Chatbot Changes Healthcare Sample Essay

In current years, advances in generation have been remodelling industries worldwide. In particular, breakthroughs in Artificial intelligence (AI) have given an upward push to new improvements, including chatbots that are poised to change the healthcare enterprise through fundamental innovation methods (Greene et al., 2019). Chatbots, computer programs designed to simulate verbal exchange with human users, are powered by sophisticated technology, including Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Generative Pre-educated Transformer (GPT). These chatbots can revolutionize healthcare by streamlining tactics, enhancing affected person studies, and lowering prices. Chatbots can exchange the face of healthcare, offering new approaches for patients to get admission to care and manipulate their health (TWS, n.d). Medici is a telemedicine enterprise that uses chatbots to help patients timetable appointments, ask health-related questions, and get hold of automated follow-up messages (Andela-Medici, n.d). The Bright. On the other hand, Md offers a digital care solution known as SmartExam, which uses chatbots to offer patients efficient and handy processes to get the right of entry to healthcare (Bright. Md, 2020). Through this record, it is imperative to explore how chatbots are reshaping the healthcare industry by studying two real-world organizations that use chatbots to improve affected person results – Medici and Bright. Md. The report focuses on how the companies utilize the chatbots’ Distribution Innovation concepts, such as open innovation, platform innovation, web APIs, and user innovation, to create successful chatbot-based healthcare solutions to streamline processes, improve patient experiences, and reduce costs.

Medici Company

Medici is a healthcare communication platform that connects patients with healthcare providers through chatbots. Medici utilizes several distribution innovation concepts, including open innovation and web APIs, to improve patient experience and increase efficiency (Andela-Medici, n.d). Open innovation involves collaborating with external stakeholders to create new products, services, or processes (Harvard Business Review, 2023). Medici uses open innovation by partnering with external healthcare providers to expand its network and services. By leveraging the expertise of these partners, Medici can offer a broader range of healthcare services to patients.

Web APIs are another distribution innovation concept that Medici employs. Web APIs allow Medici to combine its platform with other packages, allowing seamless facts transfer between systems. This integration complements Medici’s ability to provide a complete healthcare option to sufferers by allowing for the alternative of crucial fitness statistics with different healthcare providers. Web APIs also enable the introduction of custom packages which could integrate with Medici, allowing for expanded innovation and flexibility (King, 2023)

Besides, implementing chatbots has significantly affected the healthcare industry, and Medici is a prime example of this. The use of chatbots has progressed and affected people revel in providing on-demand healthcare services (Nadarzynski et al., 2019). Patients can talk with healthcare personnel through Medici’s chatbots, reducing personal visits. This convenience has enhanced satisfaction and loyalty.

Additionally, chatbots have improved efficiency and financial savings for healthcare providers. Medici’s chatbots can take care of routine obligations, along with scheduling appointments and answering inquiries and enhancing healthcare companies’ abilities to handle complex responsibilities (Andela-Medici, n.d). This performance has led to cost savings for healthcare vendors, as they could offer more services with the same sources.

Therefore, Medici’s implementation of distribution innovation concepts, such as open innovation and web APIs, combined with the use of chatbots, has significantly impacted the healthcare industry. The platform has improved patient experience, increased efficiency, and generated cost savings for healthcare providers. The success of Medici demonstrates the potential of distribution innovation in the healthcare industry and highlights the importance of innovation in improving patient outcomes.

Bright.Md Company

Bright. Md is a healthcare telehealth platform that uses chatbots to provide number-one care to patients. The platform is designed to provide clients with low-priced, quick and tremendous healthcare services. Bright.Md leverages platform innovation and user innovation to create a healthcare answer that meets the needs of both patients and healthcare carriers (Bright. Md, 2020).

Platform innovation involves creating a new platform or service that disrupts the existing market. Bright.Md has created a platform enabling patients to receive primary care services without visiting a healthcare facility. This platform innovation has enabled Bright.Md to reach more patients with limited access to healthcare due to their location or financial circumstances (Adam et al., 2020).

User innovation involves creating products or services that meet the needs of users. Bright.Md has employed user innovation by creating a chatbot to diagnose and treat common medical conditions (Bright.Md, 2020). The chatbot uses natural language processing and machine learning algorithms to understand patient symptoms and provide a diagnosis and treatment plan by leveraging user innovation, Bright.Md has created a solution that is both easy to use and effective in providing primary care services (V-SOFT CONSULTING, n.d).

The use of chatbots in Bright.Md has had a vast impact on the healthcare enterprise. The platform has improved accessibility to healthcare by allowing users to acquire number-one care needs from the comfort of their homes. This accessibility is crucial for patients with limited access to healthcare centres because of their location or financial situation. Moreover, using chatbots has more robust accuracy in analysis and remedy plans. The chatbot can acquire and examine patient information, such as symptoms, scientific records, and behaviours, to provide an accurate analysis and treatment plan (King, 2023). This accuracy is essential in improving affected person consequences and decreasing healthcare charges.

Therefore, Bright.Md’s implementation of distribution innovation concepts, such as platform innovation and user innovation, combined with the use of chatbots, has significantly impacted the healthcare industry (V-SOFT CONSULTING, n.d). The platform has improved accessibility to healthcare and enhanced accuracy in diagnosis and treatment plans. The success of Bright.Md demonstrates the potential of distribution innovation in the healthcare industry and highlights the importance of innovation in improving patient outcomes.

