Civil War And Reconstruction Essay Example For College

Abraham Lincoln was against slavery ideals. He saw the Civil War as an emancipation for black persons. During the war, most enslaved people fled into the Union areas. It was an opportunity for Lincoln to contain rebellion from the Confederacy states. When Lincoln took over the presidency, the nation had a tense moment. The Southern States felt threatened by Lincoln’s antislavery ideals (Scofield, 2022). Lincoln attempts to convince the Southern states against succession. He pleads with them to stay, and he will allow them to continue with their slave practice. Abraham Lincoln avoided making the Civil War about slavery since it was a diving factor between the Northern and Southern states. The border states that did not succeed, such as Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri and Delaware, were an important asset to the Union. Lincoln appreciated their loyalty, which amounted to troops, factories and money, which have the Union an advantage over the Confederacy.

Slave states knew Abraham Lincoln’s presidency was a threat to their operations. The enslaved people were a major income earner for the Southern States. The Slave states cashed in through cheap labour in the massively productive cotton estates. Abraham Lincoln’s antislavery ideals greatly threatened their primary income generation. Abolitionists were against the slave trade and demanded its immediate end. Lincoln was, however, not an abolitionist. He opposed the slave trade but acknowledged that eliminating it was difficult due to its roots in the constitution (Cooper et al., 2022). The abolitionists were against any efforts by Lincoln to partner with the Southern States since it would jeopardize their abolitionist efforts. Peace Democrats, on the other hand, viewed Lincoln’s antislavery ideals as a spark to a potential civil war. They also condemned Lincoln’s attacks on the Southern States since they greatly destroyed their infrastructure and led to massive loss of lives. Republicans opposed Lincoln’s reconciliatory moves with the Southern States. They were displeased that he agreed with them on many matters except the slave trade. The Republicans also felt that a 10% population swear was too lenient. They demanded that most of the State population swear allegiance to the Union before they could be accepted back.

The Emancipation Proclamation was a strategy to win the areas where the federal government was powerless. It did not apply to the Union States and the loyal border states. The Emancipation Proclamation aimed at freeing enslaved Black people in the Confederacy states. It won the enslaved Black people in the Confederate regions who agreed to join the Union army. The abolitionist agreed with the Emancipation Proclamation since it was a war for freedom (Mathisen, 2018). Most enslaved Black people achieved their freedom through the Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil War. The Southern States were strictly against the Emancipation Proclamation and condemned the act because it would result in slave rebellion and migration of slave groups to the Northern States.

Ulysses Grant was a unique commander from his predecessors. Ulysses Grant, unlike his predecessor, did not have in-depth knowledge of military art and science (Sacco, 2022). He was, however, a very local right-hand man to president Abraham Lincoln. He was ruthless in his military conquests and pursued the enemy even when they retreated. His aggressive warfare approach earned him the title “Butcher”. Grant mostly relied on strong faith for victory and common sense to fight his battles. He was courageous, quick to synthesize information and sufficiently delegated duties. His utmost submission to his superiors also contributed to his victories, and he rose through the ranks. The 1864-1865 battle victories were significant in ending the Confederate rebellion.

President Andrew Johnson held to Abraham Lincoln’s reconstruction views after taking over. He viewed the Confederate states as part of the Union and demanded a 10% plea of allegiance from the succeeding states to rejoin the Union. He also requested the succeeding states to elect their leaders in the 1860 election and send them to Washington (Dominique, 2019). They were, however, required to end slavery, clear their war debt and approve the 14th Amendment. Congressional reconstruction was, however, meaner. It divided the five ex-confederate states into military districts, which Union military generals governed. The Congressional reconstruction also denied the Southern States voting rights. Radical reconstruction, on the other hand, fought for blacks’ equality in terms of voting rights. Radical reconstruction mainly punished the Southern States and advocated for the equality of white and blacks.

The 1877 compromise marked an end to the Reconstruction era. It provided an agreement for the election results between the Republican and Democrat citizens. The Democrats negotiated to accept the Rutherford Hayes win if the Federal troops were retrieved from their states. This compromise promised to uphold black rights on the ballot. The Southern States had initially violated black rights by violently barring them from participation (Ashland, 2020). This compromise led to the withdrawal of federal troops. The compromise, however, led to an increase in the mistreatment of black persons. When the federal government attempted to intervene, the Southern states scaled up their disregard for black voters. This era led to the rise of Jim Crow. Southern states passed the Jim Crow laws to push for the segregation of Blacks. The whites and blacks had different schools, worship places and parks. The 1877 compromise resulted in increased racism in the Southern states.


