Characters In “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” By Joyce Carol Oates Free Writing Sample

“Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been” is a famous short story by Joyce Carol Oates wrote in the 1960s. The story centers around Connie, an attractive girl aged fifteen that has a relentless focus on her appearance and gets in trouble after meeting a predatory man named Arnold. Considering different interpretations of the story and the girl’s encounter with Arnold, Connie can be regarded as a self-absorbed but deeply insecure girl that seeks external approval and displays suggestibility.

Connie possesses a range of negative character traits, such as vanity and superficiality. Despite liking her face, she constantly compares it to the faces of those surrounding her just to make sure that she looks good (Oates 1). This vanity and her “nervous giggling habit of craning her neck to glance into mirrors” make Connie’s mother annoyed and worried about her daughter’s future (Oates 1). The mother keeps scolding and criticizing Connie to bring her down to earth, but it does not seem to have any effects on the girl. Connie remains firm in her belief that she is pretty and does not need anything else in life (Oates 1). Therefore, in the story, Connie is presented as a person that is too focused on the first impression that she makes on people and does not care about other, more meaningful values.

The girl faces issues at home, which probably explains her willingness to engage in risky behaviors and use her attractiveness to gain acceptance from others. Apart from quarrels with her mother, Connie is in strong opposition to the lifestyle of June, her sister. June possesses all qualities to be called a good daughter, and Connie is tired of being compared to her “plain, chunky, and steady” sister and losing in this comparison (Oates 1). Despite living a boring life, June always receives positive attention from her mother and aunts, which probably causes Connie to feel useless and decreases her motivation to do anything. Worse still, Connie’s father also fails to fulfill the girl’s need for attention and help her to feel worthy and find any interests and hobbies apart from going out with boys. Connie has a father, but he is not her role model since he does nothing to protect Connie from her mother’s unending reproaches and “does not bother talking much” to his family (Oates 1). Thus, Connie’s relationships with her family are far from love and acceptance.

Connie is deeply insecure behind the façade of her narcissistic habits and self-absorption and desperately searches for good ways to attract others’ attention and feel worthy. She keeps checking whether her face looks good enough, which is a sign of her constant need for validation, at least in the form of compliments for appearance. Like a chameleon, she changes her appearance and the way to walks when being in places where she can get male attention. Based on her communication with Eddie, it is quite normal for Connie to go on dates with boys that she does not know well enough. Being the center of attention gives her “the pure pleasure of being alive” and helps her to use the only thing that she likes about herself to get validation (Oates 1). On her evenings out with her best friend, Connie’s laugher instantly becomes “high-pitched and nervous” (Oates 1). It probably gives away her obsession with how she is seen by others and a fervent desire to hit the taste of the boys that surround her.

Unfortunately, Connie’s insecurity, desire to receive admiration, and certain naivety make her a perfect target for Arnold Friend’s manipulations. When Connie is alone at home, Arnold shows up near her house with a friend, and she realizes that she has seen him before. Despite noticing strange inconsistencies between the man’s claimed age and his actual behaviors, Connie fails to end the conversation before it is too late and gradually becomes ready to follow his instructions. A skilled manipulator, Arnold sees Connie’s pressure points and easily distracts her from worrying thoughts by saying that she is “such a pretty girl” and puts on some music that she likes (Oates 4). Eventually, Connie finds herself in a difficult situation since she receives threats from Arnold and does not know what to do next. Being young and naïve, she is unable to withstand his pressure and finally calls the police.

If understood as an allegory for Connie’s encounter with something bad and forbidden, the scene with Arnold probably hints at Connie’s responsiveness to suggestion and the absence of a moral roadmap. To some degree, Arnold Friend can be the representation of a devil that seduces people into doing something harmful and wrong. Although she feels the danger, the illusion that she is “better than them” (her family) and the inability to make herself sober finally cause Connie to fall victim to something bad (Oates 9). Despite her superficial confidence, Connie does not have the strength to prevent herself from being mesmerized by something bad under disguise.

To sum up, despite being self-absorbed, the main character has no true feeling of self-worth and does not always make choices that are the best for her. Without love and support from her family, the girl uses her attractiveness to improve her feelings about herself and feel needed. Connie’s encounter with Arnold, especially if it is not interpreted directly, indicates her suggestibility and the absence of the force of character.

Work Cited

Oates, Joyce Carol. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 1966, Web.

European Community Laws: Law Of The Constitution

European Community Law

European Community laws (ECL) are regulations and directives which are above the national laws. Their main objective is to continually bring together its members’ economic and political systems in order to form a single market. The market is characterized by the free movement of people, goods, and services. They achieve these rules, by determining how these communities work. These rules are formed as a result of recommendations and opinions of community members. The adoption of ECL by a given community is authorized by the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

European Community (EC) is a union of three communities; the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Committee. It was formed in 1993 with signing of treaty with the European Union. It was composed of three pillars.

