Classic And New Leadership And Management Theories Free Essay


Leadership and management theories have helped form and shape the way organizations are governed. However, these theories are different and can be applied to achieve different organizational purposes. For example, transformational leadership is one of the classic theories where leaders motivate their followers by increasing self-efficacy (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). This allows followers to feel more determined at achieving organizational goals. However, Cross-cultural Leadership entails the ability to inspire and impact people’s attitudes and behaviors in the international society to attain the aims of common enterprises (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). The main purpose is to help employees transform and work together with other people regardless of their age, gender, and culture. Therefore, despite the slight similarity, transformational leadership and cross-cultural leadership approaches are different.

The Similarity Between the Two Approaches

The focus of transformational Leadership and cross-cultural Leadership are the people. They both believe that appropriate leadership is attained only when people are engaged in an organization’s operations (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). People are required to achieve and maintain performance through the attainment of objectives. Organizations fail when the people involved do not understand, believe in or engage in its major operations. For example, the two approaches major in improving people’s behavior to achieve a given objective. Transformational leadership involves motivating people to achieve organizational goals (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Similarly, cross-cultural management entails making people aware of the value of diversity. As a result, these approaches center on people to attain organizational objectives.

Both approaches depend on effective communication to motivate people. Communication is an important part of managing an organization to achieve goals. A vision for change and transformation is only as powerful as the communication that provides support (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Effective communication offer clarity for why the management is required and mobilizes employees with a sense of urgency for the process. Communication also assists leaders in identifying potential impediments to achieving organizational goals before they become an issue. Identifying obstacles ahead of time allows organizations to respond to and resolve challenges experienced during management. Therefore, effective sharing of information is essential for proper implementation of the theories.

These approaches majors on creating an environment that supports creativity and innovation. Transformational leadership ensures that followers are comfortable through motivation (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). A satisfied and committed follower is likely to commit themselves to the affairs of an organization actively. Likewise, cross-cultural leadership also ensures that employees feel respected and included. When employees appreciate one another and get along in the workplace, they become productive. As a result, this leadership approach encourages sharing diverse opinions, supporting innovation.

The Differences Between the Approaches

Transformational leadership is a kind of leadership that affects both individuals and organizations. It stimulates important and good development in followers in its ideal, with the main goal of turning followers into leaders. Transformational leadership uses a range of strategies to improve followers’ enthusiasm and performance (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). For example, creating a link between a follower’s sense of self and the organization’s strategy and a common identity encourages followers by serving as a mentor. According to this theory, leaders motivate their followers to take greater ownership of their work and recognize their own strengths and limitations to assign projects that maximize their performance.

In comparison to transformational leadership, cross-cultural leadership is a new concept. It enables some leaders in a new globalized market to operate effectively. This approach comprises the ability to influence and motivate people’s attitudes and behaviors to achieve a unified organizational objective. Cross-cultural leaders possess the leadership qualities required in areas with diverse cultures and an understanding of the cultural distinctions among states (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Because it must be equally effective as traditional or face-to-face leadership, the method is a sophisticated and challenging leadership style to master. Similarly, cross-cultural leadership demands the leader’s talents in addition to their leadership expertise.


Transformational leadership focuses on motivating and transforming the followers to perform assigned roles in an organization. This type of leadership depends on the influence of a leader on their followers. A leader must appear as the role model of the followers for them to achieve the intended objectives (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). They are supposed to understand the follower’s strengths and shortcomings and use them to achieve organizational goals. Additionally, the most influential leaders employ motivational strategies such as talking openly, establishing a clear goal, and acknowledging achievements. Thus, this leadership also focuses on an individual’s ability to encourage followers to perform their operations effectively.

On the other hand, the main focus of cross-cultural leadership is effectively managing a diverse team. A culturally identical workforce has been a thing of the past as workplaces grow increasingly multicultural and firms continue to expand internationally (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Cross-cultural leadership qualities are vital in today’s global economy. Global markets increasingly recognize the strength and economic benefits of a diverse workforce. The vast majority of companies engage on worldwide projects with staff from diverse countries. As a result, leaders want to work with employees and partners from other cultures.