Comparison between Medici and Bright.Md

Medici and Bright.Md is two healthcare communication platforms that utilize distribution innovation concepts to improve patient outcomes. Both platforms employ similar distribution innovation concepts, including open innovation, web APIs, and platform innovation (King, 2023). Open innovation is utilized by both platforms to collaborate with external stakeholders, expanding their networks and services. Web APIs integrate the platforms with other applications and services, allowing seamless data transfer between systems (Greene et al., 2019). Platform innovation is also used to provide a comprehensive healthcare solution to patients.

Despite the similarities in distribution innovation implementation, the evidence of effect differs between the two platforms. Medici’s chatbot technology has been proven to enhance patient satisfaction and generate cost savings for healthcare vendors. The platform’s on-demand nature eliminates the need for in-character visits or phone calls, mainly to accelerate affected person loyalty (Adam et al., 2020). The chatbot generation additionally handles routine responsibilities, enabling healthcare providers to focus on greater complicated responsibilities, primarily on performance and cost financial savings for healthcare providers.

In contrast, Bright.Md’s platform has improved accessibility and accuracy in diagnosis and treatment plans. The platform utilizes AI to collect patient facts and offer a diagnosis and treatment plan within a short duration. This innovation increases accessibility to healthcare services and accurate diagnoses, leading to higher patient outcomes (Nast, 2023). The differing evidence of impact highlights the importance of understanding healthcare organizations’ unique needs and challenges. While both platforms employ distribution innovation concepts, the specific implementation of these concepts can have varying impacts on patient outcomes. Medici’s focus on chatbot technology has improved patient experience and cost savings, while Bright.Md’s focus on artificial intelligence has generated improvements in accessibility and accuracy (Bright.Md, 2020; Andela-Medici, n.d).

In summary, Medici and Bright.Md utilizes similar distribution innovation concepts, but the evidence of impact differs between the two platforms. Medici’s chatbot technology has improved patient experience and cost savings, while Bright.Md’s artificial intelligence technology has improved accessibility and accuracy in diagnosis and treatment plans. The comparison highlights the importance of understanding healthcare organisations’ unique needs and challenges when implementing distribution innovation concepts.


The use of chatbots in the healthcare industry has the potential to revolutionize the way healthcare is delivered, improve patient experiences, and reduce costs through chatbots’ distribution innovation concepts. Based on the companies’ implementation of Distribution Innovation concepts such as open innovation, platform innovation, web APIs, and user innovation to create successful chatbot-based healthcare solutions, there have been more accessible, efficient, and personalized care and enhanced accuracy in diagnosis and treatment plans, leading to better patient outcomes. Therefore, as AI technology continues to evolve and improve, chatbots will become even more sophisticated and better able to handle complex medical conditions.


Bright.Md (2020). Our Team is your Team. https://Bright.Md/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/partnering_with_brightmd_06032020.pdf

Andela-Medici Case Study. Medici Telehealth Company Taps Global Talent to Improve Products

Nast, C. (2023). Can A.I. Treat Mental Illness? [online] The New Yorker. Available at:

T.W.S. (n.d.). AI in the Workplace Is Already Here. The First Battleground? Call Centers. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from [3] : Greene, A., Greene, C.C. and Greene, C. (2019). Artificial intelligence, chatbots, and the future of medicine. The Lancet Oncology, 20(4), pp.481–482.

Harvard Business Review. (2023). 3 Ways Small Businesses Can Use AI to Drive Growth. [online] Available at: drive-growth.

King, M. R. (2023). The future of AI in medicine: A perspective from a Chatbot. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 51(2), 291–295.

Nadarzynski, T., Miles, O., Cowie, A., & Ridge, D. (2019). Acceptability of artificial intelligence (AI)-led chatbot services in healthcare: A mixed-methods study. Digital health, 5, 2055207619871808.).

Adam, M., Wessel, M. and Benlian, A. (2020). AI-based chatbots in customer service and their effects on user compliance. Electronic Markets, [online] 31(2). Available at:

V-SOFT CONSULTING. (n.d.). How Chatbots Are Disrupting Most Industries. Retrieved

March 20, 2023, from industries.

Food And Beverage Top Three Performing Free Writing Sample


The purpose of this paper is to bring a distinction between the three food and beverage companies in the world. In the last few years, consumers have raised concerns about the healthiness of their consumed foods and beverages. In the past, people concerned themselves with eating foods that tasted good and filled their stomachs. However, currently, there is a great shift that consumers are more concerned about eating healthy food whose produced in ethical, sustainable, and friendly ways for the environment. In a survey conducted in 2018 on 1600 consumers by a management consultant company L.E.K., findings showed that consumers are more supportive of health and wellness. This comes from the increased awareness of global warming, heart issues, obesity, and physical fitness.


Coca-Cola Company

Coca-Cola originated from humble beginnings Created in 1886 by a pharmacist Dr. John Pemberton in the late 1800s in Atlanta, Georgia. The recipe was then sold to Asa Candle, who officially developed the brand in 1892, and by 1895, its sale had been spared through the state union. In 1919, Ernest Woodruff bought the company and developed it into a major international brand as it took its first listing on the New York Stock Exchange the same year. Its rapid expansion and distribution worldwide are attributed to the franchise distribution system that has been in operation since 1889. Its growth stemmed from them tailoring the final product to the taste and demands of the consumers. Over its production period, it changed its original recipe. However, it was not well received by the consumers causing coca cola to face a public backlash that resulted in the company returning the original product to the market. The company is dedicated to the growth of the business through a thorough, designed, and exciting plan. While they strive, t achieve an expansion of commercial beverages in less developed countries. Notably, Coca-Cola arose from the acquisition and strategic merger of companies worldwide. Their market monopoly was buying other companies and making exclusively produced products from Coca-Cola. The major consumer issue is the health concern from the intake of Coca-Cola. This s a sugary drink reproach by the C.D.C. America shows that at least half of Americans take a sugary beverage daily. Through this consumption, conditions such as type two diabetes and obesity are rising. World Health Organization recommends six tables spoons a day for an individual sugar intake. However, a can of 12oz of Coca-Cola contains almost twice the same amount. Their contribution to a health hazard has made them receive negative attention; thus, it resulted in the company producing a sugar-free Coke with low calories and releasing coconut water.

