Coca-Cola Marketing Plan Essay Sample For College

1. Introduction

Coca-Cola is one of the world’s top manufacturers and providers of nonalcoholic beverages (Gomez, 2019). The business, which has its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, is best known for its flagship beverage, Coca-Cola. It is currently a well-known soft drink company aiming to broaden the brand’s appeal. The majority of soft drinks sold in vending machines and refrigerators in Western nations are owned by the company. The most significant soft drink manufacturer in the world is Coca-Cola. Products from Coca-Cola are available in more than 200 countries worldwide. The corporation sells soft drinks under an estimated 500 labels, ranging from sodas to energy and soy-based drinks. The top five soft drinks are Coca-Cola, Sprite, Fanta, and Diet Coke. Other well-known brands include Minute Maid, PowerAde, Dasani, and Vitamin Water. Additionally, the corporation manufactures products like Fruice, Deep River Rock, Avra, and Amita. The Coca-Cola Company also manufactures more than 3,500 different beverages. Because every product that Coca-Cola makes sets itself apart from comparable goods produced by its rivals, it has cultivated its reputation as the most dependable brand. Coca-Cola hopes to make a difference and renew the globe by offering its customers refreshing drinks. The paper aims to present a marketing strategy for the Coca-Cola Company.

2. Core Marketing Concepts

2.1 Markets and Target Market Segments

  • Geographical segmentation Variables

The business has geographically broadened its operations. It prioritizes suburban and metropolitan locations and ensures its products are distributed across the country. This is because it is understood that demand from far-flung areas would rise as the firm expands.

  • Demographic segmentation Variables

Sub-segments of the demographic are created based on social class, age, income level, and other variables. These criteria are the ones that are most often used to divide customer groups.

  • Psychographic segmentation Variables

The consumer is segmented psychologically according to lifestyle, social position, and values, which impact consumer choices. The emphasis shifts from the salient characteristics to the consumer’s lifestyle and ways to improve it.

  • Behavioral segmentation Variables

It focuses on how customers perceive, respond to, and comprehend how to utilize the company’s goods. Most marketers construct market groups using behavioral factors as the optimal starting point. (Liu, 2020).

2.2 Customer Profile

People between the ages of 10 and 25 make up most of Coca-Cola’s consumers, with people between the ages of 25 and 40 making up another market. In terms of flavor, the company caters to a client that desires a strong taste in their traditional beverages. The primary psychological and social factors that affect consumer behavior at Coca-Cola are these two. Customers may assert their goal in buying Coca-Cola beverages is to quench their thirst. However, since Coca-Cola gives people a sense of modernity and power, the true motivation is to demonstrate their economic and social status. Therefore, it is clear that drinking Coca-Cola is a conscious decision, and the company needs to have an impact on its promotional strategy if it wants to evoke emotion and engage consumers.

2.3 Needs, Wants, and Demands

Coca-clientele Cola’s is diverse and has various requirements, such as a preference for high-quality, freshly prepared foods (Ozretic-Dosen, Brlic, & Komarac2018). As the desires of Coca-Cola consumers are classified as healthy, this has a lot to do with food safety. It suggests that the company’s goods must be beneficial to satisfy its consumers’ desires. Consumers of the Coca-Cola firm finally expect the product they desire right now (Ashley, 2017). These clients are prepared to pay more for items supplied to suppliers for the Coca-Cola firm.

3. Marketing Environment

3.1 Demographic Forces

The study of the population’s size, density, location, age, gender, race, and profession is known as the demographic environment (Armstrong & Kotler, 2022). Regardless of the customer’s origin, religion, or color, the key demographic characteristics are age—Coca-Cola targets the age segments of young people and the elderly—gender (men and women), with minor variances in taste and preferences and other demographic aspects. By catering to customer wants and interests, this division hopes to reach all market groups in the more than 200 countries where the corporation works. Sub-segments of the demographic are created based on social class, age, income level, and other variables. These criteria are the ones that are most often used to divide customer groups.

