The defined characteristics of a short story can determine whether it will be successful or unsuccessful in a brief amount of time.
Short stories typically possess several characteristics that enhance their impact and attractiveness. These include a compressed plot, abundant details, and emphasis on a solitary character (Kanne, 6). These elements collaborate to engage the reader swiftly through concise sentences or paragraphs. The ensuing sections will explore the significance of a compacted plot and copious details in forging an engaging short story. A condensed plot serves as the defining factor for a triumphant tale.
A short story is a condensed form of storytelling, often presenting elements of a plot in a limited space. Alice Munro’s Royal Beatings serves as an example, as it introduces key plot components, such as foreshadowing a royal beating, within a brief 10-page narrative.
Flo made a promise. She said, “You are going to get one royal beating” (1220). Throughout the story, we see a glimpse of the relationship between the stepmother and daughter and the environment that influences it. Eventually, we reach the climax of the story which is the beating: “He violently shakes her and forcefully hits her against the wall. He also kicks her leg.
She is incoherent, insane, and shrieking. Please forgive me! Oh, please forgive me!” (1232). We are then informed of a coming resolution: “Perhaps tomorrow morning, possibly even tonight. Although it may seem unseemly and unlikely.
Despite their embarrassing behavior, the characters seem to feel a mixture of reluctance and satisfaction. Alice Munro’s skilled use of descriptive language not only creates a vivid world for readers to imagine, but also allows for a broad understanding of the story while providing specific details for a sharper focus.
The text presents a glimpse into the poverty of the town, with a single streetlight and deteriorating amenities. The description of a lung blood clot evokes the sensation of a boiled egg with the shell intact, illustrating the pain it causes. The final paragraph captures the emotions in the room as Rose reminisces about the past. These characteristics contribute to the challenging but crucial elements that contribute to the success of a short story.
A compressed plot requires the story to unfold within a limited scale, while intensive details are used to depict the environment and meaning of the story. When these two elements converge, as seen in Alice Munro’s Royal Beating, reading through it becomes a delightful experience.
In A Remote Korean Village Poem Analysis
In a Remote Korean Village by Chang Soo Ko – Commentary by Danni Wang There comes a time in everyone’s life when they must learn to fend for themselves. In a Remote Korean Village by Chang Soo Ko reflects the ability of an individual to continue to grow despite the absence of a guiding figure in his or her life. Through an extended metaphor, and the use of peaceful imagery, suitable for a time of self-discovery, the speaker shows how the progression of a tree through the seasons reflects the progression of the speaker through a critical point in his life.
A tree cannot grow new leaves unless the dead leaves are gone first, and in the first stanza as the “gentle gardener” shakes the tree “with a strange passion,” the gardener’s act seems threatening and violent, but in reality, he does this out of strong affection for it. From there on, the tree is left empty, and Chang links this independent growth of a tree to a time in his own life when he felt alone, described in the second stanza as “the lost river of my existence. ” He feels “lost” because he has been abandoned, but one has to hit rock bottom before being able to grow from the experience and move on.
In the end, the tree “glowed again with golden leaves,” showing the success of the tree to thrive again on its own, just as the gardener intended from the start. Like the tree, the speaker realizes that he is able to move on as well. Chang’s use of an extended metaphor is carried throughout the entire length of the poem, using the outward changes occurring to the tree to symbolize what he is feeling inwardly, as he goes through this difficult period in his life. At first, with the gardener present, the gingko tree is described to be “like a peacock spreading its feathers,” personifying the tree as being proud in its glorious display.
The speaker himself was likely content with himself and his achievements at one point, while still under the guidance of a “gardener,” symbolizing someone who once supported him. The gardener is then introduced to be “in the center of the tree,” indicating the gardener’s importance in the tree’s life, and therefore the importance of the whoever the guiding figure may have been in the speaker’s life. However, this image of the “gentle gardener” is then juxtaposed next to the simile appearing “like a black magician” in order to hint at the gardener’s hidden intentions efore he departs, leaving the tree on its own, and the leaves begin to “fall endlessly” from the tree. The descent of these leaves indicate the descent of the speaker’s mood, and perhaps everything that was once dear to him, just as leaves are depicted as the life and beauty of a tree. After this guiding figure has left, the speaker feels like a “lost river”, and questions the reason for his existence, an almost suicidal and depressing feeling Chang has incorporated that many readers can relate to a point in their own lives.
