China, Japan, And The Ottoman Empire Modernization In The 19th Century Free Essay

Traditional societies, in particular the Ottoman Empire, China, and Japan began to experience difficulties in the nineteenth century. They all found that they are much weaker militarily than European countries or America. Military achievements gave stronger countries power to gain more lands and profit, make deals on their terms, and other advantages. The situation in countries with traditional societies was also complicated by internal shocks, which citizens faced, and rulers’ inability to effectively solve problems. These circumstances allowed more powerful states to exert additional influence and interfere in the internal affairs of countries. In response to adverse events, reform movements began to emerge in the traditional societies, which, however, succeeded only in Japan.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire had significantly weakened. Its military weakness led to the strengthening of local officials, and parts began to separate from the empire. In the financial sphere, the Ottomans were excluded as intermediaries of trade, and the inexpensive goods from Europe displaced local craft workers. In response, the rulers tried to introduce reforms, particularly the sultans Mahmud II, Tanzimat, and Abdiil Hamid II made changes to the European manner – they changed the army, the education system, and the foundations of law (Bentley et al., 2014). They were mainly resisted by religious conservatives, minority leaders, and the Ottoman bureaucracy itself. The reforms undermined the foundations of statehood – bureaucrats educated in the European manner saw a problem in the sultan’s power. Liberal groups arose, the strongest of which were the Young Turks. Despite all the reforms and their results, the empire survived by the twentieth century only because European states could not decide how to govern it.

China has long been a closed state, but Europeans wanted to gain more from trade with the state. In the nineteenth century, manipulation through the supply of opium made the state especially weak, and many military losses forced China to adopt unequal treaties. Internally, the state was weakened by the Taiping rebellion under the leadership of Hong Xiuquan. As a result, Qing rulers, with the help of reforms, tried to create a government based on Confucian traditions and foreign industrial technologies. These efforts did not stop foreigners from intervening and dividing the state into spheres of influence. In response, Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao scientists said more radical reforms are needed and inspired Emperor Guangxu to create a constitutional monarchy, guarantee freedoms, and introduce other changes. These changes were canceled by Empress Cixi, who later contributed to the Boxer rebellion – another failed attempt to eliminate foreign influence. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Qing dynasty had abandoned the board.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, Japan was also experiencing financial difficulties – the population was starving and had large debts. Tokugawa government reforms in 1841 and 1843 did not solve the problem. By the time, when 1853 Europeans and Americans arrived in the country and intimidated Tokugawa to sign unequal treaties, the population’s discontent was strong. After a short civil war, Emperor Meiji came to power. He decided to borrow the experience of industrialized countries, sending students there to study. His government changed the social order by removing the military from power, banning samurai, and strengthening the economy. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the state had become a strong industrial state, whose opinion was influential in the international arena.

Thus, states with traditional societies were significantly inferior in power to industrialized countries in the nineteenth century. This fact made them vulnerable, which prompted Europeans to take advantage of the situation. To save states, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, China and Japan introduced reforms. For the Ottomans and Chinese, they did not produce the necessary strengthening effect, as internal contradictions weakened the countries. In Japan, the opposition to the failed government was prevented, making reforms more effective. As a result, Japan became the strongest of the three states by the beginning of the twentieth century, and the remaining two weakened.

Reference

Bentley, J. H., Ziegler, H. F., & Streets-Salter, H. (2014). Traditions & encounters: A global perspective on the past. McGraw-Hill Education.

Preventing Gender-Based Violence

Introduction

With the development of humanity, the problems of gender interaction in society have become less acute compared to the situation in past eras. Nevertheless, despite the success of the struggle for equality and established moral values​, the issue of gender-based violence continues to exist. Women, in this case, are a vulnerable side, although there are cases of violence against men. The most common causes are domestic disagreements that, according to the World Health Organization, account for 38% to 50% of women murdered by their intimate partners (5).

The situation is aggravated by the fact that gender-based violence occurs not only among adults but also among young people, which creates additional difficulties and is a good reason to draw various stakeholders’ attention. Despite widespread access to information and opportunities to receive help, victims of physical abuse often seek to cope with their challenges individually, and this does not contribute to solving the issue effectively. Gender-based violence is an urgent social problem that affects people of different ages and countries and requires addressing through the creation of an adequate preventive environment and strengthening measures to persecute aggressive citizens successfully.

Global Context of the Problem

As people move towards democratic freedoms and human rights, along with the values ​​of equality and mutual respect, gender-based violence remains a problem in a global context. The situation is aggravated by the fact that, in some world regions, the existing patriarchal foundations do not contribute to creating a favorable environment for dealing with the issue in question. Wood et al. examine the rural region of Tajikistan, the country in Central Asia, and note the distinctive perceptions of violence between men and women, in particular, the empowerment of the male population (1). In such archaic conditions, women are not endowed with an opportunity to fight for their rights, and any manifestations of violence against them are permissible at the level of traditional perception and people’s cultural background.