3.2 Regulatory Forces

Regulatory forces are the impacts of rules and regulations on the marketing environment that are addressed in this marketing environment. Athletic brands are impacted by several rules and regulations, including international consumer laws and growing health and safety standards. As the government regulates and oversees the practices and processes of soft drinks, Coca-Cola complies with all applicable regulations. Law changes have a significant influence since they might modify taxes, which the business has to deal with properly. The agreement has become a big worry for most enterprises and people operating globally. For other marketplaces and different nations, different regulations apply. The U.S. regulations are so rigorous that non-compliance might cost the brand money and result in billions of dollars in penalties (Bonsu, 2019). There are several areas, from labor to product quality, where submission is essential. Coca-Cola has historically battled regulations in numerous places, from the organization of the products and quality to labor abuses inside the United States of America. Because of this, compliance, ethics, and corporate governance have taken center stage. To guarantee that all of its associates are obedient in the USA and wherever they are working around the globe, it has its agreement and ethical program. There are already sugar restrictions in place for drinks in several countries. Given that they provide a variety of services, the corporation needs to take this into account. If they do not follow this, they can face punishment. The company must also consider labor practices and labor ethics. If Coca-Cola pays its employees less or fails to provide a safe workplace, it may face legal problems.

3.3 Competitive Forces

Direct rivals of Coca-Cola include Tetra Pak, Red Bull, and PepsiCo, among others. These rivals influence the firm’s quality, advertising, and, most significantly, pricing, among other things. By launching new items, expanding regionally, and investing in its distribution network, the corporation battles for profitability. Using a single approach and product variety are two of Pepsi’s advantages. Its overreliance on food and drink is one of its main flaws. Additionally, the company’s unsuccessful goods have negatively influenced sales.

Figure 1: Coca-Cola's market share relative to its competitors
Figure 1: Coca-Cola’s market share relative to its competitors

Coca-Cola has an advantage over PepsiCo in the marketplace because of its robust marketing strategy and wide range of products. Due to this, it enjoys a considerable market share compared to its competitors.

3.4 Technological Forces

Technology continues to be a crucial component of big businesses like Coca-Cola. Their production, packaging, and transportation all rely heavily on equipment. In larger companies like Coca-Cola, machinery is essential. The Coca-Cola company has made significant investments to stay profitable (Fragouli & Nikolaidou, 2019). The effectiveness of technology has allowed for timely manufacturing and a reliable supply chain. These elements are necessary for the business to generate income. The technology in this field only advances a few times a week. To prosper requires upkeep and investment. Processing the finished product and packaging it both need significant technological investments. Therefore, the technical features have a substantial and crucial impact on the Coca-Cola market.

3.5 Economic Forces

The economy impacts consumers’ spending and buying power (Armstrong & Kotler, 2022). There are numerous chances for sales and profits for Coca-Cola’s business due to the worldwide rise in athletic gear demand. The economy’s national income was so great, which increased demand for all Coca-goods. Cola’s commercial activities of multinational and giant firms are also directly and significantly impacted by the financial crises. The heated global catastrophe drastically reduced corporate revenues both in the United States of America and globally. Coca-Cola nonetheless managed to avoid any market impact since businesses involved in finance were the ones that felt this influence the most (Fragouli & Nikolaidou, 2019). However, the earnings it earned were somewhat impacted. Unexpectedly, Coca-Cola was able to recover the profits. An economic crisis of this magnitude affects customers. Under such extreme circumstances, people decide to purchase necessities. Like Coca-Cola, many businesses turned to other methods of dealing with the financial catastrophe, such as cost-cutting and downsizing. However, Coca-Cola surprised other companies by pulling through during such difficult times. Every multinational firm is significantly impacted by economic crises of this magnitude, like the one we are now experiencing. The most significant factor disturbing the Coca-Cola business is the rising price of unfinished goods. One such concern is water scarcity (Bertozzi, Ali, and Gul, 2016). Coca-Cola needs water to create its products. However, accessibility is often insufficient. The price of other raw materials and labor has increased; these factors have significantly impacted the business and global brands’ sales. The Coca-Cola company in the United States has been affected by all these causes, endangering its stability. The financial crisis is over, but Coca-Cola will still be affected by the strengthening of the dollar.

