Chronicle Of A Death Foretold Essay Example

There are contradicting references to the weather at various points throughout the novel. Some people recall that it was a bright and pleasant morning; however others remember that the weather was ‘funereal’. The poor weather conditions are closely linked with Santiago’s death; there is a strong sense that his death could have been prevented. The weather that day was just like the drizzle that featured in Santiago’s dream. 2. This passage refers to the actions of the narrator.

He reveals that he spent the night of the wedding with a prostitute and awoke to the ringing of the bells which he assumed were being sounded for the arrival of the bishop. By mentioning this, it shows that he wants to remove any suspicion that he could have had anything to do with the death of his friend as he spent the night elsewhere. 3. The third passage tells of when Victoria Guzman pulled out the insides of a rabbit by the roots and threw the steaming guts to the dogs. “Don’t be a savage,” he told her. Make believe it was a human being. ” Victoria Guzman needed almost twenty years to understand that a man accustomed to killing defenseless animals could suddenly express such horror. This extract is ironic as Santiago is the one that will be pulled apart after the twins have had their way with him. It is unusual that he suddenly shows a sentimental side after years of killing animals in this way. The passage is like a foreshadowing of what will happen; it’s as if he somehow knows that he will be killed like this.

4. This passage refers to the bishop making the sign of the cross in the air as he left on the boat. He did this from memory, doing what we would call ‘going through the motions’; he is so accustomed to this that he does it naturally. Another major significance is what this causes Santiago to feel; he feels cheated as he contributed several loads of wood to the public solicitudes of Father Carmen Amador, and in addition, he himself had chosen the capons with the most appetizing combs. The bishop cannot wait to leave the town as bad things always happen there.

5. The final extract talks about how the narrator’s sister Margot seems to know things before others do, but could only do so through ‘powers of divination’. Again here we see an example of magical realism; it is not possible to foresee the future and the Marquez again tricks the reader into believing that Margot has some sort of supernatural abilities to know things ahead of time. However, once again this passage helps to enhance the feeling of predestination with regards to Santiago’s death. Discuss and analyse the author’s treatment of predestination in the first chapter.

You should examine the evidence that Santiago Nasar’s death was both avoidable and yet somehow entirely inevitable, making reference in particular to the “conincidencias funestas” that appear in the text. [30] Parte Dos Throughout Chronicle of a Death Foretold, Marquez weaves elements of the supernatural. From the dreams that Santiago has the sight before his death to the signs that people note foretelling his death, a sense of an unseen force prevails. For example, Santiago has inherited his “sixth sense” from his mother, Placida. Margot feels “the angel pass by” as she listens to Santiago plan his wedding.

Supernatural intervention pervades all aspects of the characters’ lives. On the morning of his death, Santiago awoke very early and told his mother that he’d had a dream about how happy he was walking through a grove of trees, but when he woke up he felt that he was covered in bird droppings. His mother was known to interpret dreams but didn’t see anything unusual in what he told her. He dreamt about trees a lot, she would later remember. She fails to recognize the significance of Santiago’s dream of birds and trees the night before.

She regrets that she paid more attention to the birds, which signify good health. Trees, on the other hand, are an omen. Another factor which makes the reader think that Santiago’s death could have been prevented is the envelope which he fails to read as he leaves his house in the morning of the arrival of the bishop. If Santiago had seen the envelope he might have been able to prevent his own death. What is interesting is that someone, who was never identified, left this envelope with precise details of how and where and when the conspiracy to kill Santiago was going to be carried out.

I think Marquez includes this to show that someone close to the brothers has recently found out about (/ has been involved all along but has got cold feet at the last minute) their plans to kill Santiago and hence decided to warn him of the twins’ planned murder. There are several other references of his imminent death; for example, the brothers only wake up when Santiago leaves his house; this seems as if all of the events of that day were destined to happen in a particular way.

Moreover, Santiago is also described as ‘already seeming like a ghost’ and there is also a mention of ‘the hand of death’ – Santiago is like a dead-man walking. Similarly, the relevance of the cocks goes back to the time of Jesus where the cocks’ crows signified Judas’ imminent betrayal of Jesus; and here the cocks crow as well; implying that Santiago is about to be murdered. Finally, insomniac sleepwalkers refer to someone doing something without making conscious decisions; which you could argue in this case is Santiago as he cannot control what he does as all of the happenings on that day are destined to occur.

Making Ethical Decisions

In today’s business and personal world, ethical decisions are made on a daily basis. We make our decisions based on the company as well as our personal ground rules. Ethic is a standard that tells us how we should behave. It is hard to learn and even harder to teach. In the video of a hit and run ethical decision case that we watched in class two weeks ago, a high educated woman faced ethical issue, acted unethically. The woman feared of deranging her reputation and image to her students, decided not to turn herself in after she hit a car and the driver died in that accident.