Transformative leadership processes are open and adaptable. These changes are determined by the organization’s leaders’ desires and what is important to many people who work there, as long as they are consistent with the larger vision. For the new operations to be adopted quickly and successfully, these changes require staff buy-in (Darling & Heller, 2009). When something is not working, these leaders are quick to change. However, they are so focused on achieving the greater objective that these pivots appear insignificant, waiting and drawing out process changes.

On the other hand, cross-cultural leaders take their time and analyze. For a process to be regarded effective, information must be clear. If modifications are made, it must be for a good reason, and the old procedure must have a major flaw (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Many people are frequently involved in these decisions to ensure that everyone feels like part of the business. Documentation explaining why procedures are being discarded or renovated is required, and personnel will be appointed to analyze the performance of these improvements. Therefore, the participation of people is crucial in the process.


The effectiveness of transformational leadership is determined by the followers’ level of engagement to achieve organizational goals. An engaged follower is actively involved in the affairs of an organization (Van Quaquebeke & Eckloff, 2010). Everyone is driven to collaborate when their staff or team is engaged and when individuals believe in their vision and objectives. These leaders measure their success by their team’s hard effort and dedication to a common objective. These leaders can still regard this as a success as long as they continue to move forward, despite disappointments and as long as learning is applied.

The success of cross-cultural leadership is the ability of employees to feel included in the operations of an organization regardless of their cultural differences. Practicing inclusion entails assessing individual requirements and attempting to meet, support, and respect those needs (Carter & Carmichael, 2009). This frequently necessitates organizations ensuring that they are providing the appropriate resources for their employees, taking into consideration their histories and abilities. It allows employees to feel welcome at work, regardless of their differences with their coworkers. Practicing inclusiveness tends to level the playing field for everyone, which can help avoid production delays or limit group cohesion. Organizations that practice inclusion must assess what they now provide for their employees and determine what may be improved.


Transformational leadership puts their team, group, and people at the company’s center. They recognize and feel that their organization would not exist if not for the people. What helps these leaders earn and maintain their team status is their feelings, views, and aspirations (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). The composition of their team is a top priority for these leaders. These leaders can develop different and special organizations and stand apart from every other organization by creating a culture for success based on a shared vision. They recognize that their employees are what makes them special.

On the other hand, understanding the value of diversity is prioritized in cross-cultural leadership. This is exemplified by the fact that these leaders and their organizations operate in a diverse workplace (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Encouraging people to appreciate diversity allows them to value each other. This can be highly beneficial for everyone because they are required to be aware of individual differences such as language and beliefs. Their work, skill, and energy can all have a direct impact on their final result. This type of leadership is set up to prioritize the person and the outcomes they may generate by appreciating the value of diversity based on their specialized successes.

The Attributes of Leaders in The Two Approaches

Transformational leadership relies on the charisma of a leader to achieve the anticipated organizational goals. Charisma is the ability to attract, charm, and influence people. They are usually viewed as a positive force to mobilize an organization. In addition, they have the ability to influence other people to join their courses (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). For example, if a transformational leader understands wants to change the status quo, it will be easy for their followers to take their direction. With charisma, transformational leaders may be able to persuade and encourage their people to undertake seemingly impossible feats (Treacy, 2002b). They will have the ability to inspire individuals to complete difficult tasks.

On the other hand, cross-cultural leadership does not depend entirely on the leader’s charisma. This leadership style usually relies on the leaders’ ability to work with a diverse workforce. Open-mindedness and flexibility are crucial in determining whether or not a person is a good cross-cultural leader (Plachy, 2009). These leaders must have the ability to adapt to a variety of cultural norms with ease. In addition, to respond to the needs of ever-changing markets and people, leaders will need to evolve. However, to some extent, a cross-cultural leader will use charisma to ensure that employees follow their directives. This is important when a leader wants the followers to take a certain direction.