Ashland, A. J. (2020). The documentary turn: US literature in the Age of Compromise, 1850-1877 (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa).

Cooper, C. A., Hood III, M. V., Huffmon, S., Kidd, Q., Knotts, H. G., & McKee, S. C. (2022). Switching sides but still fighting the Civil War in southern politics. Politics, Groups, and Identities10(1), 100-116.

Dominique, C. N. (2019). The Repercussions of Presidential Perceptions: US Reconstruction and President Andrew Johnson. Line by Line: A Journal of Beginning Student Writing6(1), 4.

Mathisen, E. (2018). The second slavery, capitalism, and emancipation in Civil War America. journal of the civil war era8(4), 677-699.

Sacco, N. W. (2022). Unraveling the Mystery of Ulysses S. Grant through the National Park Service. Ohio Valley History22(2), 24-33.

Scofield, A. (2022). Abraham Lincoln: Thoughts on Slavery and Racial Equality. OUR Journal: ODU Undergraduate Research Journal9(1), 8.

Cloud Service Models Essay Example


Cloud service models refer to the different resources connected to cloud technology and infrastructure and this includes the networks, servers as well as storage capacities for the different cloud service offerings. The purpose of the paper is to explain what cloud service models are and also define and give a clear description of the cloud service models. The different cloud prototypes represent the diverse kinds of service levels and control over the different cloud resources. Cloud service models include cloud software, which focuses on developing these capacities to meet the requirements of the client base. Cloud service models focus on the wide variety of facilities conveyed to organizations and individual clientele on demand. The research is going to focus on the cloud service models. This paper includes an illustration of cloud service models and how they operate. The paper includes a description of the different types of cloud service models and their different characteristics.

Understanding Cloud Service Models

The cloud service models consist of the different infrastructures, platforms, and software hosted by third-party cloud providers. These different services can facilitate user data flow from the clients to the different systems. These models also enhance the creation of cloud-based applications which are flexible to function in the cloud. It includes different infrastructures and platforms that the users can access on the cloud (Jamsa, 2022). Cloud offers IT environments that can enhance the pooling of scalable resources across the cloud, enhancing the running of workloads within the cloud environment. The cloud service model can enhance the improvement of capabilities for better outcomes. The different cloud service providers use hardware resources to create cloud platforms. (Jamsa, 2022). These different facilities are intended to deliver the easy and reasonable right of entry to apps and assets using the cloud. The cloud services are overseen by cloud computing retailers and service suppliers, making them obtainable to the clients from the suppliers’ servers. For organizations to decide which cloud service model to leverage, it is crucial to decide which specific client needs must be attended to and which business needs must be considered.

The organization may prefer public cloud services, which are available from the provider to different clients over the web. The public cloud can share resources and allow organizations to offer employees more capacities. The organization may choose to implement the use of private cloud services. These services are not generally available to corporate users and subscribers. In this particular aspect, the applications and data will be made obtainable using the business’s arrangement (Kavis, 2014). It is preferred for organizations with sensitive data since it will ensure the leveraging of advanced security procedures and extended assets in a virtual setting (Kavis, 2014).  The organization may prefer a hybrid cloud that combines private and public clouds. It occurs when the organization wants to stock delicate information in the private cloud but also necessitates the personnel to access the applications and assets in the public cloud for essential communication and access to information.

Software as a Service

SaaS is one cloud service model classification that provides software to end-users over the internet. The Saas vendors can provide applications through the internet, and clients can access them with the user interface. The end users can access the applications remotely, and there is no need to install a setup of the application or software on the machine being used. Additionally, the users can directly assess the service anywhere and anytime. The application runs inside the cloud services, which may be far from the user’s location (Aleem et al., 2019). The SaaS model can allow access to the user on a subscription basis, and this may be either monthly or an annual basis. The user should log in to the account and access the software directly using a web browser to access any of the applications. Additionally, downloads and installations are not required, but some applications may require plugins. The user can access the resources and pay rent charges to the owner for using them (Aleem et al., 2019).  In the SaaS model, everything is managed by the cloud vendors. The vendors will use different protocols to justify the safety of the operator’s information. The business and the users can then focus on their goals and enhance the growth and support of the system. Additionally, they can access, store, share, and also secure information with the use of these services and also pay for the resources they use.