A good friend of her also faced ethical dilemma. The video relates to a very controversial topic, what is right and what is wrong when facing ethical decision making. Making an ethical decision is always hard for people, because it can affect their lives and the lives of others. Almost everyone has the experience of making an ethical decision; some choices we have made can be harmful to others. My experience of an ethical issue was back to when I was working for a bus company last summer. I had a part-time job at a Chinese bus company named Antai Tours Inc. in Center City of Philadelphia.

I was an office assistant and my responsibility was mainly assisting the business owners to communicate with the government, Department of Transportation and the drivers. My working experience with Antai is interesting and I experienced the transforming of the newly formed organization under the effect of ethical influences. Antai Tours Inc. was only a two years old company with about 30 drivers. The drivers’ responsibilities are driving buses to New York or Washington DC and come back. First couple days of working, I’d noticed that the drivers rarely communicated with other drivers or the management.

I believed that it was mainly because the drivers had to work 10 to 12 hours a day and 6 days in a week; they are busy and exhausted all the time. Through a few conversation later working in the company, I had been told what they tend to do was driving buses to terminals to pick up passengers and then go to different destinations. I conclude that the only thing they interested is how fast they can drive in order to finish the day earlier. Summer is always a busy season for the company. Because of the high volume of passengers and hot weather, our buses had a lot of different issues while running on the highway every day.

It was very common to hear the news of a bus broke down; had flat tires in the middle of highway or stopped randomly by police officers. During the month of July, we had gotten about 75 tickets for different reasons, such as lack of required documents for buses, speeding and malfunction in buses. The company was experiencing difficulty because of the extremely high cost from the government. At the beginning of August, those drivers got blamed for all the extra expenses from the employer. I helped some drivers to set up meetings with the employer for discussing their concerns.

What we found was mainly because of the lack of communication and careless. However, the employer believed that it was because every driver was selfish for their hours. Even if a driver had found out something wrong with the bus or certain document was missing, he most likely wouldn’t even mention it to anyone. As long as he was able to drive this bus in the next two to three hours to destination, these potential problems would be passed to the next driver. Additionally, we did not have a performance evaluation system.

Therefore, they only considered their job responsibility is picking up and driving. Everyone thought he doesn’t need to care about anything besides that. On a very late Friday night, a driver made the last run from New York back to Philadelphia. I was about to leave. On the way walking out from the station, I saw a driver threw some envelope sized paper into a trash can. Some blue prints on the paper had caught my eyes. I walked up to the trash can and saw there were two tickets inside the trash can. That driver was throwing away the violation tickets!

I was stunned and did not know whether I should pick them up and give to the company or just pretend not seeing anything. I am friend with the driver and understand that he will got blamed or even fired if I report him, plus I will probably lose that friend. However, if I don’t do anything, the company will suffer more than the cost of the tickets. I did not take a second thought, picked up the tickets and left them in the office. The stakeholders involved in this transformation should be the drivers, business owner as well as the customers.

By doing the right thing, the drivers and owners are able to better accomplish their contracts with customers without having any unexpected issues. By choosing the ethical decision, the drivers and owners will be able to achieve a common good for the company. What we did was the right outcome which was fair and benefited to all the stakeholders. The wrong outcome could be the drivers keep performing in their “selfish” way and only caring about finishing own duties regardless of whatever it takes, or the owners do not care about any issues about the drivers as long as the business is making profit.

The wrong outcome seems like a better way because it makes more profits in a short term. However, in a long term perspective, the wrong outcome will easily bring the whole business down because everyone only cares about himself/herself. There is no room for growth or operation but selfish. The ethical principal we adopted should be close to the individualism / Egoism approach because the biggest argument between drivers and owners were is it worth to sacrifice their individual interest in order to benefit all the stakeholders.

In this situation, this company made the right choice where a right culture was built and it also in long term satisfies every stakeholder’s ego needs as well. The biases we had and conquered was the discrimination between races and employees from different home towns although most of them are all from China. About 75% of the employees were from a same town on the south east coast of China. Therefore, at the beginning those employees were trying separate themselves from other employees and only “watch each other’s back”.

The owner later found out that the company was divided into few parties and it will be harmful for building an ethical culture. They had to fire few of the “tough” guys and establish examples for the rest of the group. After this, I suggested to set up different working groups to facilitate our safety program by mixing employees with different origins. The outcome proved us that in this way it is better for eliminating biases as well as build a culture for empowered team work. The following weeks, we started developing a safety program for drivers in order to reduce our bus operation issues.

Every driver is responsible to conduct pre and post trip inspections. After a trip, he is requested to pass their inspection reports and make comments to the next drivers if it’s necessary. Whenever a bus had some potential issues or some documents were missing, we would notice it as soon as the driver reported to us. On the management side, the company started considering the drivers as part of the stakeholders instead of simply calculating profits every day. The employer also started to plan a reduction of hours for drivers, set up performance evaluation system and link to the safety program.

