Cloud Formation And Precipitation In A Mid-Latitude Cyclone Free Writing Sample

The nature of the planet Earth is impressive — it consists of the cycles of chemical compounds in different aggregate states at distinct levels. Water is the essential substance without which life would not be possible, and the formation of clouds with the subsequent fallout plays a not insignificant role in the cycle of water existence. Such a stage allows redistributing molecules from water bodies to land or back to the water body.

It should be understood that regardless of shape, size, and color, clouds consist of water vapor condensed from the evaporation of land and oceans. Typically, a drop in overall temperature and an increase in air humidity causes the phase transition of moisture from a gaseous state to a liquid or solid state, expressed as ice floes. Moreover, the temperature decrease is caused not only by the upward airflow but also by the horizontal movement of air masses, leading to the separation of hot and cold flows by densities.

It is interesting to note that a significant role in the parallel formation of different types of clouds is played by cyclones, in particular, middle-latitude cyclones. First of all, cyclones are understood as a vast atmospheric vortex with a diameter of hundreds to thousands of kilometers associated with the movement of a warm front. In the central zone of the vortex, low pressure is formed, and warm air flows are directed upwards (“Cyclones,” n.d.). In this process, the air masses evaporating from the land or water surface spiral and expand adiabatically. As a result of the increased volume, the air, without receiving any heat from outside, only works with its internal energy and is then cooled down. As a result, stratus, cumulus, and rain clouds are formed.

Simultaneously, all clouds of cyclonic origin should form precipitation, creating rainy and cloudy weather, typical for cyclones of mid-latitude. Under the influence of attraction and electrostatic forces, tiny drops of liquid water in the cloud mass are attracted to each other, forming larger ones. By surpassing the force of upward air currents, the coarse droplets, called precipitation, tend towards the center of the Earth. Moreover, if there is moisture in the cloud and particles of dust, dirt, or sand, the condensation process is rapidly accelerated, as solid elements play the role of condensation cores.

References

Cyclones. (n.d.). Lumen. 2020.

Journal Entry: “How Hate Took Hold Of Me” By T. Parrish

This article made a deep impression on me as it showed that, in some cases, racism is not a fault of an individual, but the fault of the society that embed racist views in its members mindset. Besides, I strongly agree with the author’s conclusion that though it is possible to implement various policies that would facilitate eradicating racism, these policies cannot alter people’s attitudes towards the representatives of other races. That is explained by the fact that from the very childhood, people were taught to judge others depending on their skin color.

  1. The title shows that the article is dedicated to an incident that occurred because the author hated someone. I expect the author to tell why he hated someone while understanding that this hate has no rational explanation.
  2. “Poisonous well” refers to the belief in the supremacy of the white race. Dylan Roof is a white supremacist who committed a shooting at a Charleston church in 2015.
  3. The author is writing a personal narrative; he shares his personal experience with the audience.
  4. He is a victim of being taught to hate black people and accuse them of all possible calamities.
  5. Parrish (2015) discusses his theory that hatred for black people that was “injected” to him in childhood could not be eradicated even in adulthood because he is still guided by the belief in the black race’s inferiority.
  6. He belonged to a Southern Baptist church that emphasizes the importance of personal and independent conversion. Baton Rouge, located in the southeast of the US, is the capital of the state of Louisiana.
  7. Timothy Parrish became a racist because he was raised up in a society that disrespects black people. He was made to believe that blacks threaten the culture and values of white people.
  8. Timothy’s parents were polite to black people; they did allow the son to insult blacks.
  9. As a teenager, the author participated in fights with black, not white, youth because “he had swallowed the line that African Americans were coming to take everything that was ours” (Parrish, 2015, p. 36). He knew that it was morally wrong to offend black people; however, he did this as he was brainwashed and wanted to fit into the society where hatred for blacks is the norm.
  10. His family and the entire community were afraid of blacks as they believed that they come to destroy the culture, values, and lives of white people.
  11. The reason for segregation is to protect white people from harm caused by black people.
  12. The similar driving forces that many white, young teenagers shared growing up in the deep south in the 60s are “ideology, delusion, rage, and racist speech” (Parrish, 2015, p. 36).
  13. He is a racist, not a psychotic, because psychotic are people who could commit mass murder as Dylan Roof did.
  14. The hate took hold of the author in terms that even being an adult, his thoughts are still being guided by the conviction in the white race’s superiority.
  15. The author feels sorry that people “hesitate to call racism by its name” and that he is unable to change his racist mindset (Parrish, 2015, p. 37).
  16. I feel sorry for this author because his upbringing in the racist society maimed his way of thinking and deprived him of the ability to treat African Americans equally to white people.

