Charles Russell And Jehovahs Witness Homework Essay Sample

On February 16, 1852, a child was born that would grow up to lead millions of people astray from families, friends, Christianity, and, most importantly, a personal relationship with Jesus Christ. The teachings this child taught later as an adult lead people down a road that will only end in one destination—Hell. On this seemingly normal day in 1852, just outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a son was born to Joseph L. Russell and his wife, Anna Eliza. They named him Charles Taze Russell. This child would grow up to form “The Watchtower Society” and later the religious group Jehovah’s Witnesses. Because Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Jehovah Witnesses religious group, grew up to be a lying, immoral man and had religious beliefs that went totally against New Testament Christianity, it is imperative that it is exposed both who he really was and the false doctrines around which his religious group was built. Before one can study Russell’s beliefs and proof of his immorality, one must learn the history of his life and Jehovah’s Witnesses.

As mentioned before, Russell was born on February 16, 1852, to Joseph and Eliza Russell. He spent most of his early years in Pittsburgh and Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Not much is know about Russell until 1870, when, at the age of 18, he organized a Bible class in Pittsburgh. In 1875, the group elected him “Pastor.” From 1876 to 1878, he was assistant editor of a small Rochester, New York, magazine until he resigned when a controversy arose over his counterarguments against Christ’s “atonement.”

In 1879, Russell married Maria Frances Ackley. Also in 1879, Russell founded “The Herald of the Morning,” which eventually developed into today’s “The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah’s Kingdom.” From 6,000 initial copies, the publication has grown to 17.8 million copies per month in 106 languages (Martin 79).

In 1884, Russell incorporated “Zion’s Watchtower Tract Society” in Pittsburgh. In 1886, it published the first of seven books (Russell wrote six by himself.), now entitled Studies in the Scriptures and originally entitled The Millennial Dawn (Martin 17). From these beginnings, Russell gained many followers and continued teaching and preaching until his death on October 31, 1916, aboard a trans-continental train in Texas.

After Russell’s death, leadership duties were taken over by Judge Joseph Franklin Rutherford. Under Rutherford, the official name “Jehovah’s Witnesses” was taken at Columbus, Ohio, in 1931, to differentiate between the true followers of Russell and other splinter groups (Martin and Russell 11).

Following Rutherford’s death in 1942, Nathan Knorr, Frederick Franz, and Milton Hanschel have assumed the leadership role, respectively. Through these leaders, Jehovah’s Witnesses has grown to a total membership of 5,413,769, as of the end of 1996 (Martin 93). Now that the history of Charles Taze Russell and Jehovah’s Witnesses has been covered, it is now time to move on to a comparison of basic Jehovah’s Witnesses’ beliefs to accepted Christian biblical doctrine.

There are many tenets to the Jehovah’s Witness faith that are totally against accepted Christian biblical doctrine. The Jehovah’s Witness religious group has made an attempt to separate themselves from the name Charles Russell in the years following his death. Even though the following doctrines mentioned are listed as Jehovah’s Witness beliefs, a careful comparison between them and the writings of Charles Russell would show a clear connection. The following are just a few of the Jehovah’s Witnesses’ false doctrines followed up with biblical refutation. The doctrines mentioned are taken directly from their official pamphlets and books. First, here are some of their beliefs on Jehovah God.

Jehovah Witnesses believe there is only one true God and that he has many titles but has only one name. That name is “Jehovah.” Jehovah’s Witnesses arrogantly claim that by using Jehovah, they have “restored” the divine name of God. This is totally untrue. In the ancient Hebrew texts, where Witnesses claim they have found this as God’s name, only the Hebrew consonants “YHWH” or “JHVH” appear. In the Hebrew language, any vowels could be inserted between the consonants, giving any combination from JoHeVaH to JiHiViH, without doing any damage to the grammar of the language. To insist their past leaders had a revelation on this topic is a pathetic and ridiculous claim when Moses himself did not call God “Jehovah!” The next step in studying Jehovah Witness’ unbiblical doctrine is to study their beliefs about Jesus Christ.

“The true Scriptures speak of God’s Son, the Word, as ‘a god.” He is a ‘mighty god,’ but not the Almighty God, who is Jehovah” (Martin 102). These lines are taken directly from works published by “The Watchtower Society” and sum up the Witnesses’ basic beliefs about Jesus Christ. Witness doctrine teaches that Jesus was the first creation of Jehovah and is therefore the firstborn, only-begotten Son of God, but is not equal with God. John 1:1 which states “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” (NIV 1590). This verse completely disproves the idea Jesus is not equal with God. Nowhere in scriptures does it say Christ was A god but that he WAS God.

