Cholera Outbreak In Zimbabwe Essay Example

Many Zimbabweans continue to lose their lives as the spread of cholera worsens in the country, the disease is normally through poor sanitation facilities, unclean and untreated water and this causes the  victims to vomit and diarrhea, if not treated well the victims lose their lives. Even though cholera is curable, the situation might worsen because of the poor sanitation facilities that are widely spread in most parts of the heavily populated urban areas. This in addition to limited access to water in most populated areas has led to closure of some towns and other public institutions. For instance most hospitals in these populated areas are closing down because the situation within these hospitals is worsening as they experience shortages in bed occupancy, food, medicine and water due to high admissions of patients. Most refugees and even some of the Zimbabweans have left the country to seek refuge and aid in South Africa. Some the people leaving the country are already infected and therefore contributing to the over the border crossing of the disease to the neighboring countries and thus putting more lives at risk.

It is evident that the health system and the health of citizens is deteriorating, this situation has forced some of the senior Government leaders to solicit aid from the international countries and other organizations like the United Nations. They are requesting assistance to fight the rapidly spreading epidemic which is posing as a major threat to the lives of Zimbabweans; proper sanitation plans are supposed be re-established and provision of clean water should be one of the major objectives in attempt to fight the disease. Even though the health minister reported that the disease had claimed only ninety lives, results shows that more than four hundred people have perished as a result of the disease.

The death rates in Zimbabwe are rising everyday, the recent figures by World Health Organization (WHO) shows that 565 people have died from the disease and over 12,546 people are infected with the epidemic (Douglas. p. 2). These figures are expected to rise because of the poor conditions that most towns in the country are experiencing which are just perfect for the rapid spread of the disease. For instance, in a town like Harare, sewer lines having broken, the sewages are freely spewing in the streets and the children’s playing ground are invented by unclean stagnant water.

In an attempt to control the unfortunate situation, the Zimbabwean leaders are appealing to their citizens to boil drinking water as at the moment the Government cannot provide clean water because of it has run out of chemicals to treat water leading to scarcity of drinking water. The ministry of health and child welfare has combined its efforts with other key stake holders like World Health Organizations (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Education Fund (UNICEF) in the fight against cholera. In addition to this, WHO in an effort to cholera are also collaborating with the Government of South Africa to create re hydration facilities at and along the borders to accommodate new inhabitants that are fleeing Zimbabwe ( Scott, p. 3).

In an attempt to contain the outbreak of cholera, International organizations like Merlin (Medical relief, lasting health care) is negotiating with the ministry of health and child welfare in Zimbabwe to be granted access to the areas that are deeply affected by the epidemic.

In the early 1990s, cholera found its way in South America and spread to other parts through the people who ate unclean food from South America and traveled. In reaction to the outbreak, the United States installed modern sewage facilities and created more water treatment systems to make sure that the cholera situation is put under control indefinitely.

Most people in the United States, are infected with the epidemic through traveling in the cholera affected areas, other people acquires the epidemic when the consume sea foods that has not been well cooked or that has been undercooked (Boyce. p.35). Most of the people who travel are not tourists so once they are infected with the disease, contacting them and presenting them with prevention measures has proven unfruitful and this has contributed heavily on the spread of cholera epidemic in the United States.

The United States with other International health organizations usually investigates the outbreaks of cholera and comes up with the best possible measures to prevent the outcome again. The United States has also had its agencies supply medical facilities to the most affected countries and it is also working with the environmental protection agency to prevent the water from being contaminated with the bacterium. The US has also implemented rules that require Air planes to stock themselves with re hydration salts to prevent the infections and spread of the disease among passengers on board.

This devastating situation of cholera is similar to the one that was experienced when the world first learnt about HIV / AIDS. AIDS which is still considered as one of the major deadly diseases is still widespread all over the world. AIDS has continued to claim lives of millions of children every year as more than half of the infected children  die at the age of two.

Unlike during the cholera outbreak, AIDS symptoms are not easily detectable, but to ensure a healthy living, one must go for testing which is normally free in most countries. This helps in further spread of the epidemic to the innocent uninfected people. Even though there is still no cure for AIDS, people living with AIDS can easily access life prolonging drugs.

