Clayton County: Department Of Family And Child Services

Part 1. Agency Selection Evaluation

The agency of interest is found under the Department of Family and Children Services. The agency is Child Protective Services Unit (CPS). The primary responsibility of this agency is to protect the interests of the children in Clayton County. These include ensuring that children attend school, are well protected from abusive parents, and have shelter and food. Thus, to achieve the objectives of the Agency, CPS has set up a 24-hour child report hotline:1-855-GA CHILD:1-855-422-4453 (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023). This makes it possible for anyone to report child abuse and neglect. The director of the Children Services is Deneka Manning, assisted by Kimberly Scott, the assistant director. Nakia Wilder is responsible for the Child Protective Services Agency, and Sasha Carr deputizes her. Eleanor Gray is the program director, and she is responsible for overseeing all the agency’s activities, including policies aimed at protecting vulnerable children from abuse (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023a).

The agency has an office of Family Independence, and its administrator is April Booker. She reports to Eleanor Gray, who is the program director. The Office of Family Independence’s responsibility is to assess vulnerable children and assist them independently. Additionally, the Child Protective Agency works with the Clayton police unit to protect the interests of children and enforce its policies and laws on child protection (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023a). The agency is assisted by several program administrators, who range from about 10-15 and coordinate with other local child units and non-governmental organizations to achieve their objectives. The point of contact for the interview was April Booker, the OFI Administrator. She provided great insight into the working of the agency, its strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities it has.

Part 2: Agency Evaluation Paper

Section 1: Organizational Description

  • Mission: Vision and Mission

The organization’s mission is to provide child and social support to vulnerable children and their family members. The organization aims to achieve this objective through the Child Protection Agency, headed by Nakia Wilder.

The organization’s vision is to protect the well-being and health of vulnerable children and their family members. It helps to achieve this objective through child support systems, Medicaid and Medicare programs, and the [provision of food stamps.

  • Overview of Programs: Description of Main Departments, Programs and Activities

The primary department is the Child Protective Services or Unit. This is a department responsible for protecting vulnerable children and family members. The Child Protective Agency provides Medicare, food stamps, TANF and Childcare services to children and their vulnerable families. The TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) explicitly targets families with children they cannot care for.

  • Organizational Structure

The following is the organizational structure of the department:

Organization Structure for Family and Children Services Organization (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023a)

Organization Structure for Family and Children Services Organization (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023a)

  • Management and Leadership Style

It is a corporate authority management and leadership structure. The reason is that communication is top-down, and employees are not allowed to contribute to decision-making.

Section 2: Program Analysis

  1. SWOT Analysis

  • The Most Significant Challenge the Organization Faced

Time constraint is the most significant challenge experienced by Child Protective Agency under its flagship program, Childcare. The reason for time constraints is the large number of caseloads that have increased for the last five years. This challenge makes it difficult for the case workers to schedule meetings that can help address the problem correctly and create an environment that enhances a child’s welfare.

  • The Challenge and Impact on the Organization: Funding, Services, Human Resources and Regulation

The impact is that it has forced the organization’s management to look for more funds to help finance the agency’s operations. This includes grants and loans from the state and federal governments. Additionally, the organization has been forced to hire more caseworkers and collaborate with other like-minded agencies to promote the interests of the children.

  • Strategic Planning and the Extent

There is no strategic planning taking place because the organization’s policies are highly bureaucratic and influenced by politicians, who may not be re-elected to office.

  • Successful Response to Address Changes and Particular Management Philosophy

Any successful responses to address change are attributed to the Director of Social Services, Deneka Manning, who is responsible for policy implementation and evaluation. Furthermore, because this is a public institution where high-ranking members make policies, the managerial philosophy used to lead change is autocratic. The director of social services has the authority to make all the agency’s and the organization’s decisions.

Section 3: Resource Management Financial Analysis

  • Financial Health of the Agency and Position of the Child Protective Agency

The organization’s financial resources are approved by the Family and Children Services Board. Therefore, because the government is funding the agency, it has always been able to meet its obligations. For instance, the TANF Program has about 326 active cases, with a monthly contribution of $ 83380 from the agency (Clayton County-Georgia, 2023b). The food stamps provision has about 69760 active cases, with a monthly contribution of $ 15 882 438.