Further proof of this is seen in Jesus’ claims to be “I am” in John 8:58. John 8:57-59 states

“’You are not yet fifty years old,’ the Jews said to him, ‘and you have seen Abraham!’ ‘I tell you the truth, ’Jesus answered, ‘before Abraham was born, I am!’ At this, they picked up stones to stone him, but Jesus hid himself, slipping away from the temple grounds” (NIV 1610).

In Hebrew law, in only five cases was stoning legal. One of these was blasphemy. Jesus called himself “I am.” These are the words God used when Moses asked who he was. Exodus 3:14 states “God said to Moses, ‘I AM WHO I AM’” (NIV 90). Jesus called himself Jehovah by calling himself “I am.” Two other refutes to the idea of Jesus not being equal with Jehovah are seen in John 20:28 and John 5:18. John 20:28 says “Thomas answered and said unto him, ‘My Lord and my God!’” (NIV 1634). John 5:18 says “but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God,” (NIV 1601). Witnesses believe in the Bible and accept what it says. These are two verses that substantiate the idea that Jesus is equal with Jehovah. If Jesus were not equal with Jehovah, God would not have divinely instructed John to include these verses in his Gospel. The next logical step in studying Witness doctrine is to study the Holy Spirit.

“The holy spirit is the invisible active force of Almighty God that moves his sevants to do his will” (Martin 102). This is the basic belief of Jehovah’s Witnesses concerning the Holy Spirit. Witness doctrine teaches that the Holy Spirit is under the control of Jehovah and is not equal to God. They even go as far as to say “it can be likened to electricity, a force that can be adapted to perform a great variety of operation” (Martin 102). One argument against this doctrine is in Acts 5:3-4. Peter accuses Annanias of lying to the Holy Spirit. Peter then follows that up by saying Annanias lied to God. In Acts 13:2-4 and 21:10-11, the Holy Spirit speaks and sends. Only a personality can do these things, not “an invisible active force.” In John 14:16-17, 26 and 16:7-14, Jesus himself speaks of the Spirit at a “he,” as if it is a real person. Jesus would not have spoken of the Spirit as a person unless it had a personality. The doctrine that the Holy Spirit is an “active force,” has no personality, and is not equal to God is totally unbiblical. It is easily refuted with just a few verses. The Witnesses’ beliefs mentioned in the past few paragraphs lead to a very important question: Do Jehovah’s Witnesses believe in the Trinity?

“The Trinity doctrine was not conceived by Jesus or the early Christians” (Martin 101). This is a statement, taken directly from a Witness publication, describing Witness doctrine on the Trinity. Witnesses believe the idea of the Trinity came from Satan and, as mentioned before, Jesus and the Holy Spirit are not equal with God. The idea Jesus and the Holy Spirit are not equal with Jehovah have been clearly disproved earlier with Scripture. Further verses proving biblical basis for the Trinity are found in Genesis 11:7 and Isaiah 6:8. Both times God uses the word “us,” speaking in the plural form. God is using “us” to refer to himself, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. In the Great Commission in Matthew chapter 28, Jesus commanded us to go preach in the threefold name of God. The concept of the Trinity is clearly biblical and Jehovah’s Witnesses are undoubtedly wrong on the subject. One other doctrinal issue that needs to be mentioned is their belief that there is no Hell.

Witness Philosophy on the Existence of Hell is as Follows

“The doctrine of a burning hell where the wicked are tortured eternally after death cannot be true, mainly for four reasons:

  • Because it is wholly unscriptural;
  • it is unreasonable;
  • it is contrary to God’s love; and
  • it is repugnant of justice” (Martin 105).

This doctrine is clearly contradicted by the verses Matthew 13:42, 50 and Revelation 14:9-11 and 19:20. All these verses speak of the evil being tormented for eternity in the lake of fire.

The previous doctrines mentioned of Jehovah’s Witnesses are just a few of their unbiblical beliefs. There are many more not mentioned here. Now that some basic Witness doctrine and proof of its biblical inaccuracy has been submitted, it is time to move on to the moral character of Charles Russell, the man upon whose ideas Jehovah’s Witnesses have built their house of unbiblical beliefs.

Charles Russell was a known liar, cheat, and perjurer. Russell was involved in many lawsuits during his life. In at least one, he was caught as a perjurer. Here is the story of that lawsuit.