Self-management is an essential leadership characteristic because it symbolizes the ability to govern their actions, ideas, and emotions in a conscious and efficient manner. Anyone with good self-management skills knows what to do and how to act in a variety of situations (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). Transformative leaders do not depend on others to direct their actions. They can prioritize, decide on a plan of action, and be held accountable for the outcomes. They also understand how to use their internal motivation to motivate those around them (Treacy, 2002a). These executives are enthusiastic about their work, and their beliefs align with that of the institutions they serve.

However, self-understanding is a crucial trait for cross-cultural leadership. This is the ability to be aware of oneself and how one’s actions, thoughts, and feelings align with their internal standards. If a leader is exceptionally self-aware, they can objectively examine themselves, regulate their emotions, connect their actions to values, and precisely understand how others perceive them (Yukl & Gardner, 2019). To become an effective cross-cultural leader, it is important for one to first understand themselves before understanding other people. In addition, a leader should be aware of their strengths and weaknesses in regards to behavior when interacting with diverse people.

The Efficacy of Transformative and Cross-Cultural Leadership

Transformational leadership help create a strong relationship with followers. These people recognize that in order to construct a good firm, they must first establish strong and healthy connections (Pinck & Sonnentag, 2018). Open and honest communication is the foundation of all good partnerships. Internal conflicts can be reduced, and unique abilities can be cultivated through building partnerships within a team. Furthermore, these leaders contribute to the removal of problematic links and the advancement of teamwork. For an individual to be a transformational leader, they must have the ability to inspire others in following their vision.

The leadership approach promotes employee retention in an organization. Employee retention is crucial for an organization’s performance, partly because hiring and onboarding are costly. In addition, high employee turnover can harm team morale and create inefficiencies in work processes (Perkins, 2009). By enhancing employee morale and supporting them in obtaining personal satisfaction, transformational leaders are generally able to retain more employees than other prevalent leadership styles. Instead of treating their work as a dictatorship, they typically employ an inspiring technique to gain the trust and commitment of their team members. People trust their boss as a result, and they are less inclined to resign.

To change, organizations must be prepared to adjust and expand over time. When new programs are implemented, transformational leadership is the most effective method for bringing others to be comfortable with the ideal vision (Pinck & Sonnentag, 2018). They are able to promote the improvements if necessary, upgrades, or expansion since they already believe in the process. They make this change on their own, which inspires others to follow suit (Anderson & Anderson, 2009). A transformational leader has the ability to persuade others to listen and follow their direction. When used correctly, this strategy assists the leader, followers, and organization in reaching their full potential.

Transformational leaders look above attaining a specific goal or vision. Instead, they also seek greater efficiency in themselves and their followers. This leadership style is among the most efficient at engaging employees in the job-learning process (Pinck & Sonnentag, 2018). These leaders aim to stretch their workers’ minds, promote a positive culture, and provide tailored learning support. In return, they usually get a higher level of participation and productivity from their team.

Cross-Cultural Leadership

Cross-Cultural leadership brings personnel from many countries and organizations together. If this leadership is properly applied, employee churn will be minimized, and committed staff will remain in an organization (Khan, 2018). This means that workers from different cultures will be comfortable working with colleagues from other cultures. Furthermore, the integration of more than one culture in a workplace encourages a generation of different ideas, which can be helpful when promoting creativity. In addition, because of globalization, this kind of leadership enables a leader to lead a diverse team. They will find it easy to foster a positive relationship with people from various cultures. This style of leadership is effective in making sure that diverse individuals work as a team.