  • Funding Sources and Strategies Used to Handle Funding Shortages

The primary funding source is from the Clayton County Government, and the money is allocated to the organization based on its needs and budget. Moreover, in case of funding shortages, the organization will seek grants from the state and federal governments.


Clayton County-Georgia. (2023a). Department of Family and children services: Clayton County. Clayton County, Georgia |.

Clayton County-Georgia. (2023b). Department of Family and Children Services, Clayton County Board of Directors Meeting held Wednesday, October 27th, 2021, at 10:00 AM. Clayton County.

Cybercrime In The Near Future


The evolution of cybercrime in the future demands more proactive measures to strengthen cybersecurity. This paper aims to analyze the future direction cybercrime will likely take and the possible countermeasures. The paper has emphasized the need for collaboration between countries and agencies to have a more assertive defence approach. It portrays the need for information sharing, collaboration, and partnership. Cybercriminals always tend to plan ahead of the cybersecurity officers, where they develop sophisticated methods to conduct their attacks. More robust cybersecurity measures within the organization are needed, such as robust authentication methods, secure data backups and frequent software updates. There is also the need to develop post-quantum cryptographic systems essential in addressing issues connected with quantum computing. These measures will help different stakeholders counter cybercrime and protect against future threats.

Cybercrime in the Near Future

Cybercrime activities are now evolving at a faster rate than ever. For example, in 2021, there was an increase in the number of companies that had incurred losses due to ransomware activities. These activities bring significant economic impact, costing the economy more than 445 billion dollars annually (Oosthoek & Doerr, 2019). The cost per breach is expected to rise steadily in the future. Even though it is challenging to predict the exact evolution of cybercrime in the future, some current trends can give a picture of cybercrime in the future.

How Cybercrime May Evolve In The Near Future and How to Counter It

Cybercrime is likely to evolve through increased sophistication. Cybercriminals are likely to make their attack methods more sophisticated. There is an increase in attackers’ opportunities that come with more advancements in the Internet of Things. The increased number of devices connected to the Internet creates more entry points for cybercriminals. As these devices become sophisticated and so do the cybercriminals’ tools. There is already an increase in the use of automated malware deployment tools (Oosthoek & Doerr, 2019). They are now becoming sophisticated, making it hard to be detected. Attackers also use encrypted communication, making it challenging for the security team to track the attackers. The use of these automated hacking processes and being able to evade detection will make cybercrime more rampant in the near future.

The countermeasure to this is to ensure individuals and organizations invest in having strong cyber security measures. Organizations should have threat intelligence sources that provide relevant, accurate and timely security data. Organizations should consider having robust authentication methods and updating software and systems regularly to ensure they are informed about the latest defense measures. They should also consider having vital backups for their data, for example, in the cloud environments.

Another way that cybercrime may evolve in the future is through collaborations between cybercriminals and state-sponsored actors. There is increased collaboration between nation-state actors with attackers, which causes profound implications. The state-sponsored actors have access to advanced capabilities such access to artificial intelligence and sophisticated attack techniques (Sailio et al., 2020). Their collaboration with attackers can thus leverage these resources and expertise to conduct severe attacks. The attackers may also be willing to sell their skills to these actors as their main aim is profit, not politics. As such, it is possible that there are likely more cases of sophisticated cybercrimes in the future.

Different nations should enhance international cooperation with other nations and international organizations to aid in information sharing and cooperation to address the issue of cyber threats. Nations may also consider investing in cyber deterrence to discourage collaboration between attackers and actors. For example, there should be diplomatic efforts and international agreements on actions against those involved in malicious cyber activities.