Reference

Parrish, T. (2015). How hate took hold of me. Daily News, 36-37.

Transportation: Connecting Communities

Transportation is considered to be among the major industries around the globe. It is one of the most expensive and burdensome areas not only for citizens but for the government as well. Nevertheless, it is well known that dependable transportation allows people to travel throughout the country and to live comfortably in whatever area they like. However, in this field, sustainability is a big concern.

Although there are several means of available transportation, it fails to meet community needs such as convenience, financial costs, and environmental friendliness. The main goal for public authorities is to produce a reliable transportation system that meets such demands. For example, adding new means of transportation or expanding already existing ones would be effective in an economic sense as it would provide more financial benefits.

As for America, where most of the population use their cars to get to whatever place they need, vehicles have a big influence on society. First of all, road safety is the biggest concern, as car accidents, minor and major, have become a daily occurrence. Either reckless drivers or unfortunate circumstances cause damage to the automobiles, constructions, and even death of drivers, passengers, or pedestrians. Moreover, the number of car owners continues to grow every year, so local governments have to take action by building new roads or improving the old ones. This method is a straightforward way that can facilitate easy transportation. However, it encourages people to buy more cars, which can lead to bigger traffic congestion.

Heavy traffic is a severe issue which not only annoys ordinary drivers but presents a danger for public health and safety. On roads, which are full of buses and private cars, emergency vehicles, such as ambulances or police, cannot access the destination in time. Unfortunately, the issue of congestion cannot be terminated by constructing more driveways and

bridges or increasing the capacity of already existing roads. Major efforts have to be taken by the officials to control transportation and to promote the use of public transport. While considering the ways to do it, it is vital to remember about Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the metric that is growing continuously every year. There are several ways to reduce VMT, including implementing VMT taxes, new parking pricing policies, and offering alternatives to private vehicles such as public transport. The amount of car ownership needs to be controlled, too, for example, by raising the financial burden or placing restrictions over usage of cars per family.

Nonetheless, several countries have already found ways to redesign transportation for the better. In their study, Anciaes and Jones agree that “there is a movement away from ‘car-centered’ policies and a stronger interest in developing healthy, equitable, and sustainable transport systems that enhance liveability” (Anciaes & Jones, 2020, p. 159). For instance, China established customized buses, or CBs, as a groundbreaking update for public transit services.

According to various researchers, “a major feature of CBs is that they have exclusive bus lane rights” (Ma et al., 2017, p. 3). It provides a big advantage for passengers during rush hours because exclusive bus lanes guarantee the reduction of traveling time when the traffic is highly crowded with private vehicles. Moreover, in New York, there is an accessible system of subway trains, which operates daily, providing citizens with the fastest way to travel around the city for a low price. Luxembourg has advanced even further, making all public transport free of charge. It was the first country to remove transportation fees to make it easier for citizens to travel around the city, thus encouraging them to give up private vehicles.

In addition, the rapid development of technologies allows the production of new sophisticated engines, which enable more safe and efficient traveling. For example, connected cars that have been in development for past years ensure road safety. According to Fahnand and Kockelman, “autonomous technology is improving quickly, as some automated features are already on current models” (Fagnant & Kockelman, 2015).

They also believe that new machinery should reduce road accidents and lessen traffic jams. Furthermore, ATs are to improve fuel conservation, lower parking problems, bring mobility to disadvantaged people who are unable to drive. Powered by an electric engine, a self-driving car can significantly reduce gas emissions, as well as labor costs and infrastructure costs. Although they are not yet financially available for the general public, in the long term, ATs increase the security and efficiency of a country’s transportation system. When taking account of all the benefits of autonomous vehicles, it is possible to say that they eventually will revolutionize travel in the following years.