The “stiff boughs of the tree” that overshadow the speaker’s life “like a spiderweb” leave a haunting and ominous feeling in the air, but this overshadowing of the tree as it “spread[s]” over the speaker’s life, links the two of them together. Finally, “the landscape change[s],” symbolizing a time of change and rejuvenation, and the tree is personified as it “beg[ins] to dance” an indicator of freedom and joy, despite the presence of its “dark” memories from the grim season before.
This image of the tree going through a literal winter reflects on the speaker going through a metaphorical “winter” of his life, and emerging from it with renewed hope and energy, as he “glow[s]” and “dance[s]”. The imagery in this poem is very soft and pastoral, due to the location it is set in. The title, In a Remote Korean Village, sets an image of peace and serenity. The use of the word “Remote” gives it a natural, pure connotation that allows an atmosphere for free thought and expression.
The word “Village” comes with an image of non-clutter and quietness that a more urban setting would not have had. The poem describes this “remote” location, focussing on parts of nature such as the tree, its branches, and the coming and passing of the seasons, which further sets this image of perfect harmony. The use of seasons instantly draws images; autumn is a time of loss, winter being a time of rest and renewal, and the end of winter signalling new life and a fresh start. These physical images instantly connect to the speaker’s emotional experiences, due to the feelings that come with each season.
The simplicity and purity of the poem as a whole makes it the perfect scene for one to seek within oneself, independent from external influence, and learn to grow as an individual. A slow and peaceful tone is perpetuated throughout the entire poem by the repeated use of alliteration and assonance. The “en” sound such as in “gentle gardener”, the “o” sound in “showed” and “golden”, the “an” sound in “standing” and “strange”, as well as numerous others found consistently throughout the entire text, that all delay the speed of the poem.
This delayed speed contributes to the often slow process one goes through as they discover and find peace within themselves. The consistent use of alliteration, such as in “gentle gardener” and “winter winds” creates a smooth and euphonious effect that moves the poem along at a steady pace. This pace is used to place emphasis on the fact that the growth of an individual must occur at a natural speed, just like the unrushed growth of a tree. In the second stanza, the author states “whether I listened to music or walked the streets / the leaves fell endlessly”.
This describes the carrying out of daily actions such as “walk[ing]”, which typically helps clear the mind and allows one to think better, indicates that the speaker is in a state of thought and reflection. However, him being unmoved by music, as well as his “endlessly” declining mood, contributes to the tone of despair and loss carried throughout the second stanza. However, in the third stanza there is increased movement, “A few leaves rustled in the wind,” and “the boughs shivered feebly”.
Both “rustl[ing]” and “shiver[ing]” are small, subtle movements, but nonetheless this movement indicates the beginning of recovery, and adds a tone of renewed hope for both the tree and the speaker. In the end, Chang came through this critical point in his life, and showed that although it may be difficult, it is both possible and necessary for one to learn and make mistakes at a natural pace on their own in order to grow. Eventually, everyone will discover that they will be just fine, even when there is no one else to be seen.
The Demand For Money Is Purely A Transactionary Demand
This essay aims to investigate the claim that “The demand for money is exclusively based on transactions.” It will begin by studying the concept of money.
According to the text, people have three main reasons for possessing money as an asset: the transactions motive, the precautionary motive, and the asset or speculative motive. These motives are commonly known as theories of money demand. Money is defined as something widely accepted for payment and serves four important roles: being a medium of exchange, acting as a unit of account, functioning as a store of value, and operating as a standard of deferred payment.
Money is a representation of currency and deposits in circulation at a specific time. People retain money for future expenses. Wealth can be held in various forms, including physical money, bills, bonds, stocks, and property.
The demand for money is the desire to keep one’s wealth in the form of money, rather than spending it on goods and services or purchasing financial assets like bonds or shares. This desire arises from three motives: the transactions motive, the precautionary motive, and speculative motive. The transactions demand for money occurs when individuals need to hold money for daily transactions such as buying petrol, paying for groceries, or purchasing a newspaper. Every person will hold a specific amount of money.