Lastly, quantum computing threats may make cybercrime evolve in the future. Most cyber security researchers are concerned about the new type of computer. The quantum computer depends on quantum physics instead of standard electronics, which can break modern cryptography. They have the potential of breaking into secure systems and stealing sensitive information such as state secrets or financial information. It can break the commonly used encryption algorithms (Fernandez-Carames & Fraga-Lamas, 2020). For example, Shor’s algorithm may render the RSA encryption algorithms vulnerable when executed in a quantum computer. As such, any information protected using encryption will be at risk. These computers also pose risks to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, which depend on cryptographic algorithms for security. Therefore, even if the quantum has some solutions to cybersecurity issues, it poses new cyber threats. To counter these risks, cybersecurity researchers should work on strong quantum-resistant encryption algorithms to assist with standing attacks from quantum computers to ensure sensitive data remains secure. As quantum computing upgrades, firms and states need to invest in strong post-quantum cryptographic systems.

How Agencies and Countries should collaborate to Counter Cybercrime

Collaboration between countries and agencies is essential in countering cybercrime in the future. The collaboration should be in different forms. First, it is in the form of information sharing. The collaboration will be beneficial in the early detection and prevention of threats. Cybercriminals are over the world, and through Internet connections, their activities affect information shared globally. Sharing information about attack trends, attack signatures, forensic information, and emerging threats will assist agencies and countries in collaborating and preventing these attacks (Ghernaouti et al., 2019). There will be proactive defense measures which will ensure countries ad organizations do not suffer cybercrime losses. Not all nations or agencies have all the knowledge and skills required to deal with cybercrime. Information sharing will enable exchanging expertise and knowledge to develop more effective preventive measures. However, it is worth noting that information sharing should be done with appropriate safeguards to safeguard sensitive information and adhere to privacy rights. Agencies and countries should adhere to privacy and legal regulations and use trusted communication channels.

Agencies and countries should also consider having public-private partnerships to counter cybercrimes. Cybercrime affects both public and private entities; thus, working together will assist in creating a practical defense approach. It will be easier to share knowledge based on each experience, which will strengthen the cyber security posture. Cybercriminals are always innovative and move fast and more sophisticatedly when it comes to leveraging the power of partnerships. As such, states and organizations need to embrace deeper and stronger partnerships with the private sector, the leading technology providers, and the public sector good at law enforcement (Ilbiz & Kaunert, 2023). The partnership will assist in overcoming cyber threats as the public sector will lighten the burden through law enforcement. The partnership will create greater threat intelligence, an essential cybersecurity framework. Although most organizations are aggressively moving towards using artificial intelligence and machine learning as an automated approach to threat intelligence, neither the public nor private sector can excel in this alone. Law enforcement agencies are in a position to see beyond local and national boundaries to get a bigger view of the cyber threat activities, trends and results. This information elevates the understanding of the private sector analysts and jointly develops a robust strategy (Ilbiz & Kaunert, 2023). Therefore a culture of collaboration and partnership is essential in the war against cybercrime. The public and private sectors should leverage their resources and commit strategically to combating cybercrime.


Cybercrime is anticipated to continue evolving and bring more challenges to the cyber world in the future. The threat landscape will expand with technological advances and interconnected societies through the Internet. As such, proactive measures will be needed to combat these criminal activities. It is anticipated that there will be increased sophistication, increased collaborations between cybercriminals and state-sponsored actors and quantum computing threats. As such, agencies and countries should consider information sharing to assist in the early detection and prevention of threats and have strong partnerships between the private and public sectors.


Ghernaouti, S., Cellier, L., & Wanner, B. (2019, October). Information sharing in cybersecurity: Enhancing security, trust and privacy by capacity building. In 2019 3rd Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet) (pp. 58-62). IEEE.

Fernandez-Carames, T. M., & Fraga-Lamas, P. (2020). Towards post-quantum blockchain: A review on blockchain cryptography resistant to quantum computing attacks. IEEE Access8, 21091-21116.

Ilbiz, E., & Kaunert, C. (2023). Cybercrime, Public-Private Partnership and Europol. In The Sharing Economy for Tackling Cybercrime (pp. 13–28). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Oosthoek, K., & Doerr, C. (2019). Sok: Att&ck techniques and trends in Windows malware. In Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 15th EAI International Conference, SecureComm 2019, Orlando, FL, USA, October 23-25, 2019, Proceedings, Part I 15 (pp. 406-425). Springer International Publishing.

