Chronic Kidney Disease: Program Planning Project Sample Assignment

Problem Statement

Chronic kidney disease is one of the most burning issues of the area of health care and epidemiology nowadays. Various factors discussed below lead to the sharp increase in the rate of chronic kidney disease incidence among the population of the United States of America and other countries. According to Stone (2008), the number of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease in the US has increased rather drastically over the several recent years making epidemiologists take more time to research the topic of chronic kidney disease and try to find ways to find this threat to the human health (p. 1).

The issue of chronic kidney disease is complicated by the fact stressed by NIH (2009), Bash, Coresh, Köttgen, Parekh, Fulop, Wang et al. (2009), Family Doctor (2009), and Stone (2008) arguing that most patients suffering from the disease usually experience more problems from the consequences and complications of the chronic kidneys disease that range from mild weaknesses to kidney failures, comas, and cardiovascular disease.

Research on Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Research Importance;
  • Research Methodology;
  • Basic Research Procedures;
  • Research Limitations;

The above problem statement allows seeing the very importance of the research on chronic kidney disease. The main points that facilitate the need for the chronic kidney disease research and handling program include the sharp increase of chronic kidney disease over the past decade, the increasing danger of the disease and its complications, and the need to formulate effective ways to treat chronic kidney disease and inform people on handling this disease (Stone, 2008, p. 2; Singh, Szczech, Tang, Barnhart, Sapp, Wolfson, et al., 2009, p. 2091).

Drawing from this, the epidemiological approach is chosen as the basic methodology for chronic kidney disease research. In epidemiology as a rather people-oriented science, direct communication with people as potential or current disease victims or specialists who can help treat the chronic kidney disease is considered, like Bash, Coresh, Köttgen, Parekh, Fulop, Wang et al. (2009) argue, to be a most effective technique. Therefore, the research will resort to the use of face-to-face and semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys to collect its primary data. The secondary data will be collected through the methods of literature review and documentation supervision.

Accordingly, the main research procedures used during the investigation of the chronic kidney disease data will start with the literature review aimed at getting preliminary, mainly secondary, information on the disease’s background (Fos and Fine, 2000, pp. 12 – 13). The next step will be the creation of questionnaires for the intended surveys and the development of questions for the face-to-face and semi-structured interviews. Special scales will be designed next for convenient and objective data measurement and analysis. As the literature review information and the primary research data are processes, the research results will be reported in public media and regular educational meetings will be established to timely inform people on chronic kidney disease and the ways to handle it (Singh, Szczech, Tang, Barnhart, Sapp, Wolfson, et al., 2009, p. 2097).

The limitations of the research will be observed mainly in its scope and the changing nature of the disease studied. Concerning the former, it will be impossible to quest every single chronic kidney disease patient and thus the study results can apply to the limited number of people and context. Further research will be necessary to eliminate this limitation, as well as the second one, as only the regular studies of the topic might help obtain data on chronic kidney disease in its development (Bash, Coresh, Köttgen, Parekh, Fulop, Wang, et al., 2009, p. 423).

Chronic Kidney Disease Program Objectives

  • Importance of chronic kidney disease program objectives;
  • Informational objectives of chronic kidney disease program;
  • Introduction of the program information to the epidemiological and medical professionals;
  • Defining program limitations and further research directions.

As a result of the need to have a structured program for handling chronic kidney disease, the following program objectives can be outlined as the fundamentals for research and practical work in the area of studying chronic kidney disease, its causes, and ways to treat it:

  1. Carry out the deep study of chronic kidney disease;
  2. Inquire in detail about the caused of the chronic kidney disease occurrence;
  3. Study the research works for the reported ways of treating chronic kidney disease;
  4. Select the most fitting principles and carry out the new research to trace the disease development over time;
  5. Synthesize research conclusions and formulate them into understandable and comprehensible statements;
  6. Inform the ordinary people, as the potential victims of chronic kidney disease, on the research findings;
  7. Implement regular educational work among the chronic kidney disease patients or potential victims of the disease;
  8. Introduce the research findings to the epidemiology and medicine professionals to allow them to update their treatment techniques and overall knowledge on chronic kidney disease;
  9. State the limitations of the current chronic kidney disease program;
  10. Outline the directions for further research on the topic of chronic kidney disease.

Accordingly, the above presented chronic kidney disease program objectives combined with the proper research data collection and analysis techniques will provide epidemiology with valuable data on chronic kidney disease, its development causes, and ways to stop the disease progression.


Bash, L. D., Coresh, J., Köttgen, A., Parekh, R. S., Fulop, T., Wang, Y., et al. (2009). Defining incident chronic kidney disease in the research setting. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(4). P. 414-424.

Family Doctor. (2009). What is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic Kidney Disease. Web.

Fos, P. and Fine D.J. (2000). Designing Healthcare for Populations: Applied Epidemiology in healthcare administration, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

NIH. (2009). Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure. National Institute of Health Fact Sheet.