The institutions involved in ECL are the European Commission, The Council of the European Union, The European Parliament and the Court of Justice of the European Communities and the Court of First Instance. In addition, the consultative committees include the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Region. Their role is to give advisory roles. Examples of EU are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy Denmark United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal, Finland and Sweden.


Constitutionalism is a term used to refer to a situation where the government is legally constrained in its powers. The concept is usually associated with John Locke a political theorist. It is also equated to the idea of rule of law. American constitutionalism can be referred to as ideas and attitudes that form patterns or behaviors of government as created by people. It is also controlled by laws. An organization can be said to be constitutional if it can be limited in terms of power and with an aim of protecting the interests of people (Don, 1989).

Thomas Pain refers to a constitution as a nongovernment act. It involves people constituting a government. In other words, people make the government which in turn creates the constitutions. Pain in this case was referring to the written constitution of America or France. Constitution, therefore, refers to a situation in which people can speak with freedom, the existence of laws and institutions made by the people for the good of all. The government in this case is operated on basis of such a constitution.

In modern America, the constitution in political discourse means a code of super laws. These laws are used to bind government officials not to do whatever they want with the powers they have.

A written constitution is advantageous to oral because it is used over a period of time. In addition, it is not prone alteration or misstatement. Oral constitution is subject to fraud and errors as a result of retelling.

Constitutionalism can either be descriptive or prescriptive. Descriptive usage is in relation to historical implementation of the constitution. Prescriptive usage is when the important features of government are incorporated in the constitution. United states is an example a country that uses constitutionalism. In this case the state constitution and federal constitution operate as different structures. This is as a result of popular sovereignty. United Kingdom has a no codified constitution. Since the 17th century, the UK had power divided among the king and the parliament.

Rule of Law

Rule of law does not have a particular definition. Its meaning varies according to nations and legal systems. However, the term is used to refer to a type of legal political regime. Its main function is to control the government. It does so by putting in place policies that determines how a country is governed. In other words, it ensures that the rights of citizens are not violated by the country’s authority. Rule of law is objective and is fairly applicable to all people. It has therefore become popular in the modern society.

Rule of law is characterized by certain elements. Among these elements are laws that are used to govern the country. They laws are above everything else in the country and should be observed by all citizens of that country. These laws ought to be published and should be prospective in nature. Since they apply to all citizens they should be clear to avoid ambiguity. In addition, they should not be changed so often but should be revised especially when key institutions change (Francis, 1993).

Rule of law is however criticized for bringing about a class of elites in the society. This class is said to manipulate the laws in favor of them. The law does not constraint the government from abusing the power. This is because law is not the source of legal issues in a society but the power structures. Moreover, the law enhances the legal and the power structures already put in place by the elites. Since the rules are not determined easily, people can never be fully protected. This therefore leads to a conclusion that the rule of law cannot be said to achieve justice.

Human Rights

All human beings are entitled to human rights. This is despite different nationality, gender, religion or ethnic origin. No one should be discriminated against human rights. Human rights are interrelated and operate as a whole. In addition, they are universal. Everyone is entitled to them because they are basic and are provided by the law. They are either provided as treaties or customary law. Every government is required the international human rights to promote and protect human rights for the good of their citizens (Feldman, 1993).

International human rights law emphasizes the universality of human rights. It has been the emphasis since 1948 universal declaration on human rights. Moreover, the Vienna world conference of 1993 on the same emphasized that every country should see to it that human rights are provided regardless of different systems in terms of political and economic as well as the cultural systems. For this reason, all nations have signed at least one treaty in relation to the human rights. Legal institutions also get involved in promoting the same. Some human rights according to their importance are made fundamental to every state by the international human rights law and in this case are promoted and protected by the international law. Human rights are therefore rights and obligations. Apart from promoting and protecting, the state is expected to respect human rights. Though the human rights are entitled to all, they may be denied to persons found guilty by judiciary in a given country (Fenwick and Gavin, 2003).

The African Union is the body responsible of human rights in Africa. It was started in 2001. It aims at promoting human rights democracy in Africa. Other bodies include African Charter on Human and People’s Rights and African Commission on Human and People’s Rights. They are responsible for promoting human rights in Africa. In both north and South America, human rights are promoted through international organization of American States. It was established towards the end of Cold War in order to achieve its goals. It works together with other organizations such as Inter-America Commission on Human Rights, Inter-American Courts of Human Rights. However United States of America is one of the countries accused to violet these rights.

