Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Sample Assignment


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a severe condition that threatens public health. Awareness of medical workers and the community about this disease will allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment. The main danger of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the prolonged absence of symptoms. The consequences of the disease without timely treatment include death due to respiratory failure. Identifying early symptoms is the key to timely treatment that can save patients’ lives.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an increasing cause of death in older people. This disease in 2019 was among the top three in terms of mortality after ischemia and stroke (World Health Organization, 2020). The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects the small bronchi, leading to respiratory failure due to the narrowing of the bronchial lumen (Saladin 2020). The elasticity of the lungs decreases, and the ability to contract and expand during breathing (Saladin, 2020). The most common symptoms are shortness of breath and daily cough with macroscopic discharge (Riley & Sciurba, 2019). An aggravating factor is smoking; the consequences of long-term smoking can also hide the symptoms of this disease (Saladin, 2020). Cough is one of the earliest precursors of the disease, at first episodic, then becoming daily.


Complications of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are severe and can be fatal. As a result of the progression of the disease, infections, respiratory failure, and chronic cor pulmonale develop (Saladin, 2020). The condition can provoke the development of bronchogenic carcinoma, but it is not a direct consequence (Saladin, 2020). Respiratory failure at the initial stage is characterized by shortness of breath. Cor pulmonale is an enlargement of the right side of the heart that occurs when blood pressure rises due to lung disease (Saladin, 2020). Unfortunately, the condition is not always possible to notice before the onset of severe consequences.

Critical Thinking

Mnemonic Techniques

Using communication mnemonics to memorize information about chronic obstructive respiratory disease is profitable: memorization through already-known knowledge and visualization. Students clearly understand the respiratory system structure; they can immediately build a connection between the disease and the bronchi. Further, they can imagine how the condition compresses people’s throats, preventing them from breathing and saturating the blood with oxygen. Using the obtained associations, it is possible to conclude the main symptoms: cough due to bronchial damage and shortness of breath due to respiratory failure.

Importance of the Topic

This topic is crucial for public health and the protection of older people from this disease. The main problem is that the disease is difficult to detect in the early stages due to similar symptoms to other respiratory and cardiac diseases. Raising awareness about the early signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is essential, as it has already become one of the leading causes of death in older people. I believe that the topic is of great importance for the whole world since the protection of the health of the population is a global task. This topic is crucial for me because I have elderly relatives at risk of this disease.

Concepts’ Relations

The leading cause of the obstructive pulmonary disease is related to smoking. In addition, the disease can occur due to air pollution in the area where the patient lives (Saladin, 2020). Often the effects of long-term smoking, such as daily coughing and shortness of breath, are symptoms of an insidiously progressive disease. Therefore, this chronic disease is associated with the concept of smoking cessation for the prevention of respiratory diseases.


Thus, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease poses a serious threat to public well-being. The population must be informed about the early symptoms of the disease and skillfully not ignore minor deteriorations in health. Combating the disease requires public awareness and action to reduce air pollution. The fight against smoking and protecting the environment from pollution should become the main concepts of prevention, along with increased awareness of the disease.


Riley, C. M., & Sciurba, F. C. (2019). Diagnosis and outpatient management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. Jama, 321(8), 786-797.

Saladin, K. S. (2020). ISE Anatomy & Physiology: The unity of form and function (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

World Health Organization. (2020). The top 10 causes of death.

Police Officers: Qualifications And Responsibilities

The police are a state-established group of individuals having the authority to enforce the law and protect residents’ lives, property, and well-being. Law enforcement officers are on the front lines of the fight against organized crime in every nation. Their legal authority extends to making arrests and using force, which is justified by the country’s monopoly on violence. Police officers must have various skills to excel in their work because it is not an easy job. This essay analyzes the importance of qualities that each police officer should have throughout their duty.

Straightforward and confident communication are essential skills for police officers. Trust is developed via open communication, which opens the door to fulfilling partnerships. Additionally, effective communication is necessary for police personnel to communicate with the public since it affects how people react to police. Police officers must constantly be able to function under stress, remain composed, and use good judgment and decision-making abilities as necessary. They must analyze possibilities before settling on the most rational plan of action (Juhee 128). Situations can worsen and endanger life if good judgment and calmness are lacking.