The average amount of money held for transactions is affected by three factors: money income, price level, and frequency of pay days. When money income is higher, people tend to spend more on goods and services, which in turn increases the need for transaction balances. Similarly, an increase in the price level encourages a greater demand for money used in transactions. Additionally, if pay days are less frequent within a specific time period, there will be a greater demand for money used in transactions.
The demand for money can vary depending on interest rates. When interest rates increase, the transaction demand for money decreases, while it expands when interest rates decrease. It is more convenient to retain some money rather than invest in assets that generate interest because buying and selling these assets involve costs and efforts when purchasing is necessary. Moreover, the need to be prepared for unexpected situations also influences the demand for money. The precautionary demand for money enables individuals to have funds accessible to handle unforeseen events like car breakdowns, prolonged illnesses, or sudden job losses.
As income per time period increases, the potential cost of unexpected events such as job loss also increases, leading to a greater need for holding money as a precautionary measure. The precautionary demand for money will decrease as the interest rate goes up.
Transactions (T) and precautionary (P) demands for money vary inversely with the interest rate. As the interest rate declines, T + P rises, and vice versa. When there is a change in income level at a given interest rate (e.g. 1), the T + P curve shifts to the right, leading to an increase in the quantity of money demanded from M1 to M2.
The speculative demand for money differs from the transaction and precautionary motives. The former is based on the anticipation of gaining or avoiding losses, while the latter two are related to using money as a medium of exchange. To meet speculative demand, individuals can hold either money or fixed income bonds. As bond prices increase, investors find them more appealing than holding onto cash.
Investors hold contrasting opinions regarding the interest rate, with some expecting it to rise and others predicting a decrease. When individuals perceive the interest rate as excessively high, they generally anticipate a future decline. Consequently, when the interest rate declines, bond prices increase and create opportunities for profitable investments. Conversely, when the interest rate is high, there is substantial demand for bonds but limited demand for holding money for speculative purposes.
If the interest rate is perceived as insufficiently low, it is generally expected to rise in the future. As a consequence, bond prices will decline and lead to losses for bond holders. In anticipation of this price decrease, bond owners will have a strong desire for money as they attempt to sell their bonds prior to the reduction in price. The decrease in interest rate from r1 to r2 stimulates this surge in speculative demand.
When the interest rate is very low (r3), there is a strong reaction in the demand for money due to speculation. It is widely believed that this interest rate will increase in the future. Consequently, individuals are reluctant to invest in bonds and opt to keep cash instead. Conversely, when the interest rate is perceived as high (r4), everyone expects a decline in the interest rate, which may lead to potential capital gains.
When speculation decreases, individuals tend to prefer bonds over money as the demand for money is influenced by factors such as prices, real income, and interest rates. The diagram below illustrates the advantages of holding money through transactions, precautionary, and speculative motives. Money enables people to buy goods.
The x-axis represents real money holdings, which is calculated by dividing nominal money in current pounds by the average price of goods and services. The MC line represents the marginal cost of holding money, which is the interest that could be earned by investing in bonds instead. The position of the MC line may shift upwards if interest rates increase. The MB schedule, on the other hand, is drawn based on a specific real income and shows the additional benefits gained from holding an additional pound of money.
As money holdings increase, the marginal benefit decreases. The desired point is E, where the marginal cost equals the marginal benefit. Increasing interest rates cause the opportunity cost schedule to shift from MC to MC’, reducing desired money holdings from L to L’. A rise in real income leads to an increase in the marginal benefit of adding to real balances.
The MB schedule moves from MB to MB’ when facing the schedule MC. When there is a shift from MB to MB’, the real money holdings increase to L”. If all prices of goods and services double while interest rates and real income stay the same, both MC and MB remain unchanged. The desired point E and the desired level of real money L still remain.
Due to the doubling of prices, individuals are now holding twice as much nominal money in order to maintain their real money balances at L. If bond interest rates increase, the cost of holding money also increases. This increase is represented in the diagram by the upward shift from MC to MC’. As a result, the desired point shifts to E’ and the desired real money holding decreases from L to L’.
The demand for real money decreases when interest rates increase. Additionally, as real income rises, the marginal benefit of each pound of real money increases. This is due to an increase in transactions and the need for precautionary balances. Therefore, a fixed quantity of real money does not provide the same level of ease as it did at lower levels of transactions and real income.
The increase in real income results in a greater benefit of having a little more money, as demonstrated by the upward shift of the MB schedule to MB’.