Singh, A. K., Szczech, L., Tang, K. L., Barnhart, H., Sapp, S., Wolfson, M., et al. (2009). Correction of anemia with Epoetin Alfa in chronic kidney disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355(20): 2085-2098.

Stone, A. (2008). Annual Report Targets Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. NIH News, 1-2.

Plant-Based Diets In Health Issues


Despite living in the age of gastronomic abundance, we do not always make the right dietary choices.

This tendency is reflected in the ubiquitous nature of chronic disease. Harmful conditions that are at least partially related to nutrition are quite common nowadays.

This essay argues that people dealing with common health issues, such as diabetes and hypertension, can simply improve their health by keeping to a plant-based diet – a diet that is healthy, inexpensive, and contributes to the minimization of animal suffering.


Proof that the Problem Exists

The epidemic nature of diabetes, hypertension, and poor nutrition is recognized by the U.S. health authorities.

In adult U.S. citizens, the prevalence of diabetes has increased drastically since 2004 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “National Diabetes Statistics” 5). In 2018, hypertension contributed to almost 500.000 deaths in the U.S., and over 30 million adults have untreated hypertension (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion). Many chronic health issues are exacerbated due to poor nutrition – in the U.S., only 10% of adults eat enough vegetable food (CDC, “Poor Nutrition” 1).

Thus, chronic health issues and unhealthy nutrition remain prevalent.

Possible Solutions

The potential health improvement strategies include pharmaceutical treatment and plant-based diets.

Regular medication intake improves general well-being in chronically ill patients. However, medications have side effects and do not eliminate the effects of poor nutrition.

A plant-based diet can be perceived as the best solution.

Selected Solution: Plant-Based Diet


Three simple steps are needed to implement the solution.

Firstly, one should divide the food they eat into two categories: recommended (vegetable food) and other products (processed foods, meat, dairy products). It can be done with the help of nutrition and diet apps and is needed to draft change. Then, to avoid too rapid changes, one should increase the consumption of the recommended food while cutting down the intake of other products. Finally, a person is to proceed with changing the diet to make sure that animal products are reduced to a minimum.

Due to the risks of stress, the solution is to be implemented gradually.

Why Plant-Based Diet Is the Best Solution

Plant-based diets lead to health improvement in those with chronic conditions and reduce the need for medications.

Due to their positive effects on BMI and the promotion of healthier eating patterns, plant-based diets are known to reduce the risks of complications in those with diabetes (McMacken and Shah 342). In hypertensive patients, plant-based diets lead to the normalization of blood pressure, thus reducing the drug burden (Najjar et al. 307).

Plant-based diets’ positive effects on health are well-documented.

Dealing with Costs

The selected solution involves certain costs.

Keeping to a plant-based diet might increase the amount of time spent on food preparation since popular ready-to-cook foods are not recommended. To deal with this issue, it is possible to eat more fresh vegetables. Also, those following plant-based diets sometimes suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency (Hever 96). To prevent this from happening, it can be recommended to take vitamin supplements and make sure that a person consumes enough calories.

Thus, the costs of choosing plant-based diets can be easily overcome.

Refutation of Alternative Arguments

Some argue that plant-based diets are harmful and cause nutritional deficiencies.

Actually, there is no evidence that iron-deficiency anemia specifically affects vegetarians (Hever 97). The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recognizes plant-based diets as “nutritionally adequate” choices (Hever 94).

Given that a person’s caloric intake is adequate, plant-based diets do not promote deficiencies.


The health benefits of plant-based diets are abundant, including blood pressure normalization, the reduced need for drugs, and healthier BMIs. Based on evidence from research, diabetes and hypertension patients are highly recommended to adhere to them.

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report. Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Poor Nutrition. 2020, Web.

Hever, Julieanna. “Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide.” The Permanente Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, 2016, pp. 93-99.

McMacken, Michelle, and Sapana Shah. “A Plant-Based Diet for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.” Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, vol. 14, no. 5, 2017, pp. 342-354.

Najjar, Rami, et al. “A Defined, Plant-Based Diet Utilized in an Outpatient Cardiovascular Clinic Effectively Treats Hypercholesterolemia and Hypertension and Reduces Medications.” Clinical Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 3, 2018, pp. 307-313.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. “Facts about Hypertension.” CDC, 2020, Web.

Environmental Analysis And Industry Trends

Executive summary

The following report intends to create a picture of what is happening in our institution and our current position in the provision of quality health care to the sick in our society. As is well known, the utmost challenge facing our health caregivers is in finding and tracking changes that happen in their settings. Also, there is a problem with setting goals to be achieved in the near future so as to cater to the identified changes (Cherry & Jacob, 2005, p.13). It is for these reasons that this report analyses the changes that have occurred in the environment of this hospital. It will tackle issues pertaining to legislative/political changes, the economic changes, the socio-demographic changes in the population being served by the hospital and their effect on health, the technological advancements that we have achieved so far and finally ending with the competitive changes as a result of up cropping of other two health care providers in our neighborhood. Coping with these changes is required in order to have smooth running. The report also shows the current trends in the health care industry. It concludes by urging all the stakeholders in health care to join hands to ensure equitable distribution of health care services to all.

