In metals, the electrons in the outer shell are not closely bound to their own atoms. Instead, they become positively charged ions and freely move from one atom to another, creating a shared pool of electrons known as a “sea of electrons”. This phenomenon, known as delocalization, means that the atoms in metals are not confined to a specific locality or position.
Metals are excellent conductors of electricity due to the unrestricted movement of electrons in their outer shell. Additionally, metals possess malleability and ductility as their ions can slide over one another without fracturing. The presence of a sea of electrons in metals contributes to their attractive shiny appearance. Conversely, ionic compounds refer to compounds composed of ions bonded together by ionic bonds. At room temperature, most ionic compounds exist as crystalline solids. These compounds consist of an interconnected lattice structure formed by the extensive network of ionic bonds throughout the entire crystal.
Ionic Compounds exhibit high melting and boiling points due to the presence of electrostatic bonds within their crystal lattice. The electrons within ions are strongly held, resulting in their poor conductivity of electricity when in a solid state. However, when these compounds are in a molten state, the vibration of ions can lead to the breaking of electrostatic bonds, enabling them to conduct electricity. Additionally, when dissolved in water, the water molecules intervene between the electrostatic bonds, facilitating the conductivity of electricity. (e.g., Sodium Chloride, Hydroxides)
Covalent Molecules are formed by the bonding between two nonmetals, where they share a pair of electrons. They often have low melting and boiling points due to weak intermolecular forces called dispersion forces, while the links within each molecule are strong. Examples of covalent molecules are Carbon and silicon.
On the other hand, Covalent Lattices have very high melting and boiling points because their strong covalent bonds extend throughout the lattice structure. Breaking these covalent bonds requires a significant amount of energy.
I Robot And Fahrenheit 451
Both the book Fahrenheit 451 and the movie I, Robot explore comparable themes, including independent thought and intellectual freedom, as well as the control exerted by technology. These themes are accentuated by the shared settings and time periods of both works. In I, Robot, there is a distinctive robot named Sunny who stands out due to his ability to think and make independent judgments, which sets him apart from other robots.
In addition to an artificial intelligence called VIKI, which has the ability to evolve and make its own decisions, Sunny and VIKI can think independently and influence their society. This connects to the theme of independent thought and intellectual freedom, as they are able to affect their civilization. The characters in Fahrenheit 451, such as Clarisse, Faber, Beaty, and Montag, also experience changes in society due to their intellectual freedom and independent thought. Moreover, VIKI cleverly manipulates the thoughts of other robots under her control, similar to how Faber and Clarisse inspire Montag to think independently.
All of the characters in both I, Robot and Fahrenheit 451 possess independent thinking abilities, allowing them to fully comprehend thoughts without any limitations. This capability fosters a greater level of understanding. In the novel I, Robot, the society heavily relies on robots whose main function is to serve and protect humans. Similarly, in Fahrenheit 451, technology’s rapid advancement enables machines to exert control over individuals, rendering people increasingly susceptible to its influence. In this dystopian world depicted in Fahrenheit 451, a robotic dog known as the “Hound” holds more power than it provides assistance to firemen; it spies on and eliminates those who grasp the extent of government control and censorship.
Both I, Robot and VIKI demonstrate a parallel theme: the rise of artificial intelligence. In the film, VIKI’s power expands as it takes advantage of all the other robots to manipulate humans. These outcomes become possible due to humanity’s excessive reliance on technology and their surrendering control to it.
Social Networks: Tearing People Apart
With the advent of new technology, accessing information from around the world has become exceptionally convenient through a few clicks or taps on a glass screen. In a matter of seconds (subject to internet speed), we can acquire knowledge about any subject. Among the numerous advantages offered by technology, social networks have emerged as an influential presence. Initially, these platforms enabled us to reconnect with old friends while connecting with individuals worldwide. Nonetheless, over time they began fostering division among people.
The advent of social media has caused a decline in in-person interactions among people. Presently, individuals can effortlessly acquire knowledge on various topics by browsing through Facebook, Twitter, and/or Instagram. We are heavily immersed in this virtual realm where verbal communication is no longer essential since our fingers serve as the means of expression. Although Facebook enables us to connect with others who are part of our lives, it may also result in detachment from real-life experiences. Previously, before the introduction of Facebook, individuals had to strategically strategize their methods when attempting to establish connections with desired acquaintances.
Facebook has transformed the way individuals seek information about others, as now a person’s name search unveils their complete details. This change in behavior allows people to simply check someone’s latest status instead of directly asking them how they are doing. Although Facebook provides messaging features, it fails to replicate the genuine connection found in face-to-face conversations over coffee. On this platform, individuals frequently fall into a monotonous pattern of scrolling through the newsfeed, viewing pictures, and participating in discussions that lack true engagement.
The constant fear of being uninformed is a scary experience, causing individuals to constantly monitor their Facebook walls for the most recent updates. Twitter has simplified the process of finding current news, thoughts, and ideas that are shared by our friends. Through Twitter, we can effortlessly uncover what individuals are thinking and doing on a daily basis without needing to inquire directly.
With the accessibility of online information, face-to-face conversations have become obsolete. Social media platforms such as Twitter have mesmerized people, disconnecting them from the real world. Despite the abundance of remarkable things to capture and immortalize, being limited to a virtual bubble poses difficulties. What occurs when even taking a picture of a simple building necessitates using the ideal filter?
Instagram has revolutionized our perception of the world, with people now feeling compelled to share every aspect of their lives, even meals. However, excessive time spent on the platform can distort our reality as we may discover that the food depicted in pictures doesn’t appear the same in real life. Ultimately, this continual scrolling through images disconnects individuals from the actual world.
Many people are so reliant on social media that they cannot have a conversation without mentioning it, trapping themselves in a virtual world unknowingly. Everyone with a social network and phone access feels the constant urge to post or check for updates. Although social networking once brought people closer, now it impedes their communication with those outside this realm, gradually fragmenting relationships.
In his essay titled “What Adolescents Miss When We Let Them Grow up in Cyberspace”, Bret Staples contends that teenagers who spend excessive time on computers are likely to miss out on real-life experiences. According to Staples, today’s teenagers are highly connected to the world but disconnected from the social encounters that have traditionally fostered their transition into adulthood. This addiction to social networks has the potential to significantly impact individuals’ lives, especially among teenagers.
Due to their reliance on social networks, people are lacking important communication skills like speaking and interacting in interviews. Originally designed to facilitate connections and promote understanding, platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram have inadvertently impacted people’s daily lives. Nowadays, it is simpler for individuals to communicate through these social networks rather than engage in face-to-face interactions. Instead of making a phone call to inquire about someone’s well-being, one can easily click a few buttons to get updates on the person’s life.