References

Boyce T. G. Mintz ED, Greene K. D. Vibrio cholera 0139 Bengal infections among tourists to

South East Asia: an Intercontinental food borne outbreak. J. Infect Dis. 1995

Douglas R. Cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe .( 2008) Fox News Network

Scott B. Refugees flee Zimbabwe.(2008) .Johannesburg: print version

A Look Into The Life And Works Of Famous Sociologists

For centuries man has pondered the societies he has developed. Some of our oldest documents, going back five thousand years or more, record man’s efforts to analyze and understand their social order. But no civilized society, since the first cities arose in Mesopotamia five thousand years ago, has ever, until very recently, had a way to measure the wants and feelings of the people with reasonable accuracy. In this search, men have sought truth from many sources and have used many methods, some highly successful, some less so. History might be a very different story if a technique had been available to Pericles, or Caesar, George III, Louis XIV, Woodrow Wilson, or Nicholas II.

Like other social sciences, sociology is relatively new in being accepted as a scientific discipline compared to those in natural sciences. Sociologists such as Talcott Parson and Robert Merton, left a significant mark on the field and as such, will be discussed on this paper.

Parson, born on December 13, 1902 in Colorado Springs. He received his B.A. from Amherst College by 1924. Parsons studied at the London School of Economics and at the University of Heidelberg, where he received his PhD three years after. He joined the faculty of Harvard University as instructor in economics; he began to teach sociology in 1931, became full professor in 1944, and was appointed chairman of the new department of social relations in 1946, a post he held until 1956. He remained at Harvard until his retirement in 1973. Parsons served as president of the American Sociological Society in 1949. He died (May 8, 1979) in Munich at the age of 77 (“Parson, Talcott”. The New Encyclopedia Britannica).

Works Parson is generally acknowledged as the founding figure of ‘modern’ functionalism, the theoretical perspective that dominated sociology in America and Britain from the late 1930’s up to the 1960s. In his first major work, The Structure of Social Action (1937), Parsons drew on elements from the works of several European writers such as Alfred Marshall, Vilfredo Pareto, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. He developed a common systematic theory of social action based on a voluntaristic principle (i.e., the choices among alternative values and actions must be at least partially free).

Parsons defines the locus of sociological theory as residing not in the internal field of personality as developed by Freud and Max Weber but in the external field of institutional structure developed by society, operating to determine action and deriving continuity through action. In The Social System (1951), he turned his analysis to large-scale systems and the problems of the social order, integration, and equilibrium. He advocated a structural-functional analysis, a study of the ways in which the interrelated and interacting units that form the structures of a social system contribute to the development and maintenance of that system.

Perhaps the key aim of Parson’s wide-ranging work was to provide a theoretical structure for sociology to follow, based on the establishment of an analytical link or relationship between the action and behavior of individuals and that of large-scale social systems. For society to function, indeed for social order to be established and maintained, individuals within the social system had to be adequately socialized and integrated. In part this integration occurred as a result of individuals holding a general agreement on values and norms. Parson attempts to link macro and micro sociological theorizing as illustrated by his emphasis on the social system and how it strongly influence the behavior of individuals, through a focus on socialization and social integration.

He is known for developing the concept of ‘pattern variables’ to help explain and deal with the dilemmas of social interaction. As well as his ‘grand theoretical’ work, Parsons also researched and wrote a number of empirical studies on, for instance, kinship, family and medicine. He united clinical psychology and social anthropology with sociology, a fusion still operating in the social sciences (I. Marsh. “Parsons and Grand Theory”). Parson’s work is mainly concerned with a general theoretical system for the analysis of society rather than with narrower empirical studies.

He received his PhD from Harvard University in 1936, after which he joined the Harvard faculty, where he also developed a theory of deviant behavior based on different types of social adaptation. He served on the faculty of Tulane University, New Orleans (1939-41), and then accepted an appointment at Columbia University (1941), becoming a full professor in 1947, and being named Giddings professor in 1963. He served as associate director of the university’s Bureau of Applied Social Research (1942-71), working with Paul Lazarsfeld, who arrived a year earlier than Merton and headed the new bureau.

Lazarsfeld’s logic of concept clarification and his methodology of quantitative and qualitative research influenced Merton’s orientation to historical studies, and Merton’s gift for theory influenced Lazarsfeld’s philosophic grasp of the discipline of sociology. They produced important research and writing on methods of improving standards of training for the social sciences. Merton died on February 23, 2003, receiving various honors including the National Medal of Science (“Merton Awarded Nation’s Highest Science Honor”).