Although there are some similarities, transformational leadership and cross-cultural approach to leadership are different and impact an organization differently. These leadership approach focus on creating a conducive environment for all employees. These leaders also depend on effective communication to achieve their goals. However, the leadership approach used by these leaders has a significant impact on different situations. For example, transformational leadership is effective when organizations want to motivate employees to achieve set objectives. On the other hand, cross-cultural leadership is effective when an organization has a diverse team. As a result, this leadership approach leads to active innovation and ideas from the followers who turn the usual way of thinking about the arrival of common beneficial solutions.


Anderson, L. & Anderson, D. (2009). Leading change. Leadership Excellence Essentials, 26(11), 3-4.

Carter, L. & Carmichael, P. (2009). Best practices. Leadership Excellence Essentials, 26(11), 16-17.

Darling, J. & Heller, V. (2009). Organization development in an era of socio-economic change: A focus on the key to successful management leadership. Organization Development Journal, 27(2), 9-26.

Khan, M. Y. H. (2018). Cross-cultural leadership and the hospitality industry: A leadership style towards success in organizational goals in France. Hos Tour Manage Int, 1(4), 20-25.

Perkins, R. (2009). How executive coaching can change leader behavior and improve meeting effectiveness: An exploratory study. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(4), 298-318.

Pinck, A. S., & Sonnentag, S. (2018). Leader mindfulness and employee well-being: the mediating role of transformational leadership. Mindfulness, 9(3), 884-896.

Plachy, R. (2009). When to lead? When to manage? T + D, 63(12), 52-58.

Treacy, V. (2002a). What is the difference between leaders and managers: Part 1. We Lead Online Magazine.

Treacy, V. (2002b). What is the difference between leaders and managers: Part 2. We Lead Online Magazine.

Van Quaquebeke, N., & Eckloff, T. (2010). Defining respectful leadership: What it is, how it can be measured, and another glimpse at what it is related to. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(3), 343-358.

Yukl, G.A., & Gardner, W., L. (2019). Leadership in organizations (9th ed.). Pearson.

Human Development Psychology

The Notebook is a romantic novel authored by Nicholas Sparks in 1996. The novel is told in two versions; first, when Noah reads the notebook to a woman by the name Allie. He reads to her how Allie and Noah fall in love young; they are separated for years but then find their way to each other again. The first part is in the past, while the second bit narrates the present where Allie and Noah have lived together and grown old. They lead a happy life until Allie is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Allie loses her memory from time to time, forgetting Noah, but this does not hinder their love. She has promised to come back to him, which she does every time.

In the beginning, Allie and Noah fall in love. Allie is from an influential family, while Noah is just a laborer’s son. Allie’s mother disapproves of their relationship even though she knows her daughter is in love with Noah; she bans her from seeing him. Allie moves away from New Bern with her family to lead her life in Charleston. While away, she is engaged to Lon, who is also from an influential, well-off family. One day Allie reads about Noah from a newspaper and decides to look for him in New Bern. They begin unfolding their memories together and re-ignite their love again. Allie breaks her engagement with Lon and chooses to stay with Noah and build with him. They stick together till the end when Allie gets Alzheimer’s. Their previous promised to always come back to each other is fulfilled when Allie recognizes Noah and starts unbuttoning his shirt; their love rekindles.

This media relates to psychoanalytic theories term development as beyond awareness and somewhat colored heavily by emotions (Santrock 19). The notebook refers to Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory, a psychoanalytic theory, emphasizes the encounters and obligations that one presents throughout one’s life as a key to understanding human development (Santrock). According to Erickson, behavior is social and reflects the desire to associate with other people (Santrock). This theory focuses on the genetic and biological origins of behavior while interacting with environmental forces’ direct influence over time. Erik states that natural evolution concerning our socio-cultural settings is done in stages of psychosocial development. Success determines progress through each stage we achieve in all the previous steps. According to Erickson, there are eight developmental stages that humans go through (Santrock). Each stage presents an individual with a crisis or development task. This crisis is linked with demand in our lives at a young age by our parents and society.

In this movie, we can examine how relationships can change over time. The film shows how love changes over a while. The separation they go through due to disapproval by their parents, Allie and Noah distance each other, and Allie move on to an engagement with Lon. The separation and interaction with other people affect her biological behavior, and she gets engaged to someone different from who she was in love with previously. Both Allie and Noah present with psychosocial crises where they demand them not to see each other. Here their lives are dictated for them, and they experience a behavior change.

The first concept is ego integrity vs. despair. When Allie is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, Noah upholds integrity instead of despair, where he understands himself and Allie and is satisfied with how they have lived their life together. He does not regret or feel sorry but reads the notebook to her every day even though she has forgotten the story and that it is about them. She is optimistic, though, for she always wishes that they end up together. Even in old age, Noah and Allie characterize as wise people, for they can look back on their lives with completeness and closure and acceptance of death without fear. The second concept is that biological unfolding in an individual’s socio-cultural setting occurs in psychosocial development stages, in this case, intimacy vs. isolation. When Noah and Allie were in the late childhood and early adulthood ages, they form loving and intimate relationships with each other and other people. At this age, they begin exploring relationships that lead towards long-term commitments. They do not isolate themselves; instead, they result in a happy and committed relationship with each other.

The notebook is an accurate depiction of human development because it demonstrates that growth is primarily unconscious. To fully understand the meanings of behavior, one has to understand further how the inner mind works. The novel also shows that previous life experienced with parents shape development greatly. The novel gives a descriptive overview of their social and emotional development and links this development across Noah and Allie’s entire lifespan. Since childhood, we see their lives and how they can develop both emotionally and socially throughout even with their parental experiences molding them to the best selves in their later life. Both characters display optimism and hence balance very well their desperation and their integrity. The love, care, and affection the two have developed for each other over the years endures during their hard times.


Santrock, John W. “A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development”. 10 edn., McGraw-Hill Education, 2019

“The Story Of An Hour” By Kate Chopin: An Analysis

“The story of an hour” by Kate Chopin focuses on Josephine, who has conflicted feelings about the loss of her husband. The entire text describes how she reacts to the news of her husband’s death. Her worries, possible memories, emotions and, oddly enough, the inhalation of freedom are placed at the center of the narrative. Existential awareness covers Josephine with her head, and she is speechless from the news that has come. The denouement of the story lies in the fact that Brentley returns home at the moment of Josephine’s awareness of the death and the meeting of a new reality. Josephine is shocked to see her husband as a ghost back from the dead, and has a heart attack. Kate Chopin in “The story of an hour” describes the conflicting feelings of the main character, her renewal after the death of Brentley, and leads her to a cruel conclusion: death from shock.

Throughout the story, Josephine experiences fear, awe, release, pleasure, and anticipation. Kate Chopin draws parallels between feelings and bodily sensations, which tells readers about Josephine’s excitement: “Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body” (Chopin 2). Chopin mentions the main character’s eyes, which look ahead and prepare to accept a new reality. It seems strange that Josephine, despite the present descriptions of pain, suffering, tears and tantrums, quickly puts up with the loss of her husband. It cannot be called joy, it cannot be called intense grief, but it is precisely the existential rift that divided Josephine’s life into two parts. In the first part, she belonged in body and soul to her husband (Paudel 98). Sitting at the window, while the rest of the house is worried that she will hurt herself, Josephine is looking forward to the renewal.

The text produces the effect of a riddle and forces one to take attempt after attempt in understanding Josephine. The descriptions of Josephine’s physicality force readers to better understand how she feels, and therefore produce the effect of a serious emotional charge; some of Josephine’s emotions are conveyed to the reader. The topic raised by Kate Chopin is closely related to the existential issues of communication, emotional attachment and the Other in philosophy. This story shows readers what a powerful influence one person can have on another, even to the point of controlling his life and death.

Works Cited

Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. Joe Books Ltd, 2018.

Paudel, Kishor. “Existential Angst in Kate Chopin’s The Story of an Hour.” NCC Journal vol. 4, no. 1, 2019, pp. 97-99.

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