Reverend J.J. Ross, pastor of the James Street Baptist Church, Hamilton, Ontario, published a pamphlet entitled “Some Facts about the Self-Styled ‘Pastor’ Charles T. Russell,” in June of 1912. Russell quickly brought a libel suit against Ross. Under oath, Russell denied all the charges brought against him in the pamphlet. Some of these charges brought against him included that he had lied about having theological training, knowledge of the dead languages (specifically Hebrew and Greek), and valid ordination under a recognized body. Upon cross-examination by Reverend Ross’ lawyer, Russell admitted all the charges were true. The court threw out the suit and Ross’ charges were proven true. Another example of Russell’s lack of integrity was the “Miracle Wheat” scandal.

Around 1910, Watchtower publications ran advertisements for “Miracle Wheat,” asserted to grow five times as much as any other brand of wheat and priced at $1.00 a pound. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle published a cartoon aimed against Russell and his “Miracle Wheat.” “Pastor” Russell brought a libel suit for $100,000 against The Eagle. Government departments investigated the wheat and agents testified under oath that the wheat was low in the government tests. The Eagle won the suit. One other true story proving Charles Russell was a liar is his so-called “World Tour.”

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle exposed Russell again on February 19, 1912, and January 11, 1913. Russell went on a “World Tour,” mainly to the Orient. He took out space in American newspapers and advertised the tour. He also published sermons he delivered while on the tour, only he never delivered the sermons! The Eagle ran these two articles, stating Russell never gave any sermon he claimed to give. This was substantiated by reliable eyewitnesses. The whole tour was just an advertising hoax! This story just further proves Russell was a lying, immoral man.

“The house Charles Russell built and which he laboriously erected between 1874 and 1914 was completed according to contract in 1914. There was only one thing wrong with it. It had been built upon the shifting sands of human interpretations. The movement it housed was born in rebellion and nurtured in witchcraft and was full of unclean things and heresies” (Schell 65).

This is a quote from W.J. Schell, a former Jehovah’s Witness. This helps sum up how the religious group Jehovah’s Witness was birthed. The group was founded by Charles Taze Russell. Their doctrines come directly from the teachings of Russell. These doctrines go totally against New Testament Christianity. With a few scriptures, their beliefs are quickly proven false. It has been proven Charles Russell was a lying and immoral man.

Jehovah’s Witnesses have volunteered to carry out what to them is a divinely inspired mission to deliver a special message to all the inhabited earth. To that end they are organized and trained, but the true end product of this cult is a denial of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.

Works Cited

  1. The Bible. NIV. 1995.
  2. Martin, Walter. The Kingdom of the Cults. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1997.
  3. The Rise of the Cults. Santa Ana, CA: Vision House Publishers, 1977.
  4. Martin, Walter, and Norman Klann. Jehovah of the Watchtower. New York: Biblical Truth Publishing Society Inc., 1953.
  5. Schell, W.J. Into the Light of Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1959.

The Liturgy Documents Summary And Reflection

The Liturgy Documents Summary and Reflection

While reading the Liturgy Documents I found out many things about the Mass that I did not know, among them: the rules that one has to follow at mass, the right way to say certain prayers or do certain actions during the liturgy, and the ministries involved in the celebration of the liturgy of the word and their role. A summary of the Liturgy Documents discloses much interesting information and provokes thoughtful reflection on its contents.

As I reflect about the importance of each and every one of the actions taken during the liturgy of the word and during the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, it is interesting how the church puts the readings in an order of importance; first the Old Testament, then a Psalm, a reading from the New Testament, and finally the Gospel. The importance that the church gives to these readings is made clear by the rule that says that you can not omit the reading or replace it. I really like the fact that the church emphasizes the importance of the Gospel with all the little ritual details. The actions that are performed before, during and after the homily show respect, value, and dignity for the Word of God. It is God himself using the readers as instruments to transmit His holy message.

According to what I understood from the Liturgy Documents I discovered that the purpose of the homily is to prepare the congregation to receive the Almighty Son of

God in a tangible form. It is the presider that breaks open the word of God.

I believe that the reason other people are not allowed to preach during the homilies is because the church wants to make sure that people’s hearts are touched to acknowledge the greatness of what they are about to receive, not a piece of bread and a drink of wine, but the body and blood of He who gave his life to save us, Jesus Christ.

How interesting the Liturgy on the word really is! What precision goes into its very format! Really, everything is spelled out, so that the people of God can have an edifying experience. The Liturgy Documents certainly contain the total experience of joyful praise, adoration, thanksgiving, and petition to the Lord.