Works Merton is also an American sociologist whose various interests included the sociology of science and the professions, sociological theory, and mass communications, thus making numerous contributions. In 1949, he proposed in his Social Theory and Social Structure (rev. ed. 1968), Merton defined the interrelationship between social theory and empirical research, advancing a structural-functional approach to the study of society and creating the concepts of manifest and latent function and dysfunction. Merton argues that some aspects of behavior or social structure are dysfunctional because they do not contribute to the maintenance of a group. He also offers refinement of functionalism including a distinction between manifest and latent functions (B. Hess, E. Markson, and P. Stein. “The Sociological Perspective”).

In the sociology of science, he studied the relationship between puritan thought and the rise of science, writing Science, Technology and Society in Seventeenth Century England (1938; reprinted 1970) and The Sociology of Science (1973). Other works include Mass Persuasion (1946); reprinted 1971), On the Shoulders of Giants (1965), On Theoretical Sociology (1967), Social Theory and Functional Analysis (1969), and Social Ambivalence and other Essays (1976) (“Merton, Robert”. The New Encyclopedia Britannica).

Merton’s famous contribution is coining the term “self-fulfilling prophecy”. According to Merton, “self-fulfilling” prophecy” is one in which the prophecy starts a series of events which make it come true. If great musicians are expected to be highly temperamental, and their outbursts of rudeness and immaturity are excused as “artistic temperament”, such outbursts may be encouraged and likely to recur despite there is no empirical evidence to prove such stereotyping is reliable (PB Horton and CL Hunt. “Culturally Approved Deviation”). Merton’s main interest is in the predictable impact of social structure on human being’s behavior.

Merton acknowledged Parson as one of his significant mentor. Both are considered functionalist, however, there is a clear distinction between Parson and Merton’s approach. The latter differed from creating a “grand theory” for society like Parson did and, encouraged other sociologists instead to study and clarify principles that affect and govern a particular social phenomena. Thus, Merton is often classified as neofunctionalist.

References

  1. “Parsons, Talcott”. The New Encyclopedia Britannica. vol. 9. 1991
  2. Edited by Marsh, I. “Parsons and Grand Theory”. Classic and Contemporary Readings in Sociology. pp. 96-102. 1998
  3. “Merton Awarded Nation’s Highest Science Honor”. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol20/vol20_ iss2/record2002. 13 .html
  4. Hess, BB, Markson, EW, and Stein, PJ. “The Sociological Perspective”. Sociology: Study Guide, 3rd ed. 1988
  5. “Merton, Robert”. The New Encyclopedia Britannica. vol. 8. 1991.
  6. Cited by Horton, PB and Hunt, CL. “Culturally Approved Deviation”. Sociology. p.153. 1964

Taiping Rebellion Effects On Chinese History

Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion was a bloody civil war in China which took place in the 19th century being led by Hong Xiuquan against the Qing’s government.  Xiuquan was a Christian convert who supposedly had a vision of God who asked him to wipe out the idols in the land.  He claimed to be the younger brother of Jesus and part of his quest was to convert many to the Christian faith and establish a kingdom of peace.  This paper will endeavor to discuss the causes, challenges and the outcome of the rebellion highlighting also its adverse effect to China as a whole.

Hoing Xiuquan

Hoing Xiuquan was born in 1813 to a farming family in Guangdong province.  Xiuquan had two sisters and also two elderly brothers.  He joined school at the age of seven where he learnt Chinese characters through the act of memorization.  His teacher was called Ting-jin who apparently had not even qualified in civil exams (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 12)

Xiuquan dropped from school at the age due to lack of funds but due to his diligence and eminent desire to study, his relatives assisted him to resume studies with a local master.  Four degrees were available at that time but in all, very few managed to pass them.  Xiuquan time came for the test, but like many he too failed the test.

He married after the first test and in1833, he went back to try the test but again, he also failed.  He later on met a native evangelist, Liang Afah who gave him religious track which after having read them, he shelved for about ten year probably because most of the religious ideologies and terms were hard to understand (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 18).

