaffery et al., 2016). Overtreatment and overdiagnosis present the misapplication of funds and time, and preventing them is critical to the quality of care.

The problem of healthcare waste also exists when it comes to client education and patients’ adherence to recommendations. For instance, despite constant patient education efforts initiated by endocrinologists and diabetes consultants, diabetes patients’ adherence to treatment and self-management recommendations is far from perfect (Yu, Varughese, Li, & Kushner, 2018). This tendency is partially responsible for increases in avoidable treatment costs and medical complications when it comes to diabetes management (Yu et al., 2018). Therefore, the effectiveness of patient counseling is a significant source of waste in healthcare systems.

To sum it up, the issue of wasted resources may influence the work of almost any healthcare institution and patient outcomes. The misuse of funds and healthcare professionals’ time leads to overtreatment and overdiagnosis, thus increasing spending and risks for patients. At the same time, failure to adequately use these resources also leads to the implementation of patient education strategies that do not work properly.


McCaffery, K. J., Jansen, J., Scherer, L. D., Thornton, H., Hersch, J., Carter, S. M.,… Brodersen, J. (2016). Walking the tightrope: Communicating overdiagnosis in modern healthcare. British Medical Journal, 352, i348. Web.

Yu, S., Varughese, B., Li, Z., & Kushner, P. R. (2018). Healthcare resource waste associated with patient nonadherence and early discontinuation of traditional continuous glucose monitoring in real-world settings: A multicountry analysis. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 20(6), 420-427. Web.