Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) Sample Assignment

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy refers to a neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with recurrent head injuries. The condition is characterized by progressive degeneration of brain cells, impacting emotional and motor functioning. The condition does not occur immediately when the head traumas happen but is closely linked with persistent post-concussive symptoms and second impact syndrome. CTE mainly affects the frontal and temporal lobes, although it can also affect other brain regions. Researchers believe that the pathologic changes in CTE are due to the accumulation of a protein called tau, which can interfere with neuronal signaling and lead to cell death. However, the development of tau proteins in CTE differs from those that develop during the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Tau, in other terms, the microtubule-associated protein tau, is crucial in facilitating the normal translocation of cellular cargo within the neuronal axonal projections (Katsumoto et al., 2019). In its normal state, tau is a soluble protein and plays a crucial role in microtubule stabilization in cells. The highest concentrations of the particular protein are found in the neurons. However, in pathology, tau is more phosphorylated than normal. Hyperphosphorylated tau molecules that detach from microtubules in the axon and move to the cell body and proximal dendrites affect the axonal function and form Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Tau protein accumulates in neurons and other brain cells with time. The presence of particular proteins around blood vessels in the brain is the main way CTE is identified at the cellular level. Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), consisting of twisted tau protein strands, are a particular kind of tau that that keeps on accumulating over time and are closely linked to the development of CTE. NFTs are present in the soma and dendrites of neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes, among other types of cells. The buildup of tau in CTE impairs neurons’ ability to function normally, which causes a deterioration in cognitive, emotional, and motor abilities.

The widespread damage to the brain that characterizes CTE is the main issue that takes place at the tissue level. Major changes include the loss of neurons, gliosis (an abnormal accumulation of glial cells), and the development of NFT. Tau protein buildup is thought to cause neuronal loss since it can obstruct neuronal signaling and result in cell death (Iverson et al., 2019). Another distinctive aspect of CTE is gliosis, an excessive buildup of glial cells thought to be a reaction to brain injury. One of the hallmarks of CTE is the development of NFTs in neurons and other cells associated with interference with cognitive, emotional, and motor functions.

Morphologic changes brought on by CTE may result in several functional issues. Neuronal death may have adverse repercussions such as memory loss, disorientation, and impaired judgment. Poor neuronal transmission brought on by gliosis may impair one’s capacity for abstract thought, language, and problem-solving. Neuronal signaling may be compromised due to the growth of NFTs, which may impair cognitive, emotional, and motor function (Mayo clinic, 2023). Additionally, a buildup of tau protein may prevent neurotransmitters from being released normally, lowering motivation and attentiveness.

In conclusion, tau protein builds up in neurons and other brain cells, causing CTE, a neurodegenerative illness that worsens with time. NFTs, which can disrupt neural signaling and cause a decrease in cognitive, affective, and motor performance, is a hallmark of CTE at the cellular level. Neuronal loss, gliosis, and the development of NFTs are tissue-level indicators of CTE, which can cause various functional abnormalities. It is critical to recognize and treat CTE as early as possible since the morphologic changes in CTE can result in a deterioration in cognitive, emotional, and motor functions.


Iverson, G. L., Gardner, A. J., Shultz, S. R., Solomon, G. S., McCrory, P., Zafonte, R., … & Castellani, R. J. (2019). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy neuropathology might not be inexorably progressive or unique to repetitive neurotrauma. Brain142(12), 3672–3693.

Katsumoto, A., Takeuchi, H., & Tanaka, F. (2019). Tau pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer’s disease: similarities and differences. Frontiers in neurologypp. 10, 980.

Mayo Clinic (2023). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Comparative And Absolute Advantage In International Trade Including An Understanding Of Multiculturalism Essay Example

According to (Gael,2022), The ability of a nation to produce a specific commodity or service at a lower opportunity cost when compared to another nation is known as comparative advantage. A nation has a comparative advantage in manufacturing a good if it can do it more effectively than any other nation. It makes the nation more competitive since it can produce the good for less money and sell it less on the global market. On the other hand, absolute advantage refers to a nation’s capacity to produce a good or service more effectively than any other nation, regardless of the opportunity cost. In other words, if a nation can produce a good at a lower cost or with fewer resources than any other nation, it has a distinct advantage.