Another factor proving the global context of the problem under consideration is the economic crisis in many world regions. As Dowd argues, gender-based violence develops where the authorities are more concerned about financial problems than social ones (42). Violence between intimate partners is a consequence of not only social but also economic challenges that impede normal life and are a catalyst for aggression (World Health Organization 5). As a result, women often experience physical abuse while living in poverty because low social status is one of the concomitant factors of violence.

Today, a number of agencies work to strengthen the regulatory framework and publicize the problem at the international level. Simister cites the examples of UNECE, the World Health Organization, and some other organizations that aim to disseminate information about the inadmissibility of gender-based violence (190). As Gerlach notes, with the emergence of the United Nations, the first attempts to reduce pressure on women were undertaken globally and across different social spheres (86). However, given the aforementioned challenges, in particular, economic difficulties and patriarchal canons, the problem has not been resolved until now.

Therefore, in an international context, conducting targeted work to help vulnerable populations and prevent physical abuse has weight as an activity to emphasize the importance of this issue and its urgency in modern society. Notably, the manifestation of violence among young people is an acute problem within the stated topic.

Gender-Based Violence Among Adolescents

Gender-based violence in adolescence is a particularly dangerous phenomenon since the psyche of young people is not formed comprehensively, and physical abuse based on gender can be a stimulus for the development of severe disorders. According to Mathews and Gould, adolescents who have experienced gender-based violence are prone to intellectual disabilities and even chronic illnesses (61). However, despite these threatening prospects, this form of social conflict exists, and individual social constraints exacerbate it.

For instance, Chandra-Mouli et al. state that “the percentage of countries with gender gaps in school attendance increases from 37% for primary education to 54% and 77% for lower and upper secondary education, respectively” (239). Teenage girls become objects of health-harming acts, and the current social regulations cannot address this issue adequately due to the lack of proper control and sustainable policies to protect vulnerable adolescents.

The existing social norms of some groups can also be a negative driver of gender-based violence in relation to vulnerable adolescents. Sommer et al. remark that gender-based stigma may arise, and what is contrary to modern values ​​in a civilized society may be acceptable in individual communities (155).

As an example, the authors cite the concept of victim-blaming, according to which a girl is initially guilty of committing violence against her due to her overly defiant behavior, appearance, and other controversial factors (Sommer et al. 155). This practice does not fit into modern social norms, which, nevertheless, does not affect the episodic nature of cases of violence. Moreover, according to the World Health Organization, young boys can also be targets of violence from older girls, and precedents exist (21). As a result, stigmatization manifests itself against both genders, albeit unequally.

The need to ensure the protection of vulnerable adolescents from gender-based violence is felt acutely during military conflicts. Etienne gives dire cases of young females’ abuse by soldiers and notes that such incidents should be regarded as a war crime against humanity and punished to the fullest extent of the law (139). However, even if victims of violence are assisted, they are at risk of developing dangerous mental disorders caused by acute shocks. Ensuring the safety of adolescents from gender-based abuse should be a mandatory practice in a modern democratic world, and this category of the population should be given no less attention than adults. Thus, discussing the ways to mitigate these issues from different perspectives is critical.

Ways to Mitigate the Problem

To provide vulnerable categories of the population with protection from gender-based violence, targeted work should be carried out from an early age. Crooks et al. propose to create special youth programs for primary and secondary school children, which include teaching social interaction skills (31). This practice can be useful as a tool to educate children and adolescents about the dangerous consequences of gender-based abuse, and building healthy behaviors is a valuable outcome of such work.

Maintaining an adequate preventive environment at the international level should be supported by responsible organizations and agencies dealing with social regulations. The World Health Organization offers a special algorithm that includes several stages of targeted work, in particular, joining the efforts of different committees, investing in maintaining a stable regulatory framework, and developing individual community practices (19). The aforementioned problem of the perception of gender-based violence within outdated cultural values ​​can be addressed through the involvement of local representatives to implement corresponding security programs at the regional level. These initiatives may contribute to addressing the issue as effectively as possible while taking into account the characteristics of each population group.

In addition, educating the adult population, as a tool for strengthening preventive work, is no less important aspect than corresponding regulatory decisions. According to Simister, education is an effective form of combating gender-based violence since, despite distinctive deviant features in different communities, the background of the problem is the same – abuse allowance by the gender factor (70). The more often people hear about the inadmissibility of humiliating others’ honor and dignity, the higher are the chances of reducing the incidence of physical abuse against vulnerable groups. Moreover, through education, stakeholders can not only build but also assess the sustainability of specific measures taken to reduce risks (World Health Organization 21). Therefore, outreach work, complemented by appropriate regulatory constraints, is a valuable practice.

Conclusion

Addressing the issue of gender-based violence by introducing both relevant legal practices and educational projects at different levels is a crucial task due to the dangerous implications of this social problem. Particular attention should be paid to the topic of physical abuse by the gender factor among children and adolescents since their psyche is the most vulnerable, and a number of health problems can develop.

The reasons for gender-based violence can be distinctive, but the main prerequisites for the issue are economic constraints and impaired cultural norms promoted in individual communities. According to Etienne, local groups can educate the population successfully and build an adequate preventive environment (139). At the same time, international organizations’ activities are also valuable due to the popularization of the issue globally and an opportunity to attract public attention.