The SaaS cloud model can be applied in different aspects such as customer relationship management, healthcare, creating billing and invoicing systems, database management, and document editing and management. SaaS is gaining popularity globally (Aleem et al., 2019).  Most of the consumers of SaaS are concerned with the net utility derived from using the different SaaS products. Quality and price are significant issues of concern in the use of SaaS. The SaaS model can support multitenant architecture, meaning that multiple users and clients can use the application, and every customer shares identical copies of the database and the application (Aleem et al., 2019).  There are different benefits to using the SaaS model. One of these is the aspect of universal access, this means that all applications are delivered over the internet, and the users can access them from different devices connected to the internet. The services are readily available and are accessible from any location. Another benefit of the SaaS model is scalability, and this is because SaaS enables features of scaling up and down the different features of the applications or the software. Equally important is that the SaaS model can save the client’s time and money due to its affordability (Aleem et al., 2019).  It works on the “Pay As You Go” model, facilitating the payment of only those resources the client intends to use. There is no cost related to software installation and infrastructure, and maintenance costs are not required. It eliminates the working hours and the total costs spent on the different tasks, saving the user’s time and money.

Platform as a Service

PaaS has altered the expansion and analysis, and placement of service-based architecture. PaaS offers clients different approaches to the offering of products. PaaS vendors have been able to offer a more manageable operating environment where specific actions are done more smoothly (Qing, 2021). PaaS technology is available in different options, such as private and public PaaS. PaaS technology has changed how organizations deal with new challenges like web-based computing and open-source development. It allows clients and organizations to host services and processes inside and outside the firewall system (Bibani et al., 2016). The Platform as a Service structure can deliver all computing assets, such as server-adjacent mechanisms and provision for several program design languages (Qing, 2021).  PaaS is efficient, offers low-cost options, and can enhance web-based utilization of resources. PaaS offers services for developers, such as application design and development. It also offers secondary services such as web service integration and application instrumentalization. It offers a browser-based developmental environment that allows the developer to create a database and edit applications.

The primary issue related to Platform as a Service is that the developers will usually be locked into a particular platform. It is, therefore, critical to implement more options for the clients, which will enhance freedom and sharing based on the usage of these applications. PaaS can virtualize and operate different cloud and system services across multiple applications (Qing, 2021).  It can emulate cloud layers on the promise and ensure the gaining of access to real applications while enhancing positive outcomes in cloud usage. Additionally, AppScale can export services and APIs while providing services such as automatic configuration, deployment, and distribution. It effectively provides a software layer between applications and the simple representations of cloud APIs and services (Qing, 2021).  It supports services for moving data between clouds and reduces public cloud costs. The reading has been able to identify various limitations of the AppScale PaaS. One of these is persistence due to the terminating instances that cause data loss.

Another common issue is task queue, which occurs due to delays impacting service delivery. It is evident that, for positive outcomes with the usage of cloud technologies, it is critical to work continuously to improve the design and the implementation of AppScale to address different limitations and increase transparency as well as performance and scalability (Bibani et al., 2016). With PaaS, the client can access the PaaS using a graphical user interface, ensuring effective building, running, management, and application delivery. PaaS is mainly suitable for API development and management, making it easier for teams to develop APIs to share data between applications (Bibani et al., 2016).  The Platform can also have a significant part in the progress of the Internet of Things applications. PaaS platform allows the users to gain admission to the state-of-the-art technologies and apparatuses on the app stack. However, the developers of Apps will only have regulation over app codes but not the organization which is required for the creation of the application.

Infrastructure as a Service

There are various characteristics of IaaS in realizing cloud security. It offers modeling which ensures a basis for actions of the different projects and production of effective arrangement of the cloud infrastructure. It also provides an environment that ensures the creation of new applications, such as 3D modeling and visualization, which can be used for projection and production (Franklin, 2022). It also offers technical support, which enhances the unification of the different cloud components. Infrastructure as a Service ensures effective calculating, storing, and networking of assets on demand (Franklin, 2022). IaaS can allow users to track and regulate the simulated mechanism occurrences, which are arranged on a diversity of physical assets. It includes a virtual infrastructure management layer that can provide a uniform view of virtualized resources. The Platform also offers server consolidation and higher availability leading to better outcomes.