Depending on various elements like a person’s work, geography, and consumption patterns, the effects of international trade on them might vary substantially. By fostering greater competition and giving customers access to a wider variety of goods, international commerce can result in more job opportunities and reduced consumer prices (Gawel,2021). On the other side, trading with other countries may have a detrimental effect on some areas and cause job losses in some industries. The conduct and regulation of international trade can also substantially impact the environment, workers’ rights, and the general state of the economy.

The goods we purchase have a significant impact on the world economy. It can be challenging to track where our purchases come from because so many things are created in different nations. When we look around our homes, it is clear that many of our objects were purchased in recent years or imported from other nations.

Five American-made items

  1. Wilson footballs
  2. Zippo lighter
  3. Crayola-Crayola
  4. Maglite flashlight.
  5. Tervis container

Products from other Countries

  1. Consumer electronics
  2. Textiles and apparel
  3. Exotic fruits, seafood, coffee, and tea,
  4. Furniture
  5. Automotive components and vehicles

Opportunity Cost and Comparative Advantage, The Advantages of International Trade, are Enhanced by Coasts

“Comparative advantage” describes a nation’s capacity to produce a specific good or service more effectively than another nat; a nation has a comparative advantage in producing a particular commodity or service if it can do so with fewer resources than another nation. For instance, compared to another country, a nation with abundant rich land and good weather may have a comparative advantage in producing agricultural goods like fruit and vegetables.

Opportunity cost is the price associated with a specific decision relative to the next best option. Opportunity cost in international trade is the difference between producing a good or service in one country and producing the same good or service in another country. For instance, a nation that produces textiles with a comparative advantage may import electronics instead of creating them, which would have a more significant opportunity cost.

Countries can specialize in manufacturing the commodities and services in which they have a comparative advantage thanks to international commerce, enabling them to take advantage of their comparative advantages. This specialization may result in greater effectiveness, cheaper expenses, and faster economic progress. A country’s standard of living can be raised by importing goods and services from nations with lower opportunity costs because they have access to a more excellent range of goods and services at lower prices.

A tariff is a tax on imported goods or services. The ultimate payer of the tariff depends on market conditions, but typically the cost is passed on to the consumer through higher prices. According to Pritchet & Sethi (1994), The government receives revenue from tariffs, and the money can be used for various purposes.

The advantages of tariffs for American workers and producers include increased domestic production, higher wages, and protection from foreign competition. However, disadvantages for American consumers include higher prices and reduced selection. Foreign workers and producers may suffer from reduced access to the U.S. market, but retaliatory tariffs can also hurt American exporters.

Retaliatory tariffs imposed by foreign countries on U.S.-made goods can hurt American exporters and potentially lead to job losses. Still, they can also incentivize domestic production and reduce the trade deficit (Cavallo et al.,2021). Conversely, tariffs on imports to the U.S. can protect American jobs and industries, raise prices for American consumers, and invite retaliation from other countries.

The backgrounds, education, and cultures of people in the U.S. and other trading countries can significantly influence their understanding and views of foreign trade. For example, those with a background in business and economics may emphasize the economic benefits of trade. In contrast, those with a background in politics or sociology may focus more on foreign trade’s social or cultural implications. Similarly, cultural differences between countries can influence perceptions of what is considered fair trade or acceptable business practices.

Understanding and accepting multiple cultural differences in a global context is essential because cultural norms and values can impact how individuals and businesses approach international trade. Please understand and respect these differences to avoid misunderstandings, cultural clashes, and lost business opportunities.

Some possible negative impacts on international trade that can result from not understanding and respecting cultural differences include misunderstandings, communication breakdowns, conflicts, and loss of trust. These factors can undermine business relationships and result in lost business opportunities.

It is essential to promote cultural education and awareness to increase American understanding and acceptance of foreign cultures. It can include offering courses on cultural studies, increasing opportunities for international travel and cultural exchange, and promoting cross-cultural communication and collaboration in schools and workplaces. It is also vital to encourage businesses to seek cultural training and establish cultural sensitivity as a core value in their operations. By building cultural awareness and understanding, businesses and individuals can strengthen their relationships with foreign partners and improve their chances of success in international trade.

In conclusion, comparative and absolute advantage play an essential role in international trade, where countries specialize in producing goods and services they can produce most efficiently. This approach promotes global economic growth and interdependence among nations. However, international trade is not only about economics; it also involves understanding cultural differences and promoting multiculturalism. As the world becomes more interconnected, it is crucial to recognize and appreciate the diversity of cultures, languages, and beliefs that make up our global community. By embracing multiculturalism and promoting understanding and respect for different perspectives, we can build stronger relationships and create a more prosperous and peaceful world.