Works Cited

Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman, et al. “Addressing Harmful and Unequal Gender Norms in Early Adolescence.” Nature Human Behaviour, vol. 2, no. 4, 2018, pp. 239-240.

Crooks, Claire V., et al. “Preventing Gender-Based Violence Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Lessons from 25 Years of Program Development and Evaluation.” Violence Against Women, vol. 25, no. 1, 2019, pp. 29-55.

Dowd, Douglas. Inequality and the Global Economic Crisis: Douglas Dowd. Pluto Press, 2009.

Etienne, Margareth. “Addressing Gender-Based Violence in an International Context.” Harvard Women’s Law Journal, vol. 18, 1995, p. 139.

Gerlach, Christian. Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Mathews, Shanaaz, and Chandré Gould. “Preventing Violence: From Evidence to Implementation.” ChildGauge, edited by Lucy Jamieson, Lizette Berry, and Lori Lake, University of Cape Town, 2017, pp. 61-67.

Simister, John. Gender Based Violence: Causes and Remedies. Nova Science Publishers, 2012.

Sommer, Marni, et al. “How Gender Norms Are Reinforced Through Violence Against Adolescent Girls in Two Conflict-Affected Populations.” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 79, 2018, pp. 154-163.

Wood, Elizabeth A., et al. “Exploring the Differences Between Men’s and Women’s Perceptions of Gender-Based Violence in Rural Tajikistan: A Qualitative Study.” BMC Women’s Health, vol. 21, no. 1, 2021, pp. 1-15.

World Health Organization. RESPECT Women: Preventing Violence Against Women. World Health Organization, 2019.

Osmosis, Diffusion, And Active Transport Of Molecules: Key Differences

Introduction

The concepts of osmosis, diffusion, and active transport concern the movement of molecules and are some of the foundational terminologies of the biology curriculum. Nevertheless, the terms are frequently confused and misunderstood. According to the research by Reinke, Kynn, and Parkinson (2019), most first-year biology students have a large number of misconceptions concerning the aforementioned terms. It implies that the topic of molecular movement appears to be highly complex and challenging; therefore, it is essential to elaborate on the terminology. The current paper attempts to analyze osmosis, diffusion, and active transport and discuss the primary differences between these core concepts.

Definitions

While the three notions are defined by the movement of molecules, there are some drastic differences between them. However, before contrasting the types of movement, it is essential to provide a brief definition for each of them. Diffusion is a type of passive transport of molecules across the cell membrane from areas with a high density to regions with a low density of molecules (Rae-Dupree & Dupree, n.d.). This type of movement might be simple which refers to standard passive intervention through the membrane, or it might be facilitated which requires assistance from a carrier molecule (Rae-Dupree & Dupree, n.d.). Osmosis has a similar definition, “the movement of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration” (BBC, n.d.). Lastly, active transport concerns the transfer of molecules against their concentration gradient and, contrary to the previous concepts, from a region of low concentration to an area of high concentration. Overall, some of the core differences between the concepts are noticeable from the very definitions.

Differences

Having established the definitions for osmosis, diffusion, and active transport, it is possible to examine the differences between the notions. The concepts are primarily contrasted by the direction of movement, the type of transported substances, and whether energy is required for the process (BBC, n.d.). The former is described in the definitions of the notions. The type of substances is the core difference between the processes. Diffusion transports various substances, including carbon dioxide, water, food substances, and oxygen, while osmosis allows only for the transportation of water (BBC, n.d.). On the other hand, active transport primarily concerns the movement of mineral ions in plants and glucose in animals (BBC, n.d.). Furthermore, unlike diffusion and osmosis, active transport requires energy to effectively function (Rae-Dupree & Dupree, n.d.). Additionally, as mentioned before, active transport is not passive (like osmosis and diffusion), and, therefore, has a few consequent distinguishing marks. Active movement is generally a rapid, unidirectional, and selective process that is also affected by temperature (Rae-Dupree & Dupree, n.d.). On the other hand, passive movements including osmosis and diffusion are slow, bidirectional, and not affected by temperature.

Conclusion

Summing up, the current essay has provided the definitions of osmosis, diffusion (simple and facilitated), and active transport of molecules and discussed the core differences between the concepts. As mentioned in the introduction, these notions prove to be complex for a large number of students, and, therefore, it is essential to analyze the three features and get a better understanding of the subject. The primary differences between the concepts include the type of movement, the need of energy, and the forms of substances transported. Overall, having examined the contrast between osmosis, diffusion, and active transport, it becomes considerably easier to understand the more complex topics regarding the cell processes.

References

BBC. (n.d.). Transport in cells. Web.

Rae-Dupree, J., & Dupree, P. (n.d.). The cell membrane: Diffusion, osmosis, and active transport. Web.

Reinke, N. B., Kynn, M., & Parkinson, A. L. (2019). Conceptual understanding of osmosis and diffusion by Australian first-year biology students. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, 27(9), 13-33.

error: Content is protected !!