Police personnel must have the courage to preserve their mental and moral fortitude in adversity. Their confidence is boosted, and their ability to believe in themselves is made possible by their courage. The integrity shown in a police officer’s private life lays the groundwork for an admirable job. Integrity in the police force is fundamental to its capacity for carrying out crucial duties in an efficient manner (Juhee 129). Physical fitness is essential for law enforcement personnel in their line of duty. Police who are physically active have greater confidence in their abilities to carry out their duties, which makes them more relaxed and less stressed.

Law enforcement officers must respect and uphold everyone’s human rights while carrying out their duties. Since they deal with persons accused of committing crimes and those who have been victims of crimes every day, respecting humanity is crucial. Furthermore, police officers should have a sense of ethical conduct and demonstrate it. In order to avoid losing confidence and trust, police personnel must always act with moral and ethical restraint. A sense of ethics fosters virtues like modesty, tolerance, respect, and generosity that contribute to character development (Elntib and Milincic 216). Police lose authority if they do not act ethically, and credibility is necessary for them to perform their jobs.

Police officers should exhibit traits like a natural curiosity and a willingness to expand their knowledge and skills further. Law enforcement personnel undergo a lot of preparation before they put on their uniforms, but there is usually plenty they can discover on the line of duty. Effective listening is another crucial ability for law officers to possess. Officers can efficiently interact with the general public and various law enforcement personnel attributable of this capability (Elntib and Milincic 218). Additionally, it guarantees they take note of significant particulars and facts to provide to police, emergency response personnel, or legal counsel in court.

In conclusion, the police are in charge of upholding law and order, protecting the public, and stopping, spotting and looking into illegal activity, making it a dynamic occupation. Police officers need a variety of skills and traits to be able to handle the challenging job environment. Some qualities include: effective communication, sound judgment, courage, integrity, physical fitness, humanity, sense of ethics, willingness to learn, and effective listening. The police force will benefit from having these qualities by providing better public service, more respect from the community, and a stronger position in the criminal justice process.

Works Cited

Elntib, Stamatis, and Milincic, Daliborka. “Motivations For Becoming a Police Officer: A Global Snapshot.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, vol. 36, no. 3, 2021, pp. 211-219, Web.

Juhee, Park. “The Qualities Criteria of Constructive Play and The Teacher’s Role.” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, 2019, pp. 126-132, Web.

Anxiety Disorders In Older Adults

Although anxiety is a common reaction to stress, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are all conditions that can cause chronic anxiety. Numerous people suffer from anxiety disorders daily, which may be devastating in many circumstances (Goodwin et al., 2020). A diagnosis of an anxiety condition might create an entirely new set of issues for older persons. When anxiety problems are added to the pressures of existing medical issues, they can significantly influence adults’ quality of life. In the United States, anxiety affects almost 40 million adults (Goodwin et al., 2020). Anxiety manifests itself differently in persons of varying ages, gender, and color. Situations involving stress, such as a difficult job interview, can cause anxiety. Anxiety disorder is characterized by more than nervousness or worry. Anxiety disorder symptoms might interfere with day-to-day activities such as school, job, and interpersonal relationships. Social workers and healthcare professionals should advocate for older persons, make resources available, and, most importantly, educate them about anxiety disorders and their treatment.

A mentally healthy person who can operate regularly is well-balanced and able to deal with the stresses and difficulties of daily life. However, a person with psychological instability is incapable of doing so. Anxiety is a mental disorder that negatively affects how people act, perceive, and behave (Hernández et al., 2021). A person’s mental state must be fully functional to be emotionally stable. A logically sound person displays appropriate levels of conduct and functioning. The causes of anxiety include stress, injury, lousy addiction, drug use, and sexual abuse in childhood (Hernández et al., 2021). Anxiety disorders can also be caused by aging-related changes such as deteriorating health, memory issues, and loss (Hernández et al., 2021). Many older adults dread falling, inability to afford living costs and medicines, being mistreated and relying on others, getting unattended, and dying, which can cause anxiety (Hernández et al., 2021).