            In 1836, Xiuquan again attempted and again failed the tests but after these tests, he got a fever and no doctor could help him out and later on he fell into a comma.  It was at this time that Xiuquan received his vision. In his vision, he saw a very large procession coming with music and banners, he was ushered into a palace and in the palace, an ancient surgeon Chin- Kwei removed his heart and after this, Xiuquan was allowed to appear before the lord of the palace who appeared as an old man venerable in years. He told him that all humanity is sustained by him but they continue to rebel against him and even use his gifts in worship for demon; he was then cautioned not to imitate them. The master of the palace also gave Xiuquan a sword with which to fight the demons.   As Xiuquan left the palace, he was escorted by a middle aged man whom he later on referred to as Jesus who was a brother to him.  When his vision ended, he woke shouting “tsan jan” (slay the demons) many villagers knew as the mad man.  It took another forty days for his health to be restored henceforth he proceeded to convert millions that were deep into slavery (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 25)

One day, Li one of his relative found the books that Xiuquan had been given by the Christian missionary which he had shelved ten years ago.  Li requested for permission to read them and in the long run, Li’s interest in these books prompted Xiuquan to revisit reading these books.  This time round the content was not as hard to understand as the first time.  However, what fascinated Xiuquan was the interrelation between these books and the vision he had.

Xiuquan understood the old man venerable in years to God and His escort to be Jesus and the demons were the idols which his fellow countrymen worshiped.  He immediately confisticated the idols in the classroom and also encouraged his fellow student to the same.  He then took a jar of water and baptized himself for purification and together with his family became converted (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 26).  Ever since that time Xiuquan embarked on travelling to different lands preaching the gospel.  He however, seemed to misinterpret the old testament assuming that God chosen race meant China and he therefore made two sword with inscription “demon exterminating swords” wanting to play the role of Joshua (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 27).

Preaching became a costly exercise but starvation and lack of money did not deter him.  He travelled to many place doing missionary work and became very successful in converting people to Christianity.  Many people perceived him to be immortal send to them to give them the new doctrine.  People even began to listen to words of the missionary that had given Xiuquan the articles and many who had been hard hearted became converted many believe of the torments of hell.

The reasons why Taiping Rebellion took place

As Xiuquan continued to make progress selling his ideas of Christianity, he always had a secret idea in mind which he shared with nobody else other than Hung- Jin.  Hung- Jin believed that God had separated all nations assigning boundaries to them and therefore failed to understand why the Manchus who had forcibly entered china and robbed them of their properties.  At that time, the Manchu had in china and had secured for themselves the best estates and the principal positions in the military. The Manchus were descendants of Tungu Junchen people who founded the Jin dynasty which was founded by Jurchen.  He formed a strong neutral army which occupied the North east territory.  His army comprised of Chinese and Mongols.  They conquered Beijing but also proceeded to take over the rest of China.   The Manchu ruled China making use of Chinese countrymen especially those who had take part in the governance of the Ming dynasty.  They relived the Chinese peasants from slavery and set very low taxes for them.  It was also possible for any Chinese in any social background to attain the prestigious Qing official hierarchy through state examination which Xiuquan had kept on attempting to pass (“Chinese History – Qing Dynasty,” par. 1)

He therefore felt that he had the duty to secure Chinese boundaries and to teach nation to mind their own properties without robbing each other.   These thoughts became later confirmed by a dream he had which propelled him to take the imitative to free his country.  In the dream he saw a huge ball of fire on top of his head which he associated with the coming of the great king foretold to come after five hundred years by Mencius, he considered himself to be this great king (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 32).  This is how his quest to deliver Chinese people and establish the land of peace begun.

China at that time was an extensive manufacturing country and in most cases it did not require cotton and its products from the west.  The British merchants made their living through smuggling of opium into china which had banned importation of the product due to the adverse addiction and unethical effects the drug had.  Opium imports also weakened china’s currency because all of Chinese export could not cover the enormous cost of opium imports in their country.  To overt this situation, Lin Zexu, a governor in Guangzhou confisticated opium products and at the same time confronted the British merchants.  Britain retaliated by helping its merchant something that led to a series of china’s defeat resulting to numerous treaties that ashamed the Qing’s government.  These sequences of defeats provoked a lot of discontent against the Qing’s government something that may have helped the Taiping Rebels to gunner support from Chinese citizens.  At the same time the Qing’s economic might was weak during the 19th century due to the extensive weakening of the copper coins.  Corruption during this time was also eminent during this time and together with poverty, landlessness and unemployment, the Qing’s government was not popular especially with the middle and lower class. This oppression was part of what Taiping rebels were trying liberating themselves and their countrymen from.

