Chronic Kidney Disease: Identification And Control Sample Paper

Anderson’s Research (2009)

Conceptual Framework

The measurement of kidney function in people of older ages is rather difficult due to age-related changes.

Design/Method

The end-stage of chronic kidney disease has been analyzed.

Sample & Setting

The members of the sampling were approximately 75 years old with pre-clinical kidney disease.

Major Variables

The GFR-based criteria were studied to answer CKD-related issues.

Measurement

Estimating equations were calculated to assess the work of the kidneys and to determine the level of serum markers.

Data Analysis

The qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed to predict the appropriate treatment.

Findings

The highest incidence was in older men compared with women. Diabetes and racial origin were proved to be predictors of CKD.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The study requires further clinical trials of patients undergoing dialysis.

Balogun’s Research (2016)

Conceptual Framework

The study dwells upon clinical directives that enable identifying and controlling the CKD.

Design/Method

The authors applied a qualitative evaluation of the relevant sources and considered their application in terms of management postulates.

Sample & Setting

As the authors did not conduct original research, there was no sampling.

Major Variables

Comorbid conditions, CKD complications, nutrition, proteinuria, clinician’s support were studied.

Measurement

No measurements due to the research background.

Data Analysis

The qualitative data gained from the literature were analyzed, and the evidence-based guidelines were provided.

Findings

The study proved that early intervention is obligatory for reducing mortality.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The provided guidelines can be used as evidence for early clinical intervention.

Fox’s Research (2013)

Conceptual Framework

The study aimed at proving that early clinical intervention by physicians can significantly improve the wellbeing of patients.

Design/Method

The CRCT was used together with the analysis of cost and process.

Sample & Setting

The 2000 patients have been studied in the hospital environment.

Major Variables

The variables assessed included: ESRD, PCP, CDS.

Measurement

The patient-level information was measured.

Data Analysis

The clusters were analyzed using qualitative methods.

Findings

The “Translate” method was referred to as effective in patients with CKD.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The findings of the research enable practitioners to utilize the Translate method as an effective tool for health care provision.

Hogg’s Research (2016)

Conceptual Framework

It was considered that the CKD could be examined in the early stages.

Design/Method

Evidence-based information about the CKD in children and adults was gathered from various articles and analyzed to provide guidelines for practitioners.

Sample & Setting

As an initial investigation was not held, there was no sampling size or population.

Major Variables

The varied consequences of the CKD were studied in children and adults.

Measurement

No measurements due to the research background.

Data Analysis

The evidence-based literature was analyzed to provide further guidelines.

Findings

A five-step platform was developed that enables CKD assessment.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The summarized recommendations can be helpful when examining the early onset of kidney disease.

“Japanese Society of Nephrology” (2009)

Conceptual Framework

The goal of the research was to produce guidelines to reduce the number of CKD cases.

Design/Method

The therapeutic purposes included all the patients with the disease except for the ones having dialysis in place.

Sample & Setting

The 35 specialists were to conduct their investigations in the health care institutions they were currently employed in.

Major Variables

The patient’s lifestyle, nutrition, anemia, bone disorder, nephropathy, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and others were studied.

Measurement

Various lab tests were conducted and correlated to the reviews of the evidence-based literature.

Data Analysis

The mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) were used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings revealed that the onset of the CKD depends on various factors such as eating habits, lifestyle, heredity, the presence of diabetes, and others.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The summoned guidelines will help practitioners to treat the CKD patients effectively.

Murphree’s Research (2010)

Conceptual Framework

The study critically reviews the opportunity of eliminating risk factors to prevent the cases of CKD.

Design/Method

The research was based on the evidence collected from multiple studies.

Sample & Setting

No sampling data were available.

Major Variables

The proteinuria, blood pressure, tobacco abuse, bone metabolism, anemia, metabolic acidosis, and cardiovascular risks were studied.

Measurement

No measurements due to the research background.

Data Analysis

The authors did not provide enough information about data analysis.

Findings

One of the major findings is that health care specialists need to raise the health literacy of patients to achieve better treatment outcomes.

Appraisal: Worth to Practice

The evidence-based guidelines will support health care providers in patient management.

  • CDS – computer decision support.
  • CKD – chronic kidney disease.
  • CRCT – cluster randomized controlled trial.
  • ESRD – stage renal disease.
  • GFR – glomerular filtration rate
  • PCP – primary care physician.

References

Anderson, S., Halter, J., Hazzard, W., Himmelfarb, H., McFarland Horne, F., Kaysen, G., … High, K. (2009). Prediction, Progression, and Outcomes of Chronic Kidney Disease in Older Adults. JASN, 20(6), 1199-1209.

Balogun, R. A., & Bolton, W. K. (2016).Chronic Kidney Disease: A Brief Review for the Primary Care Physician. JCOM. Web.

Fox, C., Vest, B., Kahn, L., Dickinson, M., Fang, H., Pace, W., … Peterson, K. (2013). Improving evidence-based primary care for chronic kidney disease: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial for translating evidence into practice. Implementation Science, 8(88).

Hogg, R. J., Furth, S., Lemley, K. V., Portman, R., Schwartz, G., Coresh, J., … Levey, A. (2016). National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease in Children and Adolescents: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification. Pediatrics, 111(6), 1416-1421.