Should We Codify Conventions of The British Constitution

Constitutional conventions as defined by A.V. Dicey are habits and practices that control the supreme authority in a society (Dicey, 1898). They are not laws but are recognized by the judiciary system. In other words, they can be termed as constitutional morality. Sir Ivor Jennings adds that constitutional conventions enhance the way legal systems works (Jennings, 1959). A clear definition is given by Fenwick, H. He states it as non legal but accepted rules that control government. British constitution composed of legal and non legal rules. The legal rules as stated in case law governs the whole society. The non legal on the other hand are acceptable within the society but are not the laws of the society.

Constitutional conventions in British constitutions have over the years enhanced the governing. Their existence is highly influenced by political situation. Since these conventions are acceptable there are many customs and practices that are acceptable. Moreover, one cannot be penalized for not abiding in them.

In British constitutions, conventions vary; some are ranked high than others. They arose as a result a certain need and their existence depended on the political influence.

British constitutional conventions are characterized by the collective ministerial responsibility. In this case the ministers in government take responsibility for the actions of the government and its decisions even if they are not for them. The government officials are expected to have one voice and to portray the unity of purpose. In addition, all ministers are bound to the duty of confidentiality. Everything discussed in the house should not be discussed outside.

The issue of conventional rules being codified is debatable. There have been the cases in which constitutional conventions have acted like the laws. In Canada for example the House of Lords that were between 1908 and 1910 gave constitutional conventions legal status. This is clear evidence that constitutional conventions are binding. The question that arises therefore is why they should not be codified.

In conclusion, it is possible to codify the constitutional conventions and listing them on statutory. This will be an added advantage because they are flexible. On the other hand, if they are codified the will pause imbalance between authority of the government and the judiciary. This would translate to separation of powers. In addition, if they are legalized they will no longer be flexible. For this reason, they will not change the situation in any way.

The UK constitution gives quite exceptional powers to the executive, particularly the Prime Minister

The UK constitution outlines that the executive power is vested in the queen. In addition, the queen has the power to appoint the Prime Minister. In this case the Prime Minister is the queen’s choice. The legal requirements are not limiting. For example the prime minister should not be necessarily a member of parliament. Since the executive powers in UK are exercised by the sovereign Queen through her government. The government then reaches the citizens via Scottish, Welsh and Northern Ireland government (Gordon, 1999).

The executive power is fully exercised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. In this government the prime minister is made a leader of a major party. He also preside the cabinet and thus involved in policy making. He appoints ministers in the cabinet. The powers of the prime minister are determined by the cabinet and influential ministers in the government.

Exceptional powers to the executive, particularly the Prime Minister in UK should not be overemphasized. Since he/she has power of patronage and to control key government activities, abuse of power can arise in case they are overemphasized.

In conclusion, it is important for the UK to limit the exceptional powers especially those of the prime minister. They can be limited through the cabinet and the media. This will ensure that there is no abuse of power by the executive.


Dicey, A.V. (1898) Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. 10thed. London, Macmillan.

Don, E. (1989) Constitutions and Constitutionalism in the Slaveholding South. University of Georgia Press.

Feldman, D. (1993) Civil liberties and human rights in England and Wales. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Fenwick, H and Gavin, P. (2003) Text, Cases & Materials on Public Law & Human Rights. 2nd ed. Oxon, Cavendish Publishing Ltd.

Francis, J. (1993) Is the Rule of Law Possible in a Postmodern World? 68 Wash.

Gordon, S. (1999) Controlling the State: Constitutionalism from Ancient Athens to Today. Harvard University Press.

Jennings, I. (1959) Cabinet Government. 3rd ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Fire Dynamics Simulator


Fires can result from negligence, an accident and malicious act causing disastrous fire outbreaks, supported by the presence of air combustion, nitrogen and hydroxyl air. Meanwhile, we employ proper techniques to fight this fire. Individual people and firms have decided to look at the efficient ways and the fastest possible way to fight any outbreak of fire before it causes a bigger disaster. Meanwhile, there are several models employed by existing firms that fight against fire, which has made critical research provide the best solutions.

People employ these techniques for their safety. Hence, the introduction of a fire dynamic simulator has been of more value to people and firms when they fight against fire outbreaks. Many countries, protect their historical buildings from fire outbreaks by employing thorough research using fire dynamics simulators since building acts as a tourism attraction providing an income and revenue to the government.

Fire dynamics

Fire dynamics are the study of how the interaction of various chemical components within engineering disciplines governed by the knowledge acquired from fire investigators’ techniques. This exercise involves the elimination of heat transfer from fire combustion, which results in disastrous fire outbreaks. Fire outbreaks protection is because of the presence of oxygen. A fire extinguisher has an exceptional gas that eliminates and puts off fire. Fire dynamics have been a substantial discipline to fire engineers who train to fight against fire outbreaks.