3.6 Socio-cultural Forces

A society’s fundamental beliefs, perceptions, and actions are influenced by institutions and other influences that make up the cultural environment (Armstrong & Kotler, 2022). Primary and supporting beliefs are involved (Armstrong & Kotler, 2022). Core values and beliefs are maintained with a high degree of consistency. In contrast, secondary variables are more change-resistant (Armstrong & Kotler, 2022). The frequent problems are essential to the industry. Most people have recently switched from flavorful beverages to healthier ones. The popularity of Coca-Cola products in the United States of America is declining due to this tendency (Rothaermel, 2016). The firm’s profitability was influenced by significant changes in customer taste and demographic choices. Coca-cola items are often preferred due to their emotions. However, more people are switching to healthier beverages due to the allegations that Coca-Cola utilizes several additives and chemicals in its products that affect customers’ health. Coca-Cola has focused its marketing efforts on domestic and international markets to address this difficulty (Bonsu, 2019). The mainstream media has also been crucial in transforming people’s perceptions about soda drinks, which are said to have more calories. The international campaign against obese individuals has influenced how people choose food products. Sales of carbonated beverages and junk food have recently declined globally. People have adopted a healthy lifestyle, and avoiding foods and drinks that may make them gain weight is no exception. Coca-Cola has launched several low-calorie beverages to keep up with the times. Societal trends, such as the shift in perception of American-made products or other related problems, also impact Coca-Cola. The American war against Iraq resulted in extreme economic concentration in several countries (Dimitriou, 2017). Studies have previously acknowledged the importance of culture as the driving force behind international commerce. Never undervalue the impact on the company. From the advertising perspective, it is possible to agree on the importance of ethos. Coca-Cola has never downplayed its significance, particularly in developing nations.

4. The Marketing Mix

4.1 Product

As a business, Coca-Cola offers a variety of goods under its brand. For instance, 500 Coca-Cola products have been produced over time. Customers may choose from more than 3000 options in the beverage sector. One of the most well-known and reputable brands in the world is Coca-Cola. Its brand alone is worth $21 billion. 19 of its numerous items offered to customers are low in calories. The sizes of Coca-Cola products range from 300ml to 2-liter bottles. Thanks to the range, customers still have a wide selection of items to pick from (Alhawsawi, 2016). The Coca-Cola products are all distinctive since they are prominently marked with the company’s insignia. The Coca-Cola, Sprite, and Fanta brands have the most significant market shares. As mentioned earlier, the growth rates of the items are essentially flat. Minute Maid is another product inside the Coca-Cola Company with a more robust growth rate and larger market share.

Figure 2: Product lifecycle of Coca Cola
Figure 2: Product lifecycle of Coca Cola

Coca-Cola is now at the maturity stage in Western nations. Contrary to the other locations, this one of adulthood is usually the longest. Management must concentrate on the products during maturity because these products frequently experience a slowdown in sales growth.

4.2 Price

Price has a significant impact on marketing strategy. Coca-Cola has a distinct pricing discrimination tactic in its marketing mix. Coca-Cola products in various markets are priced differently. The beverage products’ target market is an oligopoly. In other words, there are fewer vendors than buyers or vice versa. Coca-Cola has a pricing strategy that puts the prices of its goods in the same ballpark as those of its rivals (Sheth & Koschmann, 2018). As a result, they continue to have clients, particularly in emerging nations where consumers are more price-conscious. However, the business provides clients discounts if they purchase large quantities.

4.3 Place

The Coca-Cola Company has a long history in the beverage industry. The Coca-Cola Company has access to a broad range of distribution channels thanks to its global agents. The bulk of their distribution agents are located in different nations worldwide, and they create their drinks using a secret recipe. Coca-Cola decides the sizes and forms of the bottles as a corporation. The bottlers send the various items in bottles and deliver them to customers in multiple nations. Products are provided by road from the agency to the consumer store (Kotler, 2017). Most often, wholesalers receive goods from the distributor and subsequently distribute them to retailers. Because of its extensive distribution network, the Coca-Cola Company’s interests are simple to locate practically anywhere.

Due to extensive distribution, Coca-goods Cola’s are widely accessible. With the aid of this technique, the business has increased customer involvement and increased profitability. It is typically linked to aggressive marketing, low costs, and a large target audience. The dual distribution approach can increase both market share and sales volume.

Figure 3: Coca-Cola's distribution strategy
Figure 3: Coca-Cola’s distribution strategy

4.4 Promotion

The Coca-Cola Company provides a lot regarding marketing, making them the undeniable masters of promotion. Their marketing approach is more aggressive and original. Coca-Cola advertises on television, the internet, and in print media. Additionally, they use their brand reputation to collaborate with large event organizers to purchase and sponsor the event. Their tactics include releasing promotional songs that may be repeated in several languages (Gillespie & Riddle, 2015). Coca-Cola can contact everyone in that manner, regardless of their ethnic origin.

5. Conclusion

Coca-Cola Company should evