Classifications: Cell-Phone Users, Relationship, Class Items And Drivers Essay Example

Cell-Phone Users

Cell-phones have become powerful devices that make it easier for individuals to achieve their goals and communicate effectively. Analysts group users of such innovative tools depending on their favorite applications and aims. First, there is a group that relies on them mainly for interacting with other people. Some good examples include many citizens in the developing world and those who are above the age of fifty. This group will select basic phones that might not have additional features or are less complicated. More often than not, they would consider purchasing button phones. Second, there are specific customers who purchase cell-phones with the aim of using them for internet connections and interacting on social media platforms, chatting, and visiting various websites. These individuals will be technologically-savvy and informed. Majority of them would be aged between 18 and 40 years.

Third, some groups and analysts in the field of technology will purchase and use mobile phones for engaging in cybercrime, such as phishers and hackers. These individuals will acquire advanced devices that support 4G connections and are capable of meeting their goals. Fourth, some users will acquire them as powerful devices for completing their tasks or jobs. Some good examples include those who use such phones for e-marketing, communicating in construction sites, and sharing information with the targeted clients.


Social exchange theory is one of the models that define and explain the nature of human relationships and interactions. Several problems have the potential to ruin a marriage as one of the best examples of human relationships. The first possible cause is that of financial issues. Sometimes one of the partners might fail to honor his or her responsibilities regarding the use and management of the available resources. The second problem that is capable of ruining marriages is that of infidelity. This challenge emerges when a person chooses to misbehave or start having a romantic affair with another individual. This occurrence is quite serious and could ruin a marriage within a very short time.

The third possible aspect that could affect such a relationship is that of ideological differences. This problem emerges when one of the partners decides to focus on other women and ignore the shared values and aims of the marriage. Finally, external influence from relatives, friends, and even enemies could force couples to separate or divorce. A good example could be when a man’s relatives or parents decide to abuse and oppress his wife. Chances of divorcing in such a scenario will increase significantly.

Class Items

Assignments are essential in classes because they make it possible for teachers to gauge the comprehension levels of their students. These activities could be grouped into different categories depending on the intended aims. The first one is that of group assignments whereby three or more individuals are identified to work on specific tasks and present their reports within a specific period. The second type is individual in nature whereby every student will work independently on the presented topic or instructions. The teacher will then assess the work and provide his or her feedback.

The third type of assignments includes presentations whereby learners will complete various tasks and prepare PowerPoint slides. They will then present them in class or to their instructors before the scored marks could be awarded. The fourth type could include class discussions whereby the entire class receives a specific question and presents common answers. They will then collaborate to write a single report for the teacher to assess and make the relevant inferences. These categories are essential throughout the learning process since they guide instructors to make informed decisions and provide additional insights to support the learning process.


A driver is any person tasked with controlling and guiding a motor vehicle from point A to B. Those in this profession could be categorized depending on their unique tasks and careers. The first group is that of a taxicab driver whose work is to drive taxis as the primary source of income. Such individuals are found in different parts of the world. The emergence of app-based taxis fall under this classification. The second one is that of a test driver whose role is to examine the performance, efficiency, speed, and superiority of a finished car. These people include the ones manufacturers employ, such as Volkswagen, Toyota, and BMW. Such professionals are able to handle cars at high speeds while monitoring the installed gages and indicators.

The third category is that of truck drivers who are expected to drive lorries and haulers. They need additional training and certification due to the nature of the involved vehicle. The next type of a driver would be that of a motorman. Such a person would be expected to cycle vehicles that have three or two wheels, such as motorcycles and scooters. Despite the nature of these classifications, all drivers need to be licensed, have the relevant experience or training, and be willing to follow road signs, outlined instructions, and vehicle-specific guidelines.

Leading Change: Effective Cross Cultural Communication


Change is inevitable; actually, change can be thought of as being a constant because nothing ever stays the same. The nature of life is that it is like a constant evolution that calls upon us to adapt and reinvent ourselves to keep up with new and different circumstances.

Leaders in society are meant to be agents of change; they are the ones who play a major role in instigating change and ensuring that change is accepted. However, in any situation, some are resistant to change and find it more difficult than others to accept and embrace new concepts or trends. This is especially so when the change taking place affects people of different cultures. Leaders have to learn the finesse of implementing cross-cultural change.