Japanese Society of Nephrology. (2009). Preface: evidence-based practice guideline for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology, 13, 534–536.

Murphree, D. D., & Thelen, S. M. (2010). Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care. JABFM, 23(4), 542-550.

Book “Hamzanama”: A Holistic Epos

Introduction

The work in question is entitled “Hamzanama” or “Dastan-e Amir Hamza.” From Urdu, the title translates as “The Adventures of Amir Hamza” (Lakhnavi & Bilgrami 2012). The book is an old Persian dastan – a heroic story usually told orally. The manuscript is known to be accomplished as late as the mid-16th century.

Remarkably, the book draws a visible connection between the cultures that begot the contemporary Western and Eastern ones. “Hamzanama” is often referred to as the Persian “Iliad and Odyssey” (Mahvesh, 2014). Heroic affairs aside, the dastan is characteristic for its episodes of sheer bawdiness and impudence – the features one can encounter in Rabelaisian texts. Atypically vivid for a work of epos, the book encompasses a range of topics, which can facilitate a better understanding of contemporary Middle Eastern cultures and its descendants.

Hamzanama: A work of epos and more

Sooner or later, a well-read person learns to regard every text they read as a construct: the set of characters, actions, events, and settings form a comprehensible, predictable layout. With Hamzanama, the experience was somewhat different because the book incorporates many motives that are not quite compatible with the genre of heroic epos. Although the main character is – typically – strong, brave, bold, and handsome, there is something utterly troubling with his whole demeanor. Making one’s way through a work of epos, one expects to encounter a hero that is perfect in all respects.

In Hamzanama, the reader gets a hero that can be cowardly, lame, and mean – and villains capable of kindly and wholehearted actions. The book might be the first in its kind prototyping despicable heroes and loveable, charismatic villains.

Not surprisingly, it is much easier to relate to a hero who gets out of character than to a bunch of stereotypically good traits. In this respect, the book is a unique example of how a fictional character can come alive.

At the same time, Hamzanama is a valuable source of cultural specificities common for peoples of the Middle East. Stylishly playful and brassy at times, the text nevertheless favors values such as faith, bravery, honor, and the power of the spirit. This, and some other aspects of the dastan, can provide an in-depth view of the cultural legacy of Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey natives.

Hamzanama and cultural holism

The literature of the Middle East calls up the colors, the fragrance, and the unbelievably rich mythology; Hamzanama is no exception, with its jinns, ghouls, and all other sorts of phantasmagoric creatures. Its lavishly embroidered textual canvas, however, is full of motives permeating the global literary tradition: quest, trickery, capture and rescue, crime and punishment, home and family, bodily voluptuousness, and everlasting love. Values and motives common for all humans make “Adventures of Amir Hamza” a part of the global literary legacy and stand for a culturally holistic approach.

Conclusion

Generations of Middle East natives have been brought up on Hamzanama, intoxicated by the spirit of adventure. Faiths and settings differ but the omnipresent values of justice, spirit, and a good laugh are present in Hamzanama. Thus, the dastan teaches the reader to see culture as an all-encompassing phenomenon and simultaneously allows for an insightful cultural perspective. This, in turn, will enable me to acknowledge the cultural background of the Middle East natives I can meet in the course of work and understand them better.

References

Lakhnavi, G., & Bilgrami A. (2012). The Adventures of Amir Hamza: Special abridged edition. (Musharraf Ali Farooqi Trans.). New York, NY: Modern Library.

Mahvesh, M. (2014). Under the Radar: The Adventures of Amir Hamza. Web.

Intelligent Robots, Their Benefits And Disadvantages

Benefits

Intelligent robots have been a staple of science fiction for more than a century. An artificial brain that is able to understand the world and feel emotions akin to a human being may still be fiction today, but advances in the field of robotics show that it may become a reality soon. The creation of a thinking computer will require a lot of resources and are guaranteed to bring complex dilemmas and controversy into the world. However, the applications for such technology are extremely wide. Due to their ability to understand human emotions, such robots would be effective assistants for the seniors, customer service people, and guides for the blind, as well as other professions (Wu, Tsai, Hu, & Chen, 2017). It may also solve the issue of autonomous weapons being indiscriminate when protecting areas (Royakkers & Est, 2015).

Disadvantages

Some of the most prominent issues concern the security of such machines. A talented hacker would be able to gain access to the system of the robot to use it maliciously. A weapons system controlled by such a robot would instantly become a deadly hazard to anyone standing near it, and a guide robot could lead a person into traffic (Matellán, Bonaci, & Sabaliauskaite, 2018). The second issue could come from robots replacing human jobs. Unemployment would rise, and animosity towards intelligent robots would develop (Gross, 2017).

References

Gross, M. (2017). How will robots integrate into our world? Current Biology, 27(6), 199–201.

Matellán, V., Bonaci, T., & Sabaliauskaite, G. (2018). Cyber-security in robotics and autonomous systems. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 100, 41–42.

Royakkers, L., & Est, R. van. (2015). A literature review on new robotics: Automation from love to war. International Journal of Social Robotics, 7(5), 549–570.

Wu, T.-F., Tsai, P.-S., Hu, N.-T., & Chen, J.-Y. (2017). Intelligent wheeled mobile robots for the blind navigation application. Engineering Computations, 34(2), 214–238.

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