Background information

This medical center is a non-profit making organization established in the 1990s to provide specialized health care to the increasing number of consumers. It serves a population of up to half a million people, with the higher percentage of them being in their early adulthood. Most of the residents are of middle-level socio-economic class and informal employment. There are three hospitals in our vicinity that compete in offering the most efficient health care services to the residents.

Health care changes

According to the American College of Health Care Executives (2010, p.7), the laws and regulations that have been formulated as a result of health care reforms, bring much uncertainty in the health care sector while at the same time creating opportunities to be exploited in the future. They further state that it is the duty of each organization to find the relevance of each legislation, its timing and the context to which it can best be utilized. Health care professionals are in agreement that organizations providing health care have to deal with the following changes:

  • Legislative/political changes: in the near future there are expectations that with the ongoing health care reforms, the health activities are going to be regulated more. Legislations will be enforced to control abuse in health, the rules of disclosure between the patient and the health care provider, increased privacy of all the records with patient’s medical information among others (Swayne, Duncan& Ginter, 2006, p.50). Some legislative measures are anticipated to reduce or curtail the ever-increasing cost of medical care in our hospitals. With these legislations, political players will be involved in ensuring cost controls in medical care.
  • Economic changes: the cost of accessing health care services is expected to rise consistently as time goes on. With the economic hardship currently straining many people, this will definitely have an impact on the health status of the people. With the lack of health insurance for all in our nation, there will be diminished chances of employers increasing insurance coverage to cater to the rising costs (Shortell, 2008, p.92). The mass movement of patients from one health care provider to the next is anticipated as they will be forced to suit what their employers are able to offer. The hospitals will be forced to embrace strategic initiatives which are meant for cost reduction and improvement of hospital efficiency (Finkelman, 2009, p.63). In addition, they will be forced to result in fundraising procedures in order to offer medical care to the less fortunate in society. Also, we will have to adapt to new methods of cutting costs like moving care to minimal costly outpatient care. Finally, the number of privately sponsored patients will diminish day by day.
  • Socio-demographic changes: with a rising old age population in our country due to an increase in the life span, the demand for health care has been increased and therefore more budget is needed to cater for them. There has been a rise in Hispanic children of late notably one in four Americans is a Hispanic (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2006, p.51). Also, in the future, as more people become literate, a well-educated population will be achieved that is capable of detecting any deviations from the normal about their health status. As a result of increased demand for health care, the ratio of patients to physicians will increase as the demand for physicians will rise as competition with the other institution’s rises.
  • Technological changes: there are ever-changing medical advancements; new drugs, medical technologies in surgery, gene therapy, vaccination among others (Finger, 2009, para.5). These changes have been marked by an increased rise in the cost of acquiring the new technologies to meet the market demand. In the future, much is anticipated in the medical information technology sector (Murray, 2007, p.54). This will involve automation of clinical information, telehealth and the field of medical data analysis.
  • Competitive changes: with the expansion of health care institutions so as to woo more consumers of health, stiff competition is forecasted between the various players. Health organizations will endeavor to acquire a market niche by targeting specific people in the population or by having specialized treatment services in a certain area (Terry, 2010, para.3). Improved care will be recorded in the outpatient department with an aim of winning large numbers of the sick. Public health care will gain more relevance as major public health strategies get to be applied in the areas of disease prevention and control, disease monitoring and surveillance among others. It is expected that the physicians will go on shifting their services to the outpatient sector in the facilities that they claim ownership or are partners (Jessee, 2004, p.50). The hospitals will therefore be better advised to establish a proper mechanism that engages the physicians in the hospital organizations so as to increase their loyalty to the organizations.


In conclusion, it is clearly evident that the health care industry is gradually and continuously changing. These changes are accompanied by major improvements towards the provision of efficient health care to the patient which is the primary goal of health institutions. So as to remain relevant in the modern world, it is of great importance for health institutions to embrace these changes and be in tandem with the rest. With the ongoing health care reforms in our country, much is expected to change. There is every hope that equality in health care provision in the future will be achieved.

Reference List

American College of Health Care Executives (2010). Health Care Trends and Implications 2010-2015. Futurescan. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Cherry, B. & Jacob, S. (2005). Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends & Management. Lousiana: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Finger, M. (2009). Industry Analysis and Trends. Web.

Finkelman, A. (2009). Professional Nursing Concepts: Competencies for Quality Leadership. Washington, DC: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Jessee, W. (2004). Physicians: Transitioning from Alignment to Integration. Boston: Mcgraw Hill.

Murray, P. (2007). Nursing Informatics 2020: Towards Defining our Own Future. Virginia: IOS Press.

Shortell, S. (2008). Delivery System Reform: Accountable Care Organizations and Patient-Centered Medical Homes. Lousiana: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Swayne, L., Duncan, W. & Ginter, P. (2006). Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing.

Terry, K. (2010). Physicians and Hospital Battle Over Lucrative Procedures, Well- Insured Patients. Health Care Analysis. Web.

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