Kraft Heinz Company

The company has been rated among the largest food companies in the world. Its production is far more than Mac and cheese or ketchup. Kraft Heinz hosts brands such as Philadelphia, Planters, and Oscar Meyer. The birth of Kraft Heinz was through a merger of two companies. The founder of Heinz was Henry Hein Zin in 1876. He was the brain behind Tomato Ketchup. While in 1909, James L. Kraft founded the door-to-door cheese-selling business. Over the 20th century, the companies grew. The expansion of Heinz’s products was through the acquisition of Statist and Oreida, which expanded the product Heinz offered immensely.

Similarly, Kraft had their acquisition with Group Danine and Cadbury. Berkshire Hathaway claimed many stakes in 2013 that were major in Heinz, and through this, Berkshire started to merge Heinz and Kraft companies. Thus 2015, the merging was completed, and t created the largest fifth food company in America. The market consists of brands like Velveeta, Classico, Oscar Meyer, Smart Ones, Lunchables, Kool-Aid, Maxwell House, Quero, Grey Poupon, and more (Kraft Heinz, 2023). Over the years, the products have grown and spread vastly all over the world. Kraft Heinz products identify the nutritional targets. The products are low in sugar, sodium, calories, and saturated fats. Their products align with global nutritional standards recommended by the World Health Organization, Engineering and Medicine, the National Academies of Sciences, and the European Food Safety Authority. In 2021, they managed to reduce 10 million pounds o sugar across the portfolio, which was directed towards their overall goal of 60 million pounds of sugar across the world portfolio by 2025. Plans in place to ensure the success of these include

“Improve product health & nutrition by achieving 85% compliance with Kraft Heinz Global Nutrition Targets by 2025. ON TRACK: 67.7%”

“Reduce total sugar in our products by more than 60 million pounds across our global portfolio by 2025. ON TRACK: 16%”

“Reduce sodium by an additional 5% in our B.B.Q. Sauce and Kraft Salad Dressings in North America by 2025. EARLY STAGE”

“Improve use and transparency of simpler ingredients by 2025. ON TRACK”

“Increase our plant-based offerings. ON TRACK”

Nestlé company

Nestle was formed in the year 1866 after the foundation of the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company. In 1867, Henri Nestle developed a breakthrough in foods for infants. Furthermore, by 1905, the company had developed mergers with an Anglo-Swiss company, thus the birth of Nestle group. Nestle is currently the leading food and beverage company. Over the years, nestle has developed several acquisitions and launched over 2ooo brands, some of the most common being Nescafe, Nespresso, KitKat, Maggi, Tollhouse, Milo, coffee-mate, Nesquik, and Aero. The company has a big range of products: baby food, coffees, bottled water, medical food, milkshakes, cereal for breakfast, healthcare and performance nutrition, soups and sauces, seasonings, refrigerated and frozen foods, and, last, pet food. All around the world, Nestle has developed 447 factories in 194 countries with a labor force of 339,000. Some of the basic principles the company operates under are that Nestle products production should be under innovation and transformation in addition to balancing food production line activities. It has been rated as the best in food production at any time of the day or any age in one’s life. Thus, working under the mission “to bring the best product to people, no matter where they are, what they need for their life, and their slogan is Good Food, Good Life.”

Preferred Choice

Amongst the three companies, I would settle for Nestle. This is not because it is the leading company in the world but rather in research conducted on profiling of nutrients, the findings revealed that Nestles products rated at the lower end of the health rating scale garnered 54% of the net sales in Nestle (Pro Newsletter, 2023). Thus, more than half of its product is considered healthy. The action from the company is an act of transparency that shows that they can work on their weakness of product formation in the market. By sale, the Nestle products had a 17% under the Health Star Rating System (H.S.R.) above 1.5; 18% was below 3.5. at the same time, another 30% had H.S.R. higher than 3.5. notably, that was a good indication that the nutritional value is of good levels. Nestle noted that the 35% remaining comprised products that had not or are not generally subjected to the healthy rating. One encouragement with Nestle is that they focus so much on consumer feedback and improving their products’ nutritional value (Nestle, 2023). They have embraced whole grains, fibers, and protein while lowering fats, sugars, and sodium while maintaining the original taste. In addition, nestles was rated first among the food and beverage companies that address malnutrition. This was based on their products through the disclosure process that ensured the healthiness of their products, thus influencing the consumer in a positive light.

Moreover, Netsle’s products are vast. They give the consumer a variety of preferences to choose from at any given time. Due to that, they are easily available I n the local shelves. Compared to the other two companies, Coca-Cola has limited factors that prevent a particular group of people from enjoying sugar-free drinks. This is most especially due to the preservative in the drink and high calories. At the same time, Kraft Heinz produces more canned food, which requires preservatives to keep it fresh in the supermarket store. Most preservatives are considered chemical, and long-term use is unhealthy for an individual.