How leaders can instigate change effectively in a culturally diverse context

Improve cultural intelligence (CQ)

In any given culture, there are nonverbal cues of communication that sometimes speak louder than words. A leader planning on bringing about change has to be aware of these cues so as. The leader is thus called upon to enrich his knowledge on these cultural nonverbal cues because it will help ease communication as well as help the leader formulate the best strategy to help the team welcome the change that is to be implemented (Dodd, 1977).

As an example, a leader working with people from diverse cultures can take it upon himself to learn what would be considered ‘crowding’ a team member, or what distance if maintained would be interpreted as a show of stiff formality to demarcate the person in authority and the sub-ordinate. Learning such simple things would go a long way in making a difference in how the leaders are accepted.

Passion and teamwork

It falls upon the leader to ensure that those with whom he is to work in bringing about change, share the same zeal and enthusiasm as he does for it. The leader must completely integrate his team into his plans and objectives. This is doubly important when working with a culturally diverse team because, with a common drive and objective, team members will put aside their differences and focus energies into successfully seeing the changes implemented (Harris, 2004).

The team leader can come up with a slogan or catchphrase with which members of his team can identify and use to boost team morale. The leader can also have sessions where team members encourage each other as they monitor progress. The leader can also build morale by awarding members of his team whenever they make an achievement or notable progress.

Time frame

Though most change is gradual, when a leader is keen on instigating it, there must be a viable time frame within which his/her plans have to be in place. Having a time frame will help in monitoring the progress and success of the planned change. The leader can apply his cultural intelligence to better understand how to ease the transition for his culturally diverse team. The leader will be able to know just how much time can be allocated to implementing change without it being too abrupt and being met with resistance or being considered to take too long and thus ineffective (Dodd, 1977).

The team leader can draw colorful charts with a timeline to indicate what s meant to be achieved under what duration of time. The leader can then constantly keep referring to the charts so that the team members keep uppermost in their minds that there is a time frame within which they have to work.

Clear lines of communication

Without effective communication, very little progress is ever made. Communication breakdown can result in unnecessary tension and misunderstandings as well as a waste of energy and resources. The team leader should give definite assignments to all team members so that everyone is held responsible for something specific. If the team leader has information on how a particular aspect of his team’s cultural traits can be used to effectively get the work done, he could use this as well. The team leader should treat his members as individuals, not lump them into stereotyped heaps. Just because a team member comes from a particular cultural background, it does not mean that that member will fit the mold of what the team leader expects him to be. The team leader should also avoid playing favorites at all costs (Harris, 2004).

The best way a team leader can maintain clear lines of communication is by one, addressing all employees in the same manner, with the same tone of voice and attitude, sticking with the basics, and giving the employee a chance to indicate that he has understood instructions. The team leader should try and designate roles so that areas of command are made clear and avoid the use of jargon that might be found offensive by a particular cultural group that might be under him.


Leaders who are agents of change have unique characteristics that make them stand out. They are daring, bold, and adventurous because they are always willing to try out something new and attempt to see situations from a different angle. They are ‘people persons’, meaning they are friendly and approachable. They are people who focus on the future and try to anticipate the needs and situations that may arise (Harris, 2004). They have effective communication tools. Above all, they are visionary; they have a vision and know-how to turn their visions from a castle in the air to a concrete and tangible reality.


Dodd, C (1977). Perspectives on Cross-cultural Communication. Seattle: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co.

Harris. P, R., & Moran. S, V (2004). Managing cultural differences. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

The United States Foreign Policy Actors

It is prudent to approach the U.N., NATO, and E.U. as the foreign policy actors. The main reason for engaging these three actors is that they handle various issues (Smith, Hadfield & Dunne, 2016). Additionally, they have numerous member states, and this means that most of the policies that the organizations initiate will be favorable. In addition, the USA has been an ally to many nations that are members of these unions, which implies that they have a common interest.

The most advantageous school of thought for the United States to follow in the future is the formation of allies. When the nations form partners with other states, the associates will allow goods and services to pass through their borders without restrictions. It will also enable easy movement of people from one nation to another, thus eliminating illegal terrorizing activities due to tension between countries.


Smith, S., Hadfield, A., & Dunne, T. (Eds.). (2016). Foreign policy: Theories, actors, cases. Oxford University Press.

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