It is a shame that not all clergy follow the dictates of these writings. It saddens and upsets me when Priests sometimes are not infused with the Holy Spirit yet; they expect their congregation to be infused. Another thing that bothers me is when Priests makes certain changes in the Liturgy. For example: I knew a priest who wrote all the prayers and then used them during the mass. Once a Priest asked a member of the congregation who was sitting on the corner of the first pew to move to a different pew. The man got up and moved, then the Priest stood on the pew and gave his homily from that spot. The efficacy of the Gospel is taken away from, when Priests vary from the Importance of the liturgy that surrounds the Gospel, the very word of Christ. In essence this work has opened up in my mind some of the things that are not Liturgically sound, but also those things that are.

The Liturgy Documents Vol. I

A Busy Classroom Of Second Graders

I will be teaching this lesson to a group of second graders at my church. Are classroom is on the upstairs level and, I will also be utilizing the outside area that is directly behind of my church. There are about thirty second graders in my classroom. So, it is a really busy class. But, they are a whole lot of fun to work with. And, they seem to respond to me well. We will be talking about II Cor. 4:7-18. I think that this lesson will be very interesting to first and second graders.

Opening focus: As my opening focus I am going to take the children outside to make clay pots. I will teach them to make a simple pinch pot. While the children are pinching their pots I will ask them questions (Where in the Bible do we learn about clay pots? What are some of the things that you can do with a clay pot? Do you all have any clay pots at your house? Do clay pots break easy? and etc.). Then when they are finished I will show them a large clay pot that I have made. Then, I will have all of the children leave their pots at their seats and come sit in the Lesson Body: I want to tell you a story about a man named Saul (Acts:9).

Saul was a very bad man. He threatened to murder Jesus’s disciples in Acts 9:1. One day while Saul was walking to Damascus he fell to the ground. He heard a great voice saying, “Saul, Saul why do you persecute me?”. Who are you, Lord” Saul asked. And, what do you all think that the voice replied? The voice said, “I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. Now, get up and go into the But, when Saul got up he had a big problem. He could not see anything. So, he had to be lead by hand into Damascus. And, for three whole days he could not see a thing.

Can you all imagine what it would be like not to be able to see anything? Do you think it would be scary? Saul was very scared. But, he met up with a man named Ananias. And, Ananias was sent by the Lord to help Paul see again. And, he was also here to fill Saul with the Holy Spirit. And, when Ananias told Saul these things Saul felt something heavy lift from his eyes. And, it was a miracle. Saul could see again. What is a miracle? A miracle is an act that only God can do. When Saul finally made it to Damascus he met with the disciples.

Do you all know what a disciple is? A disciple is someone who spreads the word of God. But, when Saul met up with the disciples. They did not believe that he was a disciple. But, Barnabas told them about Saul’s vision of God. And, the disciples believed him and accepted him as their own. So, Saul changed his name to Paul (Acts 13:9).

Do you all know what the name Paul means? The name Paul means “asked of God”. And, Paul surely was asked of God. After Paul was saved he had a bit of misfortune. He was arrested. And, where do you go when you are arrested? You go to jail. But, while Paul was in jail he still continued to work for the Lord. He learned to rejoice in times of sorrow. Do you think that any of you could rejoice while you were in jail. It would by awful hard. But, Paul had Jesus in his heart. And, he knew that everything happens for a reason. So, he continued to tell about God even when he was in prison.

Do you all know how he did this? He did this by writing letters to different The letter that we are going to look at today, is the letter to the city of Corinth. Now, the city of Corinth was having a few problems in their church. And, Paul was writing them to Do you all remember what the disciples did when they found out that Paul was saved? They did not believe him. The Corinth church also did not believe that Paul was Saved. So, Paul had to convince that he was truly a changed person. One of the things that Paul talked about in his letters were jars of clay (read aloud 2 Cor.4:1-7).

How do you all think that we are jars of clay?(while the children are answering go and get the large pinch pot that you made) Do you remember some of the things that we said we could do with a clay pot? In Paul’s time clay pots were sometimes used to hide treasures in. So, why do you think that Paul thinks that we are clay pots? Well, Paul explains how we are jars of Paul says (holding the pot that you have made) that we as Christians are hard pressed on every side (press in the sides of the pot). Paul said that we are struck down (press down on the pot), but not destroyed. But, he also said that we have treasure in our jar of clay (reach in and pull out gold coins).

What do you think Paul meant by all of this? When he said that we are hard pressed. He meant that we as Christians are sometimes pressured by others to do things that we know that we should not do. Have any of you ever felt pressured to do something wrong by someone else? It is a hard situation to be in, Isn’t it?

But, we as Christians have the love of God in our hearts. And, that is our treasure. We may just look like fragile clay pots on the outside. But, on the inside we have the love of God. And, God’s love for us will earn us treasures beyond our wildest imagination in heaven.