Cheryl Hayashi’s “The Magnificence Of Spider Silk” Homework Essay Sample

The speaker giving the speech begins by clearly stating the contents of the speech about to be delivered. Clearly defining the contents of speech provide the audience with a perception of the expectations from the speech. The speaker does not state the substance discussed within the context of the speech. He presents a descriptive explanation of what the substance appears to be. The speaker creates suspense by describing the substance without quoting the substance, therefore, increasing the desire for the audience to keep listening.

The speaker describes the innovative ideas regarding the subject under discussion. This leaves the audience guessing the substance identified. Suspense imminently assists the speaker in gaining the attention of the audience. Through the created suspense, the audience remains interested in seeking to know the substance referred to.

As the speaker progresses, he begins describing the significant aspects of the substance to keep the audience attentive. The speaker highlights the impacts of the substance on society while still not mentioning the name of the substance. The speaker continues to describe the impacts of the substance within different aspects of life vividly. He integrates the importance of this substance into different professions. Knowing the audience comprises of different professionals, the speaker tries to imply the substance could essentially benefit every one of them.

This captures the interest of any persons within the audience lacking interest in the topic under discussion. The speaker becomes specific about the topic under discussion. This captures the attention of the individuals making the audience. The audience becomes increasingly interested as each person seeks to find out the suitability of the substance in their profession.

The speaker continues to explain to the audience about the advantages of using the substance and informs the audience that the substance does not react negatively with the human skin. At this point, the speaker provides a visual object and identifies the material making the object as silk. Identifying the substance at this stage leaves the audience perplexed at how the substance under discussion could be silk. The speaker amazes the audience by providing a totally different version of silk from what the audience knows.

This inherently captures the imaginative abilities of the audience. The audience seeks to hear the explanation concerning the formation of silk. The interest of the audience increases upon realizing the capabilities of the substance constantly utilized in manufacturing numerous items used daily. The audience becomes interested in establishing the relationship between the displayed substance and the silk the audience knows.

The speaker continues and provides an explanation of the processes involved in the natural manufacturing of silk by bombyx more worms. The speaker narrates the events, chronologically taking the audience through the manufacturing process. During the process, the speaker essentially identifies the components of the substance. The speaker begins explaining the highlight of his speech after finishing with the formation process. The audience listens carefully and attentively as attention remains focused on the different applications of silk.

The speaker reaches the climax while maintaining the captured attention of the audience. After gaining the interest and attention of the audience, the speaker diverts from the topic to provide a deeper explanation regarding the subject under discussion. The speaker maintains the attention of the audience by reaching the climax of the speech towards the end. This becomes evident through the standing ovation the audience gives the speaker at the end.

Genetic Interference In Caenorhabditis Elegans

What is the authors’ question?

The authors were determined to find out the causative factor for the manifestation of interference.

What is their hypothesis?

The interfering RNA populations are those that have double-stranded character.

What did they do to test their hypothesis?

They produced a batch with purified single-stranded RNA and compared the interference activities of individual stranded RNA to double-stranded RNA. To test interference, the research group introduced the specially prepared RNA into the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to manipulate gene expression.

What were their results?

The researchers expressed their surprise when they discovered that double-stranded RNA was more potent when it comes to creating changes to the cells and the progeny of the infected animals. They examined the impact of the injection of single-stranded RNA into the nematodes and discovered that this action only produced a modest effect. This result was in sharp contrast to the action of double-stranded mixtures because the group observed potent and specific interference. The researchers also found out that the double-stranded RNA’s impact was not only on the cells, it was also on the offspring of the infected animals. The group also pointed out the importance of the discovery that only a few molecules of double-stranded RNA were required to affect interference. It is also imperative to highlight the result of the experiment when the group monitored the eggs that were produced several days after the injection of double-stranded RNA. The group discovered that the animals were able to produce unaffected progeny.

What do their results mean?

Observers can glean at least three major insights from the results of the said experiment. The first major insight is related to the molecular structure of the RNA. It can be argued that due to the difference in the molecular structure, the number of certain molecules may have an indirect effect on the creation of interference. In other words, the difference in the molecular structure of the double-stranded RNA enabled the substance to affect gene silencing in the targeted animal cells.

The second major insight relates to the ability of the dsRNA to cause interference even if the said dsRNA was introduced at a considerable distance from the affected gene. Therefore, an effective RNA-transport mechanism exists within the cell structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans.

The third major insight relates to the long term durability of the injected dsRNA. It was observed that the injected animals were able to produce eggs several days after the introduction of the altered RNA strand. It was also observed that it took several days for some animals to produce normal or unaffected progeny. It means that the majority of the affected animals continue to produce abnormal progeny several days after the injection of dsRNA took place. If RNA coming from an external source can have this effect, then, it can be argued that locally produced RNA has the same long-term impact on the cells. It means that the RNA molecule within each cell has a very potent effect on the cell multiplication process. Thus, it is important to find out the exact mechanism of interference. This experiment simply provides the type of alteration needed to affect change. However, there is not enough information to specifically determine the mechanism that compels the cells to produce abnormal progeny.