Coca-cola, Kraft Heinz, and Nestles are the leading companies in the food and beverage sector. Both have advantages and disadvantages, and people have their preferences regarding specific company products. However, the main major issue is the health and wellness of consumers of these products. Because many companies focus on making profits, consumer protection must be addressed or kept aside. This, as a result, exposes consumers of unhealthy products to medical conditions that most end up being chronic or fatal after a duration of time. My focus on the three companies was to show their development, growth, brands, and the healthiness of the products to consumers. This research has been very effective because, as a writer, I am no longer conversant with the different brands in the market, and I would be more keen to check the nutritional component of products before purchase.


Kraft Heinz (2023). The Kraft Heinz Company. Accessed on April 30, 2023.

Alonso, T. (2023). How Coca-Cola became one of the most successful brands in history. Cascade: Strategy factory.

Nestle (2023). Good Food, Good Life: ”Supporting Balanced and Sustainable Diet.” Accessed on April 30, 2023.

Pro Newsletter (2023). “Nestlé Says Less Than Half of Its Main Portfolio Is Ranked as Healthy” Dow Jones & Company, Inc.

Leadership At Emirates Airline Essay Example


The role of leadership and good governance impacts the business models developed and implemented by organizations. Aspects that include competitive advantage, low-turnover rates, higher profit margins, and consistency with the internal corporate cultural base advance the organization toward fulfilled objectives. While nations boost their global image through partnerships and effective strategies with the airline industry, a network of engaged stakeholders begins by evaluating the leadership and management of the airlines and related sectors. In this people, exploration of the background of Emirates Airline is prioritized to propel adequate conceptualization of the leadership challenges it experiences. Moreover, the leadership styles and anticipated behavioral ideals of followers are further evaluated. Because leadership holds the organization together, the elements comprising the dos and don’ts are also given by the primary data collection approach (interviews). Emirates Airlines is a global chain of airlines that serves millions of customers in more than 80 countries globally (Emirates Group, n.d). For a company that has existed for the last 38 years, Emirates Airlines is an ideal organization for empirical analysis of leadership and management approaches and associated impacts in the airline business. The research found that many challenges affecting the leadership of Emirates Airlines are due to differentiated organizational structures and cultures affecting multiple levels of business operations. The leadership styles also adopted in airline operations work for the interest of the airline more than the people, such as the employees. However, agile leadership directions, such as periodic training of employees, change the environmental and social governance issues affecting the airline. In summary, the research found that the leadership of the airline invests in employees for anticipated positive outcomes in performance, profits, and market segmentation.

Background of Emirates Airline

The fall of one organization often informs the entrance of another. Emirates Airlines was born from the cutbacks in the operations of Gulf Air in Dubai in the early 1980s (Emirates Group, n.d). The government of Dubai in 1985 gave the airline a clean bill of health to begin operations in regions around the Gulf and, subsequently, in India (Shastri, 2023). The growth of the airline has steadily risen to have more than 80 destinations and services for millions of regional and international customers (Shastri, 2023; Emirates Group, n.d). When the airline joined the flagship leadership of the Emirates Group, it remained operating singly without the influence of foreign alliances like common practice among the competitive rivals. The Emirates Group is arguably the largest in the Middle East, making Emirates Airlines a global leader in airline agility, pricing, business modeling, and operations. Emirates Group consolidates airport, hospitality, and transport services and regulates Dubai National Air Transport Association. Under the leadership of Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum as the current president and chief executive officer of Emirates Airlines, the company has made strides in expanding from stable internal management to business practices that have created wealth as part of the return on investment. In the last quarter of the 2022 financial year, the company revenue rose 128% to US$15.3 billion (Emirates Groups, n.d). The company made US$1.2 billion in profits from the losses from the previous years, which stood at US$1.6 billion (Emirates Groups, n.d). Contextually, the airline made immense profits from its leadership models and business strategies. Consequently, remarkable financial statements form critical indicators of the future health of the airline.

Emirates Airlines serve diverse markets culminating into six continents. It is responsible for more than forty percent of airlines that leave Dubai weekly. As such, the airline serves slightly more than 3500 weekly flights (Shastri, 2023). It also uses a static pricing approach to appeal to different customers across all its destinations (Shastri, 2023). Static pricing is a model airlines use in the aviation industry to create fares determined by price point destinations. The latter correlates with making prices depend on demand and customer segmentation. Ideally, Emirates Airlines use customer class classifications to determine passengers qualifying for Diamond First Class, Pearl Business Class, and Coral Economy Class (Shastri, 2023; Altexsoft, 2021). These classifications are used to inform the airline about the ability of customers to have market-oriented diversities. They inform part of the business matrix that the leadership of the airline uses to remain viable and sustainable over the years. To understand the operations of the airline that make it exemplary in regional and global aviation services, the re utilizes interviews with employees and secondary research to interpret the leadership framework of the organization, as exploited in the subsequent sections.

Problem Statement

The government of the United Arab Emirates uses a monarchical system. A regional governance system influences leadership structures and approaches utilized in corporations (Almuzaiqer, Fatima & Ahmad, 2022). Emirates Airlines is owned by the government, meaning that the royal family influences the majority of the leaders and the decisions affecting the airline. In this case, it becomes concerning whether business decisions, strategies, and impacts in leadership are at par with aviation market standards. Moreover, because Dubai is an international tourism, hospitality, and sociocultural hub, the intrigues these facets play on the leadership of Emirates Airlines are worth noting if internal business operations are to go by the magnitude of success the airline has had since its inception (Kelly, 2020). Therefore, this paper determines the leadership challenges the airline experiences. It also evaluates the leadership approaches the airline uses to counter the increased demands the sociocultural and political factors put up against it. As a multinational corporation with thousands of employees, determination of the leading factors, as captured empirically from the senior executive, draws the line for success and challenges the organization has faced, faced, and will face.