The IaaS providers can offer dynamic service provisioning, which ensures the dynamic mapping of services onto the different resources using the particular environment, which may include a virtualization platform or independent interfaces. The aggregation of IaaS providers will include service deployment across the different providers. It allows the consumer to select the most appropriate IaaS provider (Franklin, 2022). IaaS solutions help reduce the maintenance of data centers and ensure the gaining of real-time business insights. It ensures that the cloud provider can manage IT infrastructures such as storage and networking resources and deliver them to subscriber organizations. It includes detailed billing, monitoring, clustering, and load-balancing services. IaaS grants customers access to services or resources using a vast area network. It is effective for temporary workloads or is likely to change at any time (Franklin, 2022).  The customers will pay per use, usually done within a particular time, such as per hour, week, or month. It is common in testing and development environments, and it offers these organizations flexibility in testing and development environments. It is also used in data storage, backup, and recovery because it offers an easy and efficient way of managing organizational data.

Infrastructure as a Service is essential in enhancing quality cloud coverage to the customer. It can allow clients to outsource their IT infrastructures and also gain access to resources through the internet. IaaS offers enterprise-level infrastructure by establishing an inner commercial grid in a private cloud and a simulated local network (Longo et al., 2011). It includes utilizing a pooled server to store the organizational data and run the necessary applications. It offers a straightforward arrangement that permits easy business development while giving the essential safeguard of data in the cloud setting. IaaS also offers cloud hosting capacities, which help host websites and virtual servers, including a joint assortment of physical servers (Longo et al., 2011).  This will significantly benefit the business by enhancing security redundancies and on-demand scalability. IaaS offers virtualized data centers, which can enhance the business’s hosting capacities, creating the ideal public or private cloud environment and leading to positive outcomes.

Scalability is realized through the use of IaaS, and this is because growing and established businesses will usually rely on IaaS, which can provide immediate resources for the growing business, leading to positive outcomes in the realization of organizational objectives (Longo et al., 2011). Since IaaS offers a pay-as-you-go model for business practices, it will allow the individual or business to determine better how much the business can afford every month or how many resources are required to meet particular outcomes. One example of an organization offering IaaS is Amazon Web Services. It offers a digital infrastructure that large businesses can use to realize positive outcomes. IBM is another organization that offers IaaS, a full-service platform that offers scalable solutions for better solutions to meet the IT needs of businesses (Longo et al., 2011).  Google Cloud is another organization that offers IaaS services, and it is usually on demand or can be pre-payed for up to a month. It can offer different services, which include Cloud CDN and Cloud SQL. It is a cost-effective service that ensures quality outcomes for the customer at affordable offerings.

The IaaS providers usually provide an advanced aspect of inclusive security compared to on-site security. This is because the IaaS providers will usually employ the services of security experts who can ensure that data security is adhered to. However, various limitations may hinder the realization of the full IaaS capacities (Longo et al., 2011).  One of these issues is that troubleshooting using this Platform will usually become more complex and this is because the organization and the user will have no visibility concerning the infrastructure of this Platform, and this is because the third party has control over the infrastructure, meaning that the user has no selections for alleviation in case of the information center capabilities for an outage (Longo et al., 2011). Additionally, pricing fluctuations with this Platform may occur, especially during peak seasons when the business’s monthly costs are likely higher than expected.


Cloud service models have transformed how businesses operate, providing IT infrastructure, software applications, and platforms, which have transformed how businesses operate. The cloud service models consist of different infrastructures, tools, and digital assets that enhance the organization’s or individuals’ cloud technologies. The cloud service models describe how the cloud services are made available to the clients. There are different cloud services and deployment models, and these are based on the organizational requirements concerning cloud services. Cloud-based applications will usually be deployed in the cloud and can be added to the existing infrastructure to provide higher-level services for the clients.