GAD is one of the most prevalent mental disorders, yet there is no simple clinical test to evaluate it (Hunsaker et al., 2020). Everyone could experience anxiety at some point in life; for example, the nervousness one gets ahead of a first date, the stress employees encounter when their manager is angry, and heart palpitations in dangerous situations. Anxiety compels individuals to act; it is a propensity and a sensation of protracted and delayed tension, a sense of dread, and prolonged pressure (Hunsaker et al., 2020). Anxiety and fear are related emotions with significant distinctions. Anxiety is long-lasting, whereas fear relies on an obvious threat and has a brief duration (Hunsaker et al., 2020). Most adults have experienced anxiety in some form since the circumstances of routine daily life elicit it. For instance, students may have test-related anxiety, one may feel anxious about attending a scheduled meeting, and numerous folks are terrified of public speaking. This implies that anxiety is a common occurrence and a method of adjusting to life. Despite its adverse health effects, anxiety may sometimes be advantageous because it heightens a person’s awareness of potential pitfalls, promotes concentration, and prepares them to confront a precarious situation.

Per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses, although it receives little attention (Hasin et al., 2018). Anxiety disorder is characterized by unusual and protracted feelings of fear and suffering, usually accompanied by physical manifestations (Hasin et al., 2018). It starts at a young age and may follow a recurrent pattern in one’s life, creating severe incapacity regarding health, misfortune, job stability, and obstruction throughout a lifetime in areas such as salary, education, and interpersonal connections. A social worker can alleviate many anxiety-related concerns by connecting clients to resources that reduce and confront their fears and insecurities (Hasin et al., 2018). Access to effective, non-discriminatory treatments will demonstrate efficacy and facilitate people’s ability to function more effectively in society. The absence of improved treatment access will negatively influence the affected patients, their families, and their communities.

In complicated situations, medication may be required to treat GAD, but in most cases, counseling and physical exercise can reduce and reverse symptoms, mainly if they are diagnosed early. Since anxiety and depression coexist, it is essential to differentiate between them and administer the appropriate treatment (Hernández et al., 2021). To offer the necessary help and resources, social workers and therapists should take the initiative to acquire extra training that centers on anxiety in older adults and discuss the matter with the patient’s family and community members.

Social workers should be patient and do a comprehensive evaluation that reflects on all elements of the client’s well-being and environmental variables that may produce anxiety symptoms. Social workers and physicians should advocate for older individuals diagnosed with anxiety by completely immersing themselves and comprehending the onset’s complexity with patience and by developing treatment strategies that suit each patient (Goodwin et al., 2020). In addition, social workers should ensure that all adults with anxiety disorders have access to treatment choices and services to manage their symptoms (Goodwin et al., 2020). Therefore, it is vital for clinicians and social workers to collaborate to reduce the number of undertreated adults with anxiety.

Anxiety disorders affect many people daily and can be life-threatening in some situations. Due to anxiety disorder symptoms, there may be difficulties in daily activities such as school, work, and interpersonal relationships. All adults diagnosed with anxiety should be given information about anxiety disorders and available treatment options. Unusual and prolonged fear and suffering are hallmarks of anxiety disorder, frequently accompanied by physical manifestations. In some cases, medication may treat GAD, but counseling and exercise may alleviate and reverse symptoms, especially if they are detected early.


Goodwin, R. D., Weinberger, A. H., Kim, J. H., Wu, M., & Galea, S. (2020). Trends in anxiety among adults in the United States, 2008–2018: Rapid increases among young adults. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 130, 441-446.

Hasin, D. S., Sarvet, A. L., Meyers, J. L., Saha, T. D., Ruan, W. J., Stohl, M., & Grant, B. F. (2018). Epidemiology of adult DSM-5 major depressive disorder and its specifiers in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 75(4), 336-346.

Hernández, C., Gómez‐Urquiza, J. L., Pradas‐Hernández, L., Roman, K., Suleiman‐Martos, N., Albendín‐García, L., & Cañadas‐De la Fuente, G. A. (2021). Effectiveness of nursing interventions for preoperative anxiety in adults: A systematic review with meta‐analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(8), 3274-3285.

Hunsaker, A., Hargittai, E., & Piper, A. M. (2020). Online social connectedness and anxiety among older adults. International Journal of Communication, 14, 697-725.