Moreover, historians speculated that the rebel movement may have succeeded to recruit many of its followers due to the drought in 1840’s.  At that time the movement provided food and took care of its followers something may have led many to join it as the only escape from the drought (Hines, “The Taiping Rebellion,” Par. 4)

Reasons for helping Qing

Taiping rebels tried to forge assistance from their Christian brothers in the west but the Europeans decided to stay neutral their main concern at that time was trade relations and they did not want to risk loosing either side as trading partners supposing that either side might win.  Taiping rebels also attempted to forge support with the middle class but many had a problem with the anti Confucianism that advocated for their religious traditions (McGuigan, “What was the Taiping Rebellion,” par 4).

 When the rebels invaded Guanxi and drove off Qing’s forces, government efforts to try and suppress these rebels bore not fruits so these prompted for the Qing’s government to seek external assistance to suppress the rebellion.  When the rebels tried to capture Beijing, local governors and rich merchants hired western forces to assist in the resistance and they ended up forming the ever victorious army and this army eventually drove back the Taiping rebels and massacred their remnant in Nanjing. (“Chinese History – Qing Dynasty,” Par 4)

One would expect the western troops to support the Taiping rebels in their quest to wipe out idols in china the rich Christian background in the west.  This was however not the case something which baffled the Taiping armies.  One of the reasons is perhaps that Hong Xiuquan Christian beliefs may have been considered by many Christians in the west more of a cult that had gone out of the prescribed Christian doctrines.  Hong lived in his palace having about two thousand women and as a king people had to kneel down and not look up failure to which they were executed  (Penn, “Chinese history: The Taiping Rebellion,” par 1).  So his doctrine advocated the existence of a second messiah in which case he called himself Jesus younger brother.  Li Xiucheng being aware of this is recorded to have told them that Taiping Christian faith unlike that in western Christianity was still young requiring time to mature but both shared the same faith (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 63).

At the same time the main reason that may have led to the western forces opting to support the Qing’s government is because they considered the Taiping a threat to their opium trade and business investment since at that time western nations had hugely invested a lot of resources through the establishment of factories, banks and other manufacturing companies.  China was an appropriate market for their product and it also provided cheap labor to their industries.

Taiping Rebellion (Structure – Organization History)

            The Taiping were organized in such a way that each Taiping prince control about 100, 000 people and he also had an army. We had ministers of various state departments under the princes who were in control of numerous civil affairs (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par.53).  From ministers, next in ranks were the army generals (keungshwae).  The Taiping general was very disciplined mostly be because of the numerous rituals they undertook.  Every army comprised of about 13125 soldiers and was divided into five positional divisions of about 1225 soldiers under the control of a general.  These divisions comprised of three army brigades.  The first was for that who had been in the army for over six years, the second brigade comprised of soldiers loyal to the army for about three to six years and finally, the last brigade was for soldiers that had been in the Taiping army for less than tree years.  These divisions were further divided into positional regiments of about 525 soldiers under a colonel.  Again this was regiment were broken down further into companies of about 104 men who were under the command of captain followed by four lieutenants (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par.54 &55).

Rising in ranks in the Taiping army was done only on merit which was not the case for Qing’s army.  Many soldiers in Qing’s army were addict of opium, therefore, many soldier bribed their way up the ladder creating a lot of in efficiency in the commanding wing.  This however, later changed and commanding officers were now being appointed in terms of qualifications (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71,” par. 56).

Where and how The Rebellion ended

The Taiping rebellion took place in Guanxi province in the year in 1851 whereby more than ten thousands rebel troops invade the town driving off Qing’s troop out of the town of Jintia.  This town was immediately declared the capital of what they called the kingdom of the heavenly peace with Hong Xiuquan becoming the absolute ruler.  Qing’s armies later tried to recapture the town but they were strongly repulsed by the rebels (McGuigan, “What was the Taiping Rebellion,” par 4).

Taiping Wang settled in this region until the time they felt that they had become powerful enough to advance further.  They advanced to Hunan and besieged it with over 120 000 troops but they were unable to capture it (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71” par 18).  As they advanced, they never held any of the cities they captured.  They took Yochow and its armory and as they advanced, they threatened to kill the monks found in their temple and at the same time destroyed their idle and gave the loot the poor (“TaipingRebellion.com 1850-71” par 18).