Sailio, M., Latvala, O. M., & Szanto, A. (2020). Cyber threat actors for the factory of the future. Applied Sciences10(12), 4334.

Distinctive Features Of Mannerism From High Renaissance

The Gothic period was succeeded by the Renaissance period, which is divided into three major phases: Early, High, and Late/Mannerism. A major event in the history of Italy and Christianity characterizes each phase. At the beginning of the High Renaissance, there was an attack on Florence. Similarly, at the start of Mannerism, there was a revolution by Protestants who protested catholic clergy indulgences. High Renaissance and Mannerism share much in common in terms of art, but some differences exist. Since Mannerism is an advanced stage of the High Renaissance, some significant differences exist that make Mannerism unique from the High Renaissance. Mannerist style differs from the High Renaissance style in terms of proportional distortion of figures, Sculptures, painting style, and source of light in paintings.

First, the styles used in Mannerism and High Renaissance differ in the proportional figures’ painting. In the High Renaissance period, all figures in frescoes were drawn proportionally. Each part of their bodies was proportional to each other, showing a great understanding of human anatomy. For example, the sculpture of Pieta by Michelangelo shows parts of the body of Christ in proportion to one another. However, in the mannerism phase body parts of the figures are not proportional. For example, the Madonna of the Long Neck by Parmigianino. The Madonna is painted as having a long neck which is not proportional to her body. Her highs are not proportional as they appear to be big and long. Also, Christ, the child, is painted as being long. Elongated body parties of the figures are also seen in the painting, The Deposition by Pontormo.

In addition, the mannerist style is distinct from the High Renaissance style in terms of sculptures. During High Renaissance, great artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci made great and monumental sculptures. Many of the sculptures made were of David- Michelangelo and Leonardo made sculptures of David. These sculptures are in contrapposto and do have much dramatic movement. They are almost passive and static. On the contrary, the mannerist style of making sculpture shows more dynamism and is somehow dramatic. Looking at the sculpture Abduction of a Sabine Woman by Giambologna. The sculpture portrays a triumphant Roman man as if he is about to walk away with the Sabine woman who is resisting. It creates an imaginary scene in the mind of the viewer.

Besides, it is worth pointing out that the sculptures in the mannerism period have different figures in one sculpture. Unlike the sculpture of the High Renaissance, which showed only one of two figures, the most being David and the head of Goliath. The mannerism sculptures have several figures in one sculpture, and the figures show some reality.

Furthermore, the Mannerist style is characteristically different from the High Renaissance style in the painting style used. The great artist of the High Renaissance, such as Leonardo Da Vinci, used oil painting. Oil painting was the most innovative and creative way of painting frescoes. It allowed artists to paint layer after layer, modifying the appearance of figures. In comparison with the Mannerist style, tempera was used in painting figures. For example, the Red Chalk, a self-portrait of Pontormo, was initially painted in tempera. Primarily tempera was used in painting, and then oil painting was later used to beautify the figures by adding different colors. Oil painting was used mostly in the High Renaissance period. Still, instead of advancing it, artists of the mannerism period used the old painting style of tempera, which had been used in the Early Renaissance.

Lastly, another distinctive feature between the mannerist style and High Renaissance is the source of light in the paintings. When comparing Leonardo’s painting of the Last Supper, he uses natural light to show the figures in the paintings. Light comes in from the outside to where Christ and the disciples are. However, in Mannerism, no natural light is used in the Last Supper by Tintoretto. Light emanates from Christ and his disciples and the lamp above them on the left.

In conclusion, some distinctive features such as painting style, body part proportionality of the figures, sculptures, and source of light differentiate Mannerism from the High Renaissance. One major thing that makes High Renaissance different from Mannerism is the distortion of figures. The reason for distorting body parts by elongating them is unknown, but it characterizes the Mannerist style.


Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker, “Jacopo Tintoretto, Last Supper,” in Smarthistory, December 10, 2015, accessed June 20, 2023,

Dr. Shannon Pritchard, “Giambologna, Abduction of a Sabine Woman,” in Smarthistory, September 8, 2016, accessed June 20, 2023,

Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris, “Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck,” in Smarthistory, November 28, 2015, accessed June 20, 2023,