Analysis of the external and internal factors demonstrates that Emirates Airlines experiences more external problems than internal ones. However, because the consistency of the company is driven by internal leadership frameworks that promote effective internal operations, focusing extensively on internal challenges helps address the problem of this research. According to credible data, Emirates Group uses organizational culture that facilitates employee loyalty, training, and skills enhancement to be ahead of the challenges that could derail it from goal attainment (Emirates Aviation University, n.d; Al Saed, Upadhya & Saleh, 2020). On the one hand, the airline has maintained most elderly employees that started with the company. At the same time, on the other, it has experienced low-turnover rates amidst conflicting operational standards for junior-level ground employees (The Emirates Group, n.d). Moreover, studies illustrate that the company has been instrumental in championing staff engagement through subsidiary services by the parent company Dubai National Air Travel Agency (dnata), contrary to the experiences of ground operations workers (Qasim, 2020). While the parent company deals with maintenance of the aircraft, hospitality segment, and regional relations with other airlines and regulatory agencies, secondary sources reveal that the airline faces standoffs with aviation authorities of other countries due to issues of regulations and disagreements in compliance issues (Turak, 2022; Momoh, 2022). To get to the roots of the internal and external leadership challenges in the airline, interviewing the Chief Commercial Officer of Emirates Airlines, Mr. Kazim Gupta, not his real name, provides elaborating insights. Additionally, the researchers interview 27 others to gain corroborative insights about the leadership of the airline.

Research Objectives

  1. To identify the significant problems faced by the leadership of Emirates Airlines.
  2. To evaluate the leadership style used by the management of Emirates Airlines.

  • To establish the organizational culture that stipulates the behaviors expected from the staff of Emirates Airlines.

  1. To identify the stipulations defining what to do and not do as part of the leadership of Emirates Airlines.

Research Questions

  1. What are the significant leadership challenges faced by Emirates Airlines?
  2. Which leadership style does Emirates Airlines use?

  • What organizational culture stipulates the behaviors expected from the staff of Emirates Airlines?

  1. Which stipulations define what to do and not do as part of the leadership of Emirates Airlines?


This section describes the methods used for a theoretical framework, research design, sample selection approaches, data collection, data analysis, validity, reliability, and limitation. It provides the background on how data collected was arrived at while also emphasizing the validity concerns for the rest of the paper.

Theoretical Framework

Theorization of good leadership accounts for the issues around the context, behaviors, and needs of the industry. Contingency theory is the ideal descriptive benchmark for leaders in the airline industry. The theory posits that situational contexts are approached using multiple leadership approaches, integrating the needs of the people (customers and employees), behaviors, and event patterns that determine different actions and strategies to make all decisions worthy of count (Jibirin Salihu, 2019). The theory wraps the seasonality of leadership situations and argues the qualities of leaders from the outcomes of their decisions. Unlike theories that summarize distinct leadership styles, contingency theory applies all of them in diverse situations (Jibirin Salihu, 2019). According to aviation trends, the current operations of Emirates Airlines experience changes emanating from technology, people’s need for operational strategy dilemmas (Hobby, 2018). All these situations provide impeccable instances for examining the future of the organization, the effectiveness of organizational culture, and the expectations the leaders have on their staff as aligned with the objectives of this paper. Therefore, contingency leadership theory is the framework for data analysis in the paper.

Research Design

The paper adopts a qualitative research design to adopt a rich understanding of the leadership situation at Emirates Airlines. Emirates Airlines is among the greatest and long-term carriers globally. It is also known for its sponsorship programs to international football clubs, actors, and actresses (Emirates Group, n.d). For a company with such reputable precedence, data collected requires reliable methods and approaches for analysis for replicable and generalizable conclusions. Qualitative research design subjectively interrogates phenomena identified for studies (Muzari, Shava & Shonhiwa, 2022). The internal leadership of emirates airlines affects its external business models and strategies. Therefore, the design contributes to the detailed interpretation of findings.

Sample Selection

The researchers selected participants using a purposive sampling technique. It is a type of qualitative sampling that promotes rigor as the identified groups bear the majority of the desired characteristics, as described by Muzari Shava & Shonhiwa (2022) and Campbell et al. (2020). It considers characteristics such as age, gender, years of service, and position held according to this research study. Empirically, purposive sampling, as denoted in this paper, targets information-rich participants about the selected subject, leadership (Campbell et al., 2020). The Chief Commercial Officer of Emirates Airlines has relevant knowledge in leadership because of his long years of service. Additionally, the researchers interviewed nine middle-level and 13 lower-level employees and seven premium customers of the airline. The employees worked in various departments of the airline. The researchers used an online survey to select customers who frequent the airline ticketing system. The information was gained from the departmental regulatory authority, and the data collection period lasted three months.

Data Collection

The researchers used interviews to collect information from participants. Open-ended interview formats allowed the employees to explore answers from all dimensions. The research additionally used surveys to enroll participants from the customer base. The survey was submitted and shared online with the participants. lastly, data was collected through secondary sources such as website publications, journal articles, and case studies to increase the rigor of findings.