Aleem, S., Ahmed, F., Batool, R., & Khattak, A. (2019). Empirical Investigation of Key Factors for SaaS Architecture. IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing9(3), 1037–1049. doi: 10.1109/TCC.2019.2906299.

Bibani, O., Yangui, S., Glitho, R. H., Gaaloul, W., Hadj-Alouane, N. B., Morrow, M. J., & Polakos, P. A. (2016, June). A demo of a PaaS for IoT applications provisioning in hybrid cloud/fog environment. In 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN) (pp. 1-2). IEEE. doi:                   10.1109/LANMAN.2016.7548876.

Franklin, S. (2022, October 7). The Complete Guide to iaas vs paas vs SAAS platforms. The complete guide to IaaS vs. PaaS vs. SaaS platforms | Bloom Group S.A. Retrieved December 7, 2022, from

Jamsa, K. (2022). Cloud computing.Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kavis, M. J. (2014). Architecting the cloud: design decisions for cloud computing service models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS).Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Liu, S., Yue, K., Yang, H., Liu, L., Duan, X., & Guo, T. (2018, May). The research on saas model based on cloud computing. In 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC) (pp. 1959-1962). IEEE.  doi: 10.1109/IMCEC.2018.8469462

Longo, F., Ghosh, R., Naik, V. K., & Trivedi, K. S. (2011, June). A scalable availability model for the infrastructure-as-a-service cloud. In 2011 IEEE/IFIP 41st International Conference on Dependable Systems & Networks (DSN) (pp. 335–346). IEEE. , doi: 10.1109/DSN.2011.5958247.

Qing, L. (2021, April). A 5G PaaS Collaborative Management and Control Platform Technology Based on Cloud Edge Collaboration Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. In 2021 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Image Processing, Electronics and Computers (IPEC) (pp. 144–147). IEEE. Doi: 10.1109/IPEC51340.2021.9421164.

Coca-Cola Vs. Pepsi Case Study In Terms Of Global Responsibility Essay Example

Executive Summary

This business analysis contrasts The Coca-Cola Company with its main competitor of their different worldwide responsibilities. Research in this study compares and contrasts the global responsibility practices of Coca-main Cola’s competitor with those of Coca-Cola, finding that the latter is more beneficial to public health and the environment.

Coca-Cola has come under fire in recent years for producing sugary drinks in large quantities, which have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Furthermore, the company’s water use has been called into question, with critics arguing that the company’s water-intensive production process is to blame for water scarcity in some areas. The company has also been charged with not doing enough to reduce the environmental damage caused by its operations.

However, the competitor under scrutiny in this study has shifted to a policy that minimizes negative effects on the world. They have taken steps to reduce their water usage, increase the efficiency of their energy usage, and deal with the environmental effects of their production methods. Moreover, they have pledged to invest in renewable energy sources to reduce their negative environmental effects.

This investigation shows that Coca-Cola needs to adopt more responsible business procedures globally, while its competitor has been more proactive. What causes what? This study elucidates the need for companies to have a broader view of their global responsibilities and highlights the need to take steps to mitigate the negative impact of their activities on the environment and the public’s health.

Coca-Cola’s Global Responsibility Effects

Most people believe that The Coca-Cola Company is one of the most successful companies in the world that focuses on producing beverages. The marketing and the iconic soft drinks produced by the corporation are mostly responsible for this success (Bekimbetova et al.,2021)s. The company has seen a great deal of success, but the commercial activities it engages in have resulted in many unfavorable ramifications for the commitments that the global community as a whole is obligated to uphold. In the following lines, we will talk about some of the most significant obstacles that Coca-Cola needs to overcome to live up to its worldwide duties (Brandon, 2019).

The availability of water is in short supply.

Coca-Cola is one of the businesses that use the most water consistently because its production processes require more than two billion liters of water every day. Because of the substantial amount of water the corporation consumes, water scarcity has become a topic of concern in many of the world (Parco, 2018). Consequently, many people are getting anxious about the possibility of a water shortage. Complaints regarding the company’s water practices are fairly common, and some people have suggested that Coca-Cola takes advantage of the residents of the area in order to fulfill its water requirements (Olegario, 2021).