The employer was also willing to provide incentives to drivers who did the right thing for this company. By the end of August, the number of our safety and operation issues was reduced from 75 to 10. The outcome was amazing to people; and it was an incentive to everyone. Although we still have a lot of different issues from the internal, I believe this is a breakthrough for both the drivers and owners. This is an uncommon situation where an ethical decision been made and implemented in a Chinese family owned mid-size business.

The actions that our organization took were setting up safety programs, developing a suitable performance evaluation system, meeting with drivers to encourage drivers to make their own decisions and reducing hours and duties for them. The owners were inspired by drivers and decided to change the traditional Chinese family owned business model. The owners believe that enabling certain level of empowerment to drivers is better for drivers to make ethical decision by themselves. Antai Tours Inc. transformed from a command and control organization to an ethical and complex adapted organization.

If we apply this transformation to Kohlberg’s levels of moral development, we can easily discover the difference during the period. At the beginning of July, the drivers and the business owners only cared about their own benefits. This was the Pre-conventional Level 1. The employees only follow rules to avoid punishment. Their daily goal was accomplish every day’s task. On the other hand, business owners were making management decision only for their sake as well. Starting at the second week of August, after the meetings and discussions, we started to develop an empowered safety program for drivers to act voluntarily.

During this period, we were moving from level 1 to conventional level 2. While the implementing of the program, the drivers begin to care about expectations of others. They not only fulfill the duties they were assigned in a daily basis, but also accomplish their obligations in our organization social system. The management was trying to encourage drivers to make proper decisions by dividing them into work groups. By the ending of August, our organization was on the trend of transforming from level 2 to level 3 at the postconventional level.

The empowerment ensured drivers to self-choose whatever they believe is the right choice. The drivers participate fully in this transformation. An ethical decision may interrupt your life, may be harmful to someone you care about. It is hard to make a decision that is harmful but ethical; however, a personal ethical code is always hiding in everyone’s mind. No person with a strong character lives without such code. My experience of facing those ethical issues, I have started developing my personal ethical code.

Works Cited

Bloxham, Eleanor. “What BP Was Missing on Deepwater Horizon: a Whistleblower – Jun. 22, 2010.” Business, Financial, Personal Finance News – CNNMoney.com. 22 June 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . Dittmann, Melissa. “What Makes Good People Do Bad Things?” American Psychological Association (APA). Oct. 2004. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . Holland, Jashua. “Americans Don’t Believe in the American Dream | Economy | AlterNet.” Home | AlterNet. 12 Oct. 2007. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . Kidder, Rushworth M. “Ethics Newsline® » Commentary » Must Capitalism Be Moral?” Institute for Global Ethics: Promoting Ethical Action in a Global Context. 4 May 2009. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . “May 25, 2009.” The Nation. 25 May 2009. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . “Reporter’s Notebook: Bernard Madoff’s Life Behind Bars – Yahoo! Finance.” Yahoo! Finance – Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. 25 Aug. 2010. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. . Rifkin, Jeremy. “America, Wake Up to the European Dream (washingtonpost.com).” Washington Post – Politics, National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines – Washingtonpost.com. 31 Oct. 2004. Web. 21 Oct. 2010. .

Chaser John Collier Analysis

Alan Austen, a young man who is passionately in love with a young woman who is indifferent to him, comes to the establishment of a mysterious old man who deals in magic potions. Austen has been told that he can buy a potion that will make the object of his affections fall madly in love with him. The old man shows little interest in the financial profit to be gained from selling Alan a love potion. Instead, he devotes most of his sales talk to recommending a potion that he calls a spot remover or a life cleaner, a powerful poison that is undetectable in an autopsy.

Without ever saying so directly, the old man is suggesting that the time will inevitably come when Alan will want to murder the woman whom he now loves so desperately. The potent poison costs five thousand dollars for a single teaspoonful, and the love potion costs just one dollar. Alan cannot believe his good fortune. He seeks the old man’s assurance that the love potion will be effective. The old man ruefully assures him that it will make the woman fall so completely in love that she will cling to Alan and make him her sole interest in life.

After their marriage, the young woman will want to know everything that Alan is thinking, everything that he has done when he was away from her, and everything that he intends to do when he leaves again. She will demand all his attention. She will be insanely jealous. The reader gradually gets the picture of a suffocating relationship that would drive anyone to distraction, even to thoughts of murder. This is not the picture that Alan visualizes, however, because he is held so tightly in the grip of passion that he can think of no greater happiness than to be in the company of his loved one perpetually.