Fluid flow is a unit taught in the discipline of science, which has background information on how fire spreads. The outbreak of fire may be because of negligence, an accident and malicious act. Fire results from different occasions like electrical defaults and direct ignition. Fire is a reaction between carbon and oxygen. When carbon combines with oxygen, it forms a final product of carbon IV oxide (Drysdale, 1999).

Fire Dynamics Simulator

Fire dynamics simulator is software driven by fire fluid flow and characterized by computational fluid dynamics. It works efficiently by solving Navier-Stokes equations appropriately, determining the speed of the fluid, its thermal behaviors and transportation of smoke and heat from fire outbreak. The Fire dynamics simulator software has algorithms characteristics recognized by computers hardware hence working efficiently to deliver the correct and accurate results from the fire outbreak. Fire Dynamics simulator is software developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology collaboration with Technical Research Center of Finland, with the aim how someone can handle system and detect its cause.

Fire Dynamics Simulator has been a successful program to computer era since the year 2000. It reads input parameters from the text file and gives out a solution, for the problems keyed in the system within the shortest time possible. Fire dynamic simulator software animates on the screen when running and processing computational equations to give the results. Smoke-view software allows animation to appear on the screen. Hence, the fire dynamics simulator reads out the input files and gives out the results according to its tabulation. We have other companion software’s that works with Fire Dynamics Simulator software for it to animate data files on the screen of a computer.

Fire Modeling

Fire modeling is a tool used by engineers during their research, fire investigators and learning institutions to study the behaviors of fire outbreaks. The core discipline of these models is the computational fluid dynamic. Computational fluid dynamic model can be determined the behaviors of fire outbreak cells as well as dividing these cells into small divisions. The division determines and solves combustion equations, the rate of heat transfer and the mass of transported cells within the model. Meanwhile, smoke-view NIST determines the output of the results by visualizing the results in a three-dimension format (Kessell, 1979).

Numerical Simulation of Fire Dynamics

This technique has grown spontaneously due to the introduction of computers. Meanwhile, fire simulation protects historical building when employed. Experts use simulation to analyze building parts used by the insurance company and exercise evacuation simulations. These concepts administer the movement and the spread of smoke and fire. However, simulation has helped in the improvement and development of safety by installing and adhering to rules set to fight against the fire. A certificate given by the government ensures that, each building constructed gets safety precautions that comply with protection regulations.

Meanwhile, the insurances companies and court authorities use fire simulation as evidence when there is a claim of compensation from fire outbreaks from individuals as well as various firms. Many firms and individual people insure their properties against fire outbreak. They claim compensation when fire destructs their properties hence insurance company has to investigate the cause before compensation. Simulation detector determines moisture concentration and estimate damage capacity to give out the correct measure employed to protect fire outbreak. However, sprinkler and water mist systems method estimates the damage capacity from the fire outbreak.

Water mist, nitrogen and hydroxyl air systems are the elements of combustion that leads to fire outbreak. Simulation detector measures suppression efficiency in smoke extraction ventilation and gives out the distinctive results (Kleiser, 1999).

However, Numerical Simulation of Fire Dynamics critically analyzes zonal models, which has empirical equations applied to determine large volumes of smoke both upper and lower air smoke division. According to the analysis, the computation fluid Dynamics with the help of computer capabilities has not exceeded one million as compares to 20 volumes tabulated earlier. Moreover, fire dynamic simulator is useful especially when we have an outbreak of fire.

California State uses air tankers when fighting against fire. The S2 tankers drop retardant foam: hence, water does not mix with retardant foam. This is the most efficient ways to the system and it consumes less time when fighting fire. However, hydrants water may be applicable in those areas far from offshore and lakes. This method employed by California City borrows the knowledge of the fire dynamic simulator to fight against fire outbreak in their cities.


Overall, Fire dynamic simulator monitor and determines the right quantity of components to use when fighting fire. The computational simulation software determines and tabulates the results by the help of a computer and able to provide the right solution within the shortest time possible. Fire Dynamics Simulator has been a successful program to computer era since the year 2000.

Fire dynamics have been a substantial discipline to fire engineers who train to fight against fire outbreaks. It reads input parameters from the text file and gives out a solution for the problems, keying information in the system. Engineers, fire investigators and learning institutions, employ several models to study the behaviors of fire outbreaks and determine the way forward to fight fire. Fire is disastrous to people lives and properties; hence, it is essential to find the right, possible and efficient way to fight against the fire on time.


Drysdale, D. (1999). An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition. United States: Wiley publisher.

Kessell, R. (1979). Gradient Modeling: Resource and Fire Management (Springer Series on Environmental Management). New York: Springer Publisher.

Kleiser, L. (1999). Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation III (ERCOFTAC SERIES). New York: Springer Publisher.

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