As the impact of transport on the environment and public health is a major concern for communities, several methods have been applied to study and to improve transportation planning. One of such ways is The Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model. Such a model has been employed all over the world to analyze changes in the health of the population that come from the implementation of programs that promote active travel. The results from several studies demonstrate that “the fundamental insights of ITHIM can be applied to different racial and ethnic groups” (Wu et al., 2019, p. 539). Thus, ITHIM offers the authorities all the information necessary to direct policy interventions and to accomplish certain goals for underprivileged populations.

Without a doubt, public transportation is an essential part of life in every community, especially for disabled people. Sabella and Bezyak conducted an online survey that was disseminated to contacts of the National Network of ADA Centers, and 4,161 individuals responded (Sabella & Bezyak, 2019).

The results emphasize major obstacles for people with disabilities who usually travel by public transportation. As a result of their study, the researchers recommend modifications to the physical environment for the disabled as “barriers to these transit systems are physical in nature” (Sabella, S. A., & Bezyak, 2019, p. 185). Such modifications include providing training for designers and engineers to cater to the needs of the disabled, as well as raising awareness among them to make transport facilities disabled-friendly.

Nowadays, communities are facing a great issue in the shape of climate change and air contamination. Environmentalists, climatologists, and other researchers are underlining the fact that the best option to withdraw the danger is to replace personal cars with public transportation. Their findings suggest that “public health programs could reduce commuters’ lifetime exposures through education directed toward actions people can take to reduce daily inhaled doses of air pollution” (Chaney et al., 2019, p. 14). The reason for this may be that the general public does not realize the reasons that impact daily air pollution levels during traveling.

While talking about the environment, one cannot forget about the issue of greenhouse gas emission. The mission of reducing them to the level that the concentrations in the air stop growing is a major global problem. Aside from environmental outcomes, negative health impacts of car gases are serious and dangerous. In order to meet this objective, it is crucial to reject traditional means of fuel in favor of electricity, as it does not provide carbon emissions. There is a number of reasons, including social, environmental, and economic, to go further with actions to decrease combustion exhaust.

One cannot talk about interventions in the transportation system without also thinking about drivers’ psychology. The training of candidates plays a big role in their behavior on the road. There is a matrix which “summarized essential elements and hierarchical levels of driver behavior to make driver education more effective” (Kiss, 2016, p. 3822). As an example, it would be critical for future car drivers to know about the time limitations for driving and the selected route.

The Goals of Driver Education matrix offers a good foundation for the evaluation of driver training. It highlights the vital aspects that should be stressed in drivers’ education. They involve such things as sensation seeking, the perception of possible risks, the effect of drivers’ motivation on their road decisions, and self-critical thinking. After training, traffic laws should regulate drivers’ behavior. There is a possibility that implementing more harsh punishments for driving violations could reduce car accidents. However, although the strict laws and huge fines seem to prevent a lot of people from offending the traffic rules, some reckless drivers still break them.

In conclusion, it would appear that defining a balanced transportation system is a complicated task. Nevertheless, this issue is not impossible to solve, as each community must admit their own opportunities and limits. On top of anything else, community leaders are the ones who have the potential to work out the right financial and legal decisions to achieve the desired transportation system.

References

Anciaes, P., & Jones, P. (2020). Transport policy for livability – Valuing the impacts on movement, place, and society. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 132, 157-173.

Chaney, R. A., Montgomery, H. D., King, J. H., Hendrickson, N. R., Sloan, C. D., & Johnston, J. D. (2019). A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Commuter Air Pollution Exposures. Journal of Environmental Health, 82(4), 8–14.

Fagnant, D. J., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 167-181.

Kiss, D. S. (2016). What kind of steps shall we implement from the GDE matrix into driver education of Hungary to decrease risk of accident among novice drivers? Transportation research procedia, 14, 3821-3828.

Ma, J., Yang, Y., Guan, W., Wang, F., Liu, T., Tu, W., & Song, C. (2017). Large-scale demand driven design of a customized bus network: A methodological framework and Beijing case study. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 1-14.

Sabella, S. A., & Bezyak, J. L. (2019) Barriers to Public Transportation and Employment: A National Survey of Individuals with Disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 50(3), 174-185.

Wu, Y., Rowangould, D., London, J. K., & Karner, A. (2019). Modeling health equity in active transportation planning. Transportation research part D: transport and environment, 67, 528-540.

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