Data Analysis

The collected data were analyzed through the narrative technique. It is a qualitative data analysis approach that uses information from interviews, readings, and case studies to form cohesive stories. Depending on the subject in question, the method efficiently serves the researchers and readers with convenience when understanding the intrigues of the research. Contextually, describing the leadership challenges, styles, expectations, and impacts on employees of Emirates Airlines as provided by the participants help researchers to adequately respond to the research objectives and questions while simultaneously confirming the hypotheses of the secondary data.


The validity of the research attests to the alignment of results with objectives and questions. This case verifies whether the research findings adequately represent the same conclusions on untested populations. The validity of this research was guaranteed by the research design adopted, the theoretical framework, and the general methodology. The number of participants and selection approach all contribute to the validity of the findings. Similarly, the reliability of the research was guaranteed by the testing scales used in the interviews. They have item consistency and limited error.


The research uses data from interviews that are not correlated with alternatively practical data collection tools. The research findings rely on secondary data such as case study analysis, journal articles, website publications, and books for interpretation. Furthermore, the number of interviewed participants is slightly lower than the sample it should represent. Therefore, increasing the rigor of the study is a concern. When a study uses data from secondary sources to make conclusions, there is a possibility of inheriting biases and study limitations. It is, therefore, a concern going forward for future studies.


The findings discussed throughout this section have been further analyzed through a narrative approach. Data have been derived from feedback from interviewees and secondary sources in line with research objectives and questions. The instrumentality to support the validity claims of the research is anchored inadequate responses to the research questions and the findings, as illustrated in the following subsections.

Leadership Challenges

The major problem that Emirates Airlines faces is in hiring qualified personnel. Hiring is a process that affects the operations of the organization, especially among the pilots. According to a primary report from the Chief Commercial Officer of Emirates Airlines, the company continuously expands its operations in underserved regions across Africa and South America. Due to limited qualified pilots, they have reduced the number of flights from certain countries. According to the East African Newspaper, this problem was supported by the diplomatic wrangles that started with fewer flights leaving Nigeria to the United Arab Emirates (Momoh, 2022). The newspaper reported that Emirates Airlines has been at the forefront of reducing the number of flights to many destinations across Africa due to diplomatic challenges (Momoh, 2022). The chief commercial officer also reported that due to limited qualified personnel, their business objectives of expanding to the world standard remain a long-term milestone. Comparatively, the challenge of a limited number of employees on the frontline of flights is attributed to global competition and regulatory policies affecting the Emirates Group and international agencies (The Emirates Group, n.d). In other words, the problem of hiring leadership affects the company in additional aspects, including strategic fit and realization of vision and mission, as further discussed.

Most of Emirates’ top leadership hinders a scaled-down approach in decision-making as they have been with the company since its inception. The researchers found that the board of directors of Emirates Group is structured in ways that reduce the interaction with the junior members. It creates an internal problem of strategic fit among lower and middle-level employees, as further exemplified by Qasim (2020). The problem with this stratification is understanding the changes that currently affect the airlines, especially after the COVID-19 lockdown and travel restrictions. For a company founded and run by the original members at the helm of leadership, adopting the changes in pricing, ticketing, and scheduling becomes relatively challenging, as analyzed by Shastri (2023). According to the feedback from interviewed middle-level management, approval of the ideas coming from the bottom takes time, and most ideas go unheard. For example, the airline continues to sponsor globally renowned sports personalities like Cristiano Ronaldo, the late Pele, and iconic actresses like Jenifer Aniston as ideal marketing approaches. In contrast, more can be done (Emirates Group., n.d). In this case, the company continues with the ideas emanating from the top executive held by Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the chief executive officer and president of Emirates Group. The older marketing approach limits utilization of the contemporary social media era hence a misfit in organizational culture and strategy formulation.

A significant problem in the leadership of Emirates Group that transitions to Emirates Airlines is the lack of common organizational culture. Emirates Group operates as an umbrella organization dealing with air services maintenance, leisure and tourism organizers, booking agencies, and airline regulations. Its total number of employees surpasses 50000 people from sociocultural backgrounds (Emirates Group, n.d). For such a big number, the interviewed executive reported that the group delegates every agency with distinct roles and responsibilities. However, Middle- and junior-level employees are divided, with some dissatisfied with the corporate culture. The junior-level employees reported that hierarchical structure makes one less significant in higher decision-making functionalities. For this reason, they are happy to work for a global company that provides job security (Wilkins & Emik, 2021). On the other hand, the research found that having multilayered structures in a company infringes the way employees approach strategy formulation and realization of the objectives and missions of the company. In actuality, the several levels of the structure reduce elements that promote work experience and satisfaction.

Two-thirds of the interviewed Emirates Airlines customers reported that they were satisfied with the services offered by the airline, while one-third reported mixed feelings. Four out of seven customers indicated that the airline has never canceled their tickets, and travel experiences have exceeded expectations. They indicated that the cabin crew illustrated all the expectations before, during, and after the flight, giving them a sense of exemplary service. They also denoted that the airline requested them to receive notifications about price offerings that depended on seasons. Due to this approach of requesting customers to accept notifications, the airline gets information about its service, customer relationship management, and prioritization of loyal customers. The move is an innovative business model that has ensured the airline keeps most customers globally. On the contrary, a third of the customers (interviewed participants) illustrated mixed reactions, pointing out that the airline does not maintain scheduling for specific overbooked routes. CNBC News captured their case in an incident where London Heathrow Airport demanded that the airline cut selling tickets to the destination (Turak, 2022). The incident brought in the role of DNATA, an agency responsible for international ticketing and fulfillment of ground flight obligations of Emirates Airlines. Therefore, the validity of the reports by the customers retains significance for future directions taken by the airline.