Gawel, A. (2021). International Trade in the High-Tech Sector—Support or Obstacle to Start-Up Processes at the Macro Level in European Union Countries? Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research16(5), 1877-1892.

Pritchett, L., & G. Sethi (1994). A few recent statistics regarding tariffs, revenue, and reform. Economic Review of the World Bank, 8(1), 1–16.

Cavallo, A., Gopinath, G., Neiman, B., & Tang, J. (2021). Tariff pass-through at the border and the store: Evidence from us trade policy. American Economic Review: Insights3(1), 19-34.

Conflict Paper: Workplace Violence Free Essay


Registered Practical Nurses (RPN) are at a high risk of experiencing violence in the workplace as they are often the first point of contact for patients and clients. Workplace violence has become a growing concern in the healthcare industry as it can significantly impact healthcare workers’ well-being. The threat of workplace violence can happen to anyone, and it ranges from verbal abuse to physical assault. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of workplace violence in the context of the RPN practice. The paper will examine the contributing factors, consequences, as well as strategies for prevention and management, with the ultimate goal of promoting a safe and healthy work environment.

Definition of the Topic: Workplace Violence

Workplace violence is a complex and multi-faceted issue that affects all healthcare workers. Workplace violence refers to any conduct, threat, abuse, or action that can cause danger or harm to a worker. Some examples of workplace violence in the healthcare setting include threats, bullying, harassment, intimidation, verbal abuse, and physical assault. Workplace violence threatens the safety and well-being of all healthcare workers. Compared to other healthcare professionals, nurses are at a higher risk of workplace violence as they are often the first point of contact with patients (Al-Qadi, 2021). While caring for patients, they may be exposed to clients who are mentally unstable, aggressive, or in crisis.

Workplace violence is an increasing concern in healthcare. Statistics show that the severity and frequency of workplace violence in healthcare settings have been increasing (Dadfar & Lester, 2021). Workplace violence affects the physical and emotional being of all affected parties. According to Dadfar & Lester (2021), workplace violence can cause increased job stress, anxiety, PTSD, job dissatisfaction, occupational burnout, and absenteeism. It also affects the patient’s outcomes and safety as it can cause clinical and therapeutic errors and affect the nurse-client therapeutic relationship. Because of this, all stakeholders must create a healthy and safe workplace with zero tolerance for violence.

Contributing Factors

The causes of workplace violence are complex and can sometimes be difficult to identify. However, some common contributing factors include job stress, personal stress, alcohol and substance abuse, and conflicts with coworkers or supervisors. In some cases, workplace violence can be escalated by environmental factors, such as workplace layoffs, financial difficulties, and community violence (Pagnucci et al., 2022). According to the College of Nurses of Ontario Practice Guideline: Conflict Prevention and Management guideline, the client’s mental or physical state is a significant contributing factor to nurse-client conflict (Conflict Prevention and Management – Practice Guideline (CNO) | Long-Term Care Best Practices Toolkit, 2nd Edition, 2018). For instance, patients who are intoxicated, fatigued, anxious, or have a history of aggressive behavior are more likely to be violent.

The PRN can also contribute to the escalation of workplace violence through communication. For instance, a nurse who does not communicate effectively with the patient may aggravate the patient and increase the risk of conflict. In other cases, nurses who judge, label, or misunderstand a patient may escalate workplace violence. Other communication mistakes that may contribute to workplace violence include the use of threatening tone, gestures, or body language (Wirth et al., 2021). Nurses who lack cultural competency may have incorrect perceptions of cultural differences or fail to identify language barriers, thus contributing to conflict. Furthermore, the PRN can contribute to workplace violence if they do not listen to the concerns of the family or fails to provide enough health information.

According to the College of Nurses of Ontario (2019) entry-to-practice guidelines, RPNs are expected to have the ability to understand and manage conflict. This makes them a critical component for preventing and managing workplace violence. The consequences of workplace violence are far-reaching and can harm the health and well-being of PRNs. Studies have established that exposure to workplace violence can result in physical injuries, emotional distress, psychological trauma, decreased job satisfaction, decreased productivity, and increased nurse turnover (Liu et al., 2019). Consequently, workplace violence harms patient safety and the quality of patient care.