Domestic Violence: Analysis And Evaluation Of Articles

Abstract

This paper is an evaluation of peer-reviewed articles that touch on the subject of domestic violence. The first article addresses the current state of domestic violence against women in Nepal. The second article seeks ways of fostering collaboration between child protection services and domestic dispute departments. The third article is a reply to a critique. The paper concludes by addressing ethical issues that touch on the use of secondary data.

Assessing Current Situation of Domestic Violence against Women

This article covers a study that was conducted on the Nepalese society with the view of assessing the prevalence of domestic violence. The authors of this article concentrated on a small portion of Nepal known as Hasandaha. The study found that a substantial number of women from the rural parts of Nepal are being subjected to domestic violence. The causes of domestic violence against women in Nepal (DVAW) include “misunderstanding between father/mother in law and husband, unnecessary doubt on wife, use of alcohol, dowry system…..unwanted sex, lack of awareness, polygamy, and poverty” (Pandey & Shrestha, 2014).

The authors of the article recommend that measures to reduce and end domestic violence should involve the government, non-governmental organizations, the education system, and the community. This article can provide valuable insight into the dynamics of DVAW in a community context. Nevertheless, the authors of this article have used ‘shallow’ and simplistic research methodologies. The study relied on questionnaire methods where potential victims were asked to reveal their situations. The authors should have used a back-up data collection method such as seeking information from institutions where first-hand accounts of domestic violence are reported. Overall, the research study is quite relevant and easy to synthesize.

Domestic Violence and Child Protection

This article addresses the issue of domestic violence as it applies to child safety. The authors conduct a study on the applications of collaboration theory on issues of child protection and domestic violence. According to the article, a collaboration between child protection services and domestic violence sectors is hard to achieve (Potito, Day, Carson & O’Leary, 2009). The article offers solutions to the problem of the lack of collaboration between child protection and domestic violence sectors. Some of the outlined means of achieving collaboration include creating awareness and developing new forums to accommodate partnerships.

This article provides an interesting angle to the issue of domestic violence and its accompanying effects. The issue of child protection is one of the various problems that arise as a result of domestic violence. The authors of this article can investigate their hypothesis using simple logic that can be applied by all stakeholders of domestic violence. The main shortcoming in this article is the authors’ lack of focus when they were conducting their research. The article fails to focus on a single argument and instead addresses several angles of a broad argument. This approach degrades the article’s subject matter. Although the authors manage to cover a wide range of research materials, their poor sequencing degrades the article’s subject matter.

Truth about Domestic Violence Revisited- A reply to Saunders

This article is the authors’ reply to a critique of their paper on domestic violence. The two authors are replying to the comments that were made by Saunders concerning their paper. The article seeks to clarify several issues including Saunders’ claim that the authors’ previous article did more harm than good to the plight of women. The authors also defend their choice of research materials as well as their use of the word ‘truth’ in the title of their paper (McNeely & Robinson-Simpson, 1988). The article continues by covering Saunders’ article sequentially and categorically. Finally, the authors of the article address Saunders’ choice of research in his critique. Although the authors of this article claim that their work is a ‘healthy debate’ on domestic violence issues, its overall tone is defensive. For instance, the critique that Saunders wrote is more formal when it is compared to this article (Saunders, 1986). The defensive stance that is assumed by the authors of this article is its main undoing. The authors constantly mention ‘Saunders’ instead of referring to his article. The objectivity of the paper is greatly undermined by the authors’ informal stance.

Ethical Issues in Secondary Research

The use of secondary data in modern settings where information can easily be shared has given rise to several ethical issues. One of these concerns is the data’s “potential to harm the subjects of the research as a result of lack of appropriate consent” (Szabo & Strang, 2007). Most of the people who use secondary data ignore the institution of ‘consent’. For instance, permission might apply to an individual researcher and for only a specific use. Consequently, a secondary researcher would not be entitled to the use of a particular research study. This ethical issue can be solved if the secondary researcher reestablishes consent from the human-subjects. The primary researcher is at times not required to reveal the identities of his/her human-subjects (Johnson & Sabourin, 2009). Consequently, the secondary researcher cannot be sent to the subjects to reestablish consent. This ethical dilemma can be resolved by sending the primary researcher to seek consent on behalf of the secondary user.

References

Johnson, D. H., & Sabourin, M. E. (2009). Universally accessible databases in the advancement of knowledge from psychological research. International Journal of psychology, 36(3), 212-220.

McNeely, R. L., & Robinson-Simpson, G. (1988). The truth about domestic violence revisited: A reply to Saunders. Social Work, 33(2), 184-188.

Pandey, K. P., & Shrestha, G. (2014). Assessing Current Situation of Domestic Violence against Women: A Study in Hasandaha, Morang. Himalayan Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 6(1), 64-85.

Potito, C., Day, A., Carson, E., & O’Leary, P. (2009). Domestic violence and child protection: Partnerships and collaboration. Australian social work, 62(3), 369-387.

Saunders, D. G. (1986). When battered women use violence: husband-abuse or self-defense?. Violence and Victims, 1(1), 47-60.

Szabo, V., & Strang, V. R. (2007). Secondary analysis of qualitative data. Advances in Nursing Science, 20(2), 66-74.

error: Content is protected !!