Alan finally purchases the vial of love potion for one dollar. The old man assures him that he only deals in such potions to establish customer relations. People who want love potions are invariably young and have little money. Later in life, when they are more affluent, they will come back to him to buy his real moneymaker, the tasteless, undetectable poison that will rid them of the hated, clinging, sexually unappealing, aging spouse.

Alan seizes the vial, thanks the old man enthusiastically, and says, “Good-bye. ” The old man replies, “Au revoir,” a French phrase that might be translated into English as, “I’ll be seeing you. ” Themes and Meanings John Collier’s message in “The Chaser” is clear, although he never states it in words: Love is only a temporary illusion. People fall in love and believe it will last forever. While they are in the grip of this illusion, they will do anything to obtain possession of the loved one.

Once the illusion has dissipated and grim reality has intruded, the former ardent lover realizes that he or she has tied himself or herself for life to a stranger who may be totally incompatible, and who does not fulfill all the wonderful expectations the illusion of love initially created. At that point the lover has two choices: either to remain in a loveless relationship and live a life of pretense or to find some means of obtaining freedom. In “The Chaser,” the old man emphasizes the fact that the young man’s loved one will cling to him so tenaciously that he may have to use drastic means to free himself from her clutches.

She will make herself disagreeable by demanding all his time and attention. Because the price of the love potion is so cheap and the price of the chaser, the vial of undetectable poison, so exorbitant, Collier implies that it is easy to fall in love and to get married, but very difficult to extricate oneself from such a legally, socially, and morally binding relationship after discovering that marriage is often monotonous, expensive, overly demanding, and sexually unsatisfying.

Collier was cynical about human beings in general and wrote several stories in which a husband kills his wife. A good example is his “De Mortuis” (1951), in which an unworldly middle-aged man, who finds out that the beautiful young woman he married is notorious as the town slut, decides to murder her and bury her body in the basement. Many of Collier’s short stories deal with human wickedness. He exposes both his male and female characters as being greedy, selfish, dishonest, immoral, and sadistic.

In fact, it might be said that Collier’s dominant theme was human depravity. His misanthropy and pessimism would have prevented him from becoming a popular writer if he had not had the wisdom to leaven his stories with humor. Collier resembles Ambrose Bierce, whose The Devil’s Dictionary (1906) cynically defines marriage as “The state or condition of a community consisting of a master, a mistress and two slaves, making in all, two,” and love as “A temporary insanity curable by marriage or the removal of the patient from the influences under which he incurred the disorder. Collier would certainly have agreed with these definitions, as well as with most of the other definitions in Bierce’s bitterly cynical book. Like Bierce, Collier made his grim philosophy palatable to the average reader by sprinkling his stories with humor, a humor that was often based on the contrast between fact and fantasy, between expectation and outcome, between illusion and reality. Like most humorists, he had a great deal of melancholy in his temperament. His humor is laughter in the dark. Style and Technique In this exceptionally short work, Collier uses a strictly objective technique.

He briefly describes the two characters and the setting in the opening paragraphs, then lets his characters tell the story almost entirely through their dialogue. This technique is perfect for the author’s purposes, because he wants his message to dawn on the reader without his having to spell it out. It is interesting to observe how Collier displays his technical virtuosity by suggesting the debilitating effects of long years of married life while respecting the classic Aristotelian unities of time, place, and action.

The entire story unfolds in only a few minutes and is confined to a simple setting. It contains only two characters, and these two are sharply contrasted so that it is easy to visualize both and to imagine how their voices sound. One is young, the other old. One is idealistic, the other realistic. The young man is governed by his passions; the old man has been disillusioned by long years of living and is governed by the cold light of reason. The young man is interested in love; the old man is only interested in money.

The young man has his whole life ahead of him but acts as if he is pressed for time; the old man obviously is at the end of his life but acts as if he has all the time in the world. Collier often wrote unrealistic stories with realistic settings. He was noted for putting his genii, jinns, sibyls, demons, and ghosts in contemporary Manhattan and London apartments. The old man in “The Chaser” is a mystical character who belongs in a medieval folktale. What is he doing in twentieth century New York? Characteristically, Collier does not bother to explain how this sorcerer ended up here.

Collier did not expect most of his stories to be taken seriously. This paradoxical element contributed to the quixotic humor to be found in most of his fiction. Collier’s style is light, witty, whimsical, playful. He plays with literary conventions, and his fiction is full of literary allusions, hints of connoisseurship, sophisticated dialogue, and French words and phrases. He invariably sounds cultured, worldly, and well educated. He was born in England and had the tastes and values of an English country gentleman.

He often has been compared to writers such as Noel Coward, P. G. Wodehouse, and W. Somerset Maugham, all of whom wrote about upper-class people who were far more interested in manners and money than morals. The world they wrote about was at its zenith in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The Great Depression and World War II had a sobering effect on the tastes of American and European readers, and Collier, along with many other sophisticated writers, experienced a sharp decline in popularity as a result.

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