When the rebels tried to capture Beijing, local governors and rich merchants hired western forces to assist in the resistance and they ended up driving off the rebels who later utterly suppressed after the death of their leader.  The Taiping success at the beginning of the war could be attributed to so many factors one of which was the kind of support they had at first from their fellow countrymen.  However, due to the immense devastating effects of the war to the people and the strict Taiping rules such as the complete separation of the sexes, the initial support diminished with time and people begun to shift their support to the Qing’s government.

There was leadership wrangles at the top of Taiping army.  Yang, the former charcoal burner who had raised the ranks to on of Hong’s top general had planned to assassinate him.  Wei the northern territory leader was ordered to assassinate yang, Wei was also assassinated when it was considered that he had become too powerful (Dowling, “The Taiping Rebellion,” par. 4).

Westerners support for the Qing’s army and the reorganization of the Qing’s army strengthened the might of the ever victorious army against the Taiping Wang.  Presence of foreigners boosted the supply of ammunition for the Qing’s army but the final blow to the Taiping army was the death of their leader who eventually died of food poisoning.

Effects on Chinese History

The Taiping Rebellion is one of the bloodiest civil war in the world history with over 30 million lives being lost.  Taiping Rebellion greatly influenced the spread of Christianity into china and the aim was to completely wipe out idols in China and to establish a heavenly kingdom of peace. Taiping Rebellion impacted greatly in ending china’s isolationism image.  Earlier on china had so much been rooted to the old traditions of their fore father following the Confucian system.  Taiping Rebellion was based Marjory on Xiuquan vision which he based with Christian values.  Christianity which was part of the western culture began therefore to take root in China.  Many people sided with the foreigners and Qing against the Taiping forces Marjory because the Taiping ideologies advocated for complete separation of the sexes even those of married couples and also due to their strict stand on abolishing feet binding (Franz, “Taiping Rebellion,” par. 3).

This rebellion led to the relinquishing of power from the Manchus that held prestigious offices in the military to Chinese war lords that were chosen on merit.  This happened when the Taiping rebels were attacking Beijing and the Qing’s army had failed to properly resist them and therefore had to organize an army greater in might to resist the rebels by.  Eventually the war generated a lot of anti-Manchu sentiments which resulted to the fall of the Qing’s dynasty and to the restoration of the Chinese nation  (Penn, “Chinese history: The Taiping Rebellion,” par 1).  This rebellion also made many to question the government’s ability to protect them.  While the rebellion was on course, many lives were lost and property leaving many Chinese people in anguish.  It also weakened china’s foreign policy and created the impression that china was weak and could not manage itself properly    (Seiler, “The destruction of the Chinese culture,” par 6)

Conclusion

In conclusion, one can say that Hong Xiuquan and his efforts to wipe out idolatry and establish a kingdom of peace governed by Christian principle partly succeeded  though from the discussion it appears that he himself may have eventually ended up walking contrary to his faith like the murders of his generals,  at the same time the war caused loss of many lives and devastation of  peoples property something that ended up working against his course and made many to opt for their original traditional religious practices.  However, the Taiping rebellion instilled the much needed spirit of patriotism that set off the course for the Chinese people to liberate themselves from the grip of foreign rule.

Works Cited

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Franz, Michael. Chinese Cultural Studies: The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864.  University of       Washington Press, 1971.   26th March 2009.         <http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/texts/taiping.html>

Hines, Richard. Ching China: The Taiping Rebellion Richard Hooker1996.   Statcounter.                      <http://wsu.edu/~dee/CHING/TAIPING.HTM>

Lycos Inc. Taiping Rebellion. Lycos Inc, 2009.  26th

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McGuigan, Brendan.  What was the Taiping Rebellion? Conjecture corporation, 2009.   26th      March 2009. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-was-the-taiping-rebellion.htm

Penn, Merlin.  Chinese history: The Taiping Rebellion.  Helium, Inc, 2002. 26th March 2009.             <http://www.helium.com/items/757381-chinese-history-the-taiping-rebellion>

Seiler, Matthew.  Taiping Rebellion: The destruction of the Chinese culture. Western Studies     Homepage, 1867. 26th March 2009.             <http://sun.menloschool.org/~sportman/westernstudies/second/24/gblock/index.html>

Statcounter. Taiping Rebellion.com, 1850-71. Statcounter. 26th March 2009.

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Ulrich, Theobald. Chinese History – Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) event history. Ulrich Theobald,             2000. 26th March 2009. <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0847654.htm>l