Coca-Cola is also to fault for a significant quantity of pollution in a variety of different places throughout the world. The corporation is being accused of dumping rubbish in local waterways, which has led to many problems for the environment and human health in the surrounding area (Van et al., 2022). The energy-intensive industrial activities of the corporation have contributed to increased levels of global warming and climate change. These activities have also resulted in the emission of large quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere(Obebe et al., 2020).

Worries Regarding the Existing Healthcare System

Coca-Cola beverages have been connected to an increased risk of acquiring diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease due to the high levels of sugar that are contained in these beverages. Some detractors have interpreted this fact as proof that the company is recklessly marketing potentially harmful products to children and teenagers (Schmidt et al., 2020). The company has also been accused of engaging in unethical labor practices at several of its production facilities across the world. It has been asserted that certain nations provide their citizens with extremely meager wages and force them to work in hazardous conditions (Barlow et al., 2018).

In conclusion, the business practices of Coca-Cola have resulted in a variety of unintended outcomes regarding the responsibilities of the international community. These effects include the following: The company’s actions have resulted in widespread repercussions for people and the environment worldwide. These repercussions include, but are not limited to, issues concerning health and unethical labor practices. Water scarcity and pollution have also been caused directly by the company’s actions.

Pepsi’s Global Responsibility Effect

The Pepsi Company is a worldwide conglomerate that has been an industry pioneer in corporate social responsibility since its inception in 1919. Manufacturing consumable goods are the company’s bread and butter. Pepsi is committed to producing its products in a way that has zero environmental impact. The group has decided that all its operations will be conducted consistently with the values of social responsibility and ecological stewardship. Pepsi has taken steps to lessen its negative influence on the environment by, for example, cutting carbon dioxide emissions, conserving water, and urging customers to adopt healthier habits (Koomen et al., 2022).

As part of its global commitment to social and environmental responsibility, Pepsi has implemented several modifications to its business processes to ensure they are ethical and sustainable. So that Pepsi may continue to operate sustainably, several alterations were made. These adjustments were designed to make the methods more long-lasting and moral. That is why we went and changed it. Many issues, including the company’s carbon footprint, water use, and ecologically friendly materials in its products, are all part of its complete sustainability program. Among the program’s other intended outcomes is a rise in the proportion of eco-friendly components in final goods. Pepsi has pledged to use entirely renewable energy by 2025 and has taken measures to reduce the amount of trash it produces. In addition, by 2025, Pepsi plans to ban single-use plastic bottles completely.

Moreover, Pepsi has taken steps to reduce the amount of waste plastic firm generates, which is a step in the right way. In addition, the business has introduced numerous programs to encourage healthy living, such as increasing access to healthy food and drink options and creating a setting that promotes activity. Consider joining a program like the Healthy Lifestyles Initiative. The Healthy Lifestyles Initiative is just one of several available initiatives.

Pepsi is ahead of the pack because it cares about the community and the environment, while Coca-Cola focuses on profit (Štofová & Kopčáková, 2020). More so than its competitors, Pepsi is committed to reducing its environmental impact and improving its recycling initiatives. Coca-Cola has not done nearly as much as other firms have to decrease its impact on the environment or inspire people to lead better lives. In contrast, other companies have achieved major advances, including Google and Facebook. Some of the criticism directed at the company centers on the fact that it is widely believed that the company’s usage of plastic packaging is to blame for the environmental damage that has been done. Alternatively, Pepsi has pledged to switch to renewable energy sources and reduce its plastic waste by 2025. In addition, the soda giant has attempted to cut down on its carbon dioxide output. Similarly, Pepsi has implemented policies to reduce the quantity of paper waste produced at its operations.

Regarding environmental responsibility, Pepsi is an example for the business world to follow. The company has taken significant preventative measures to decrease its environmental effect. It is working toward this aim in several ways, including decreasing its use of fossil fuels, encouraging healthier lifestyles, and decreasing its plastic trash output. Compared to its main competitor, Coca-Cola, Pepsi stands out as a market leader because of its dedication to social and environmental responsibility. Pepsi, in particular, has been working to reduce its environmental impact and increase its recycling rates (Matta, 2022).