Leadership Style

The Emirates Group, the parent company of Emirates Airlines, majorly uses bureaucratic leadership. Like contingency leadership theory, bureaucratic leadership integrates different leadership styles, such as autocratic, democratic, and authentic approaches (Mansaray, 2019). However, bureaucratic leadership is exemplified in a management system where a hierarchy exists (Mansaray, 2019). It is in sync with organizations with subsidiaries and multinational outlets. It is also multilayered, with employees expected to follow predetermined guidelines from the top to the bottom. In this leadership model, superiors may be seen as considerate of the views of employees within specific ranks (Mansaray, 2019). In the senior executive level of Emirates Airlines, from where the office of the chief operations officer is situated, decisions are made based on the interests of the Emirates Group. The interviewees reported that all decisions, short or long-term, made in the company are for the growth of the company. Arguably, 80% of participants reported that they were happy with the leadership structure and style of the airline. Although 80% of the interviewed middle-level employees reported that much work is left on their shoulders, they agreed that when decisions are made from the top, they reduce participation, and how leadership manifests changes their perceptions about the leadership styles used, as explained by Al Saed, Upadhya & Saleh (2020). It is a different case for junior-level employees represented by their departmental heads. Consequently, bureaucratic leadership impacts and applies differently in multinational and multilayered organizations.

Bureaucratic leadership incorporates all other leadership approaches as they are applied by Emirates Airlines. The leadership framework permits the executive management to incorporate democratic leadership when dealing with subsections of employees. The chief operational officer interviewed reported that to reduce turnover rates and maintain impeccable business models, the Emirates Group uses democratic leadership to take the views of employees. This idea is reinforced by the publications that illustrate challenges affecting the aviation sector, including the competitive labor and reduced number of qualified pilots and airport control personnel (Hobby, 2018; Al Saed, Upadhya & Saleh, 2020). Furthermore, using democratic leadership in various parts of the company has enabled the airline to transmit a culture of employee-centric policies making most interviewed middle and lower-level staff satisfied with working for the airline regardless of all aspects standing (Mansaray, 2019). In return, the employees become innovative, aligned with the mission and visions of the company, and ensure profits are made in all business operations. The middle and junior-level employees denoted that they are satisfied with the packages they gained from the company besides the salaries earned. In this case, the bureaucratic leadership style enables Emirates Airlines to use performance appraisal to recognize and motivate employees and make the management proactive to issues affecting the human relations in the entire Emirates Group.

Contingency leadership theory helps organizational leaders to forecast challenges occasioned by risks from all sides while revealing their inherent traits. The theory opines that leaders must be ready for challenges and mostly become proactive in identifying risks that would derail the achievability of objectives (Jibirin Salihu, 2019). When asked what they thought of the president and chief executive officer, middle-level employee participants reported that he is a calm and reserved leader. Others reported that he has a specific bias-free type of personality and that he talks with courtesy. The senior participant at the top management level reported that the chief executive officer named above is a true business icon who understands the needs of Emirates Airlines before they occur, as described by Al Saed, Upadhya & Saleh (2020). Based on these reports and assertions from secondary sources, Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum approaches leadership in a more transformational manner. He mixes experiences with innovative practices to influence the decisions of the multibillion-dollar airline group, as analyzed by Ahmed & Al Amiri (2022). According to Ahmed & Al Amiri (2022), it has been transformational leadership that has helped the United Arab Emirates to rise to the top position as a regional hub for international tourism, economic immigration, and regional growth. Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum is resonated to be the brains behind the economic growth of Dubai. His business leadership insights correlate with the goals and visions the political elites have for Dubai and the United Arab Emirates as a country. In summary, the employees, departmental heads, and subsidiaries of Emirates Group use bureaucratic leadership as an umbrella for all types of situational leadership requirements.

Ideal Followers

Reports from middle and junior-level employee participants denote that Emirates Group expects followers to be performance oriented and driven to achieve organizational objectives. 90% of middle-level employees reported being more fixated on implementing the ideas from the top chain because derailing, setbacks, and shortcomings are not entertained. They expressed that employees must understand what they are expected to do during role delegation and work towards attaining the targets. With the president of the Emirates Group running the entire aviation sector and business operations, everyone is expected to outperform themselves while instrumentalizing their presence through results (Almuzaiqer et al., 2022). The senior management participant indicated that the company periodically offers training programs for the followers to improve their skills and make them market-agile and privy to the changes that affect the needs of the organization. In return, the leadership of Emirates Group expects retention of top talent, reduced conflicts affiliated with compensational claims, and sabotage of agreements.

The cultural workforce of Emirates Airlines is diverse, making it follow expectations to be aligned to innovative practices, overachieved outcomes, and business sustainability. According to 65% of the interviewees, the business depends on their role implementation. This assertion correlated with the scenario at London Heathrow Airport, as the latter denied Emirates Airlines’ continuation of summer bookings. According to CNBC News, the airline reported that their agency DNATA was in a position to fulfill all their mandates besides air control functions reserved for the Heathrow Airport management (Turak, 2022). The scenario indicated the expectations the leadership of the airline has on its employees in the service sector, including hospitality, tourism, accommodation, and international flight bookings. Analytically, the expected kind of following required from employees is characterized by loyalty. The airline invests in the employees for the return of loyalty detailing proactiveness to changes, innovation, satisfaction, and conformation to the business models of the Emirates Group.