Strategies for Resolution

To prevent conflict due to workplace violence, the PRN must anticipate conflict and create a plan of care to prevent its escalation. According to Yoder-Wise et al. (2019), the key to preventing conflicts from escalating is by providing patient-centered care. This entails understanding and respecting the needs and perspectives of patients and their families. Additionally, nurses can use communication strategies, such as active listening and appropriate body language, to de-escalate tense situations. At an individual level, the PRN should remain calm and avoid arguing or criticizing the client. If necessary, a nurse may step away from the client or withdraw services to protect themselves and other clients. These strategies will ensure that conflict does not escalate and affect the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship.

Effective workplace violence resolution strategies should include measures such as risk assessments, workplace training and education, and the development of clear policies and procedures. According to the Workplace Violence Prevention in Health Care Progress Report, employers have a key role in promoting safe workplaces. They should provide employees with the training, resources, and support they need to manage conflicts and workplace violence (Preventing Workplace Violence in the Health Care Sector | Ontario.Ca, n.d.). This can include access to counseling and support services, clear reporting procedures, and effective follow-up and resolution processes.

RPNs can use the College of Nurses of Ontario Practice Guideline to access a comprehensive framework for conflict prevention and management in the workplace (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2018). This guideline will help them develop a proactive and strategic approach to prevent workplace violence. They can utilize the online Workplace Violence Toolkit that is available from the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions website (“Workplace Violence Toolkit,” n.d.). The toolkit provides prevention policies, de-escalation skills, and strategies that can be used to prevent workplace violence and harassment.

Reflection on Learning

Before starting my research on workplace violence, I was already aware that it was a serious phenomenon affecting nurses globally. However, through my research, I have learned the crucial role that healthcare systems and leaders play in preventing workplace violence and supporting its victims. However, I need to learn more about my behavior and values and how they can contribute to workplace violence. I now understand the importance of creating a safe and supportive work environment and the various measures that can be taken to achieve this. As a Registered Practical Nurse, I plan to create a safe and respectful work environment. I will also ensure that I am well-informed about the policies and procedures in place to prevent workplace violence and support its victims. Additionally, I will strive to continually reflect on my behavior and values and make changes where necessary to promote a safe environment for patients and healthcare providers.


In conclusion, workplace violence is a complex and growing concern in the healthcare industry, particularly for Registered Practical Nurses. Exposure to workplace violence can lead to physical injuries, emotional distress, psychological trauma, decreased job satisfaction, decreased productivity, and increased nurse turnover. To prevent and manage workplace violence, RPNs must use communication strategies, such as active listening and appropriate body language. Employers should provide training, resources, and support to their employees. By promoting a safe and healthy work environment, the quality of patient care and safety can be improved while protecting the well-being of healthcare workers.


Al-Qadi, M. M. (2021). Workplace violence in nursing: A concept analysis. Journal of Occupational Health63(1), e12226.

College of Nurses of Ontario. (2019, April). Entry-to-Practice Competencies for Ontario Registered Practical Nurses.

Conflict Prevention and Management—Practice Guideline (CNO) | Long-Term Care Best Practices Toolkit, 2nd edition. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2023, from

Dadfar, M., & Lester, D. (2021). Workplace violence (WPV) in healthcare systems. Nursing Open8(2), 527–528.

Liu, J., Zheng, J., Liu, K., Liu, X., Wu, Y., Wang, J., & You, L. (2019). Workplace violence against nurses, job satisfaction, burnout, and patient safety in Chinese hospitals. Nursing Outlook67(5), 558–566.

Pagnucci, N., Ottonello, G., Capponi, D., Catania, G., Zanini, M., Aleo, G., Timmins, F., Sasso, L., & Bagnasco, A. (2022). Predictors of events of violence or aggression against nurses in the workplace: A scoping review. Journal of Nursing Management30(6), 1724–1749.

Preventing workplace violence in the health care sector | (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2023, from

Wirth, T., Peters, C., Nienhaus, A., & Schablon, A. (2021). Interventions for Workplace Violence Prevention in Emergency Departments: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(16), 8459.

Workplace Violence Toolkit: Policies & Resources – Workplace Violence Prevention Policies. (n.d.). Canada’s Nurses. Retrieved February 14, 2023, from

Yoder-Wise, P. S., Waddell, J., & Walton, N. A. (2019). Leading and Managing in Canadian Nursing. Elsevier – Health Sciences Division.