Pepsi and Coca-Cola have made significant contributions to global responsibility, but Pepsi is on the front thanks to its dedication to a greener tomorrow. Pepsi has made major efforts in numerous sustainability measures, such as decreasing water use, manufacturing ecologically friendly packaging, and supporting local communities. Standards and best practices in the business have been developed thanks to these efforts, and they have also positively affected the environment and society. However, Coca-Cola has been criticized for allegedly not doing enough to protect the environment. The firm has been accused of exploiting local people and neglecting to accept responsibility for the environmental harm it has produced. It also needs more time to embrace industry standards and best practices. Pepsi has made many investments in renewable energy sources and created production procedures that are more efficient in order to decrease the company’s negative effects on the surrounding environment. In addition, the firm has invested in water conservation projects, such as installing water-saving equipment in its manufacturing plants and delivering safe drinking water to communities in need of it. Pepsi has attempted to reduce its negative environmental impact by developing eco-friendly packaging. It includes using recycled materials and reducing the amount of plastic used.

On the other hand, Coca-Cola has been called out for its lack of dedication to sustainability, which has led to criticism. The company has been criticized for its alleged lack of promptness in adopting industry best practices and standards, as well as allegations of exploiting locals and ignoring the impact on the environment. In addition, Coca-Cola has been called out for using plastic packaging, which contributes to the wider issue of plastic pollution worldwide. The company has made certain moves to reduce its environmental impact, such as investing in renewable energy, but these are overwhelmed by its general lack of concern for the environment (Chua et al., 2020).

Both companies must decrease their harmful environmental effects and be supportive of the communities in which they operate. In this respect, Pepsi has long held the dominant position, while Coca-Cola still has much work to do to demonstrate the depth of its commitment to environmental protection. The firms should continue to invest in renewable energy, water conservation, and ecologically friendly packaging, and they should endeavor to guarantee that their operations do not contribute to the devastation of the global environment.

Pepsi has launched several programs with the dual goals of reducing the company’s environmental impact and enhancing its service to local communities. These include investments in water conservation projects to reduce its water footprint, investments in renewable energy sources such as wind and solar to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels, and investments in sustainable packaging initiatives to reduce the amount of plastic waste generated by its operations. Pepsi has also created a range of agreements with local communities to promote programs linked to the growth of the local economy, education, and health care.

However, Coca-Cola has been rather inactive in this area compared to other firms. The firm has invested in renewable energy, water conservation, and environmentally friendly packaging, but it needs to do more to demonstrate that it is serious about conserving the environment. Coca-Cola should continue to invest in renewable energy sources, water conservation programs, and sustainable packaging projects. Additionally, the corporation should endeavor to guarantee that its operations are not contributing to the deterioration of the world environment. In addition, Coca-Cola should make an effort to create partnerships with the communities in which it operates to promote programs linked to economic growth, education, and health. As a result, Coca-Cola will be able to show that it cares about the world and the people in the places where it has factories.

Pepsi has generally exhibited a greater commitment to global responsibility than Coca-Cola. It gives Pepsi a leg up on the competition. Pepsi has proved that it is a good corporate citizen by investing in projects that promote sustainability and setting industry standards and best practices.

  1. Spending money on clean energy sources By 2040, Pepsi plans to be the world’s largest buyer of renewable electricity and has committed to sourcing all of its energy needs from renewable resources.
  2. Lessening of water consumption Pepsi has pledged to decrease its water usage by 20% by 2025. Drip irrigation and water recycling are just two examples of the water-saving technology used in the company’s production processes.
  3. Investing in local communities To give back to the communities it serves, Pepsi has funded initiatives like the “Pepsi Refresh Project,” which has awarded more than $40 million in grants to deserving nonprofits and community organizations. Pepsi is committed to giving back to the communities in which it operates.
  4. Pepsi has vowed to use 100% recyclable, compostable, or biodegradable packaging by 2025 as part of its sustainable packaging strategy. The corporation has also funded research into innovative packaging solutions like edible packaging to reduce its environmental footprint further.
  5. Advancing efforts to increase diversity and acceptance Pepsi’s “Women in Leadership” and “Many and Inclusive Workplace” programs are just two examples of its efforts to foster an environment that values and supports the contributions of people from diverse backgrounds. These programs aim to increase the number of women in senior positions in the firm.

Pepsi has put money into educational efforts like the “PepsiCo Education Foundation,” which has given away over $1 million to schools and nonprofits in the US and abroad. Sixth, Pepsi is dedicated to education, as stated by statement six.


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