A report from 86% of interviewed participants shared the following binary expectations. The middle and junior-level employees described that the organization requires them to be intrinsically motivated, responsible, positive, and excellent in their actions. However, they also expected the management to incorporate their views on work ethics, dispute, and compensational settlements. According to contingency theory, situations that call for organizational leadership are those surrounding change, workforce, customers, and market dynamics. These situations internally, externally, and financially, affect the interactions between the staff and the management teams (Wilkins & Emik, 2021; Ahmed & Al Amiri, 2022). Therefore, creating a culture that allows workers to know what is expected of them and equally integrating the same on the part of the management makes operations transition smoothly beyond the hurdles of change. For emphasis, the chief commercial officer of Emirates Airlines indicated that preparing employees across levels in times of change enables their support to be visible when discussing factors for the change concept in question. To summarize, expectations of followers serve significance in an equal degree as they do the top management.

Dos and Don’ts in Leadership

According to the chief commercial officer, the top leadership must plan ahead for events, decisions, and outcomes. When asked about how his office prepares for risks, setbacks, and failures in plan implementation, he responded that the top leadership of the Emirates Group does not allow room for events to occur, finding them unprepared. As the person in charge of sales and implementation of commercial objectives and strategies, he must be agile and proactive to issues likely to fall in his domain. According to his responses, the management of a team or a department is tasked with hiring and implementation of the management processes. Griffin (2021), in the 13th edition publication, and Ahmed & Al Amiri (2022) associate management processes to include planning and decision-making, organizing, leading, and controlling outcomes of the entire process. Therefore, not only does the chief commercial officer of Emirates Airlines lead his team by the book, but he also incorporates the idealisms of effective management. As a leader, one must be able to forecast and avert challenges before they occur.

Based on the question of leadership don’ts, the top leadership must not work in solitary. Under no circumstances are top leadership allowed to make decisions and implement them without running them through the board. Ideally, the chief commercial officer was asked about instances of fallout in ideas among the top management. His response idolized a mutual internal culture that predicated the agreements understood by all other interviewed participants. He denoted that even the president of the Emirates Group answers to the board while running and leading the multinational aviation business. Therefore, making solitary decisions is limited in the scope of the general leadership of the airline, as similarly discussed by Griffin (2021). Moreover, the middle and junior-level employees approach their work with a common understanding that they must bring the best in performance and results. Once decisions are passed in the higher hierarchical chain, their implementation depends on the level of commitment of the people responsible. Therefore, the leadership of the Emirates Groups in inclusion with Emirates Airlines streamlines from the top executive management to the lowest levels.


The government of the United Arab Emirates is monarchical and hence influences the business operations, leadership styles, and independence of state-owned corporations. According to primary and secondary sources, the Emirates Group is a state-owned airline business whose many leaders are directly appointed by the royal family. Based on these underpinnings, the leadership of Emirates Airlines is likely affected by the monarchical stipulations coming from the state. Aspects including organizational culture, clarity and understanding of the vision and mission of the airline, strategy formulation, and decision-making processes are under scrutiny for effective understanding of the success factors and challenges met by the organization. The problem statement for this research is to investigate the major leadership challenges facing Emirates Airline, their ideal leadership styles, expectations on followers and the leadership aspects to be done and those that require review and reconsideration. As such, the paper uses qualitative interviews in addition to secondary sources to find the stated problem statement.

Since the inception of Emirates Airlines in 1985, it has strived and thrived to become the most reputable Middle Eastern airline and arguably among the best in the world. Under the Emirates Group and the leadership of Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the airline has a network destination of over 150 countries across all six continents. The airline has more than 270 aircraft, with Dubai National Air Transport Association serving as its link to international airports around the world. Due to this, the Dnata agency operates in more than 127 airports globally. This reflects that the presence of the airline is witnessed in more than three-quarters of global countries. Consequently, the airline has maintained exemplary profit patterns for more than thirty years of its existence. Upon interviewing the chief commercial officer, a senior member of the executive committee of the Emirates Group, it became apparent that leadership approaches used are both bureaucratic and transformational. Decisions are made in the interests of the airline while maintaining the customer and employee relationships. The interview was divided into three groups for credibility and authenticity of the collected data. The first interviewee was the chief commercial officer of Emirates Airlines. The second group was the middle and junior-level employees, while select customers also highlighted their experience with the airline. The centrality of the interview focused on leadership challenges, styles, effects, and expectations of followers as captured by the research objectives and questions.

Findings revealed that hiring qualified personnel remains a challenge as it is a big part of the challenges facing the aviation sector. The number of employees required to turn the objectives of Emirates Airlines into reality begins with hiring qualified pilots, training, and retaining them. the chief commercial officer of the company illustrated that the top pilots, cabin crew, and ground support staff are competed for in the aviation sector. Therefore, having a limited number disparages the achievement of long-term milestones. Moreover, the team leading the airline has been in existence with the company since its inception in 1985, and this occasionally affects decision-making, particularly among the middle and junior-level employees. The interviewees denoted that organizational structure follows a hierarchical leadership approach and, in most cases, they are left out of the core decisions of the airline. Although the airline management uses bureaucratic and transformational leadership styles, they lay directions on the expectations that the followers must adhere to. For example, decisions must be made in the concession of the executive members, planning must precede decision-making to avert and manage risks and failures, and lastly, employees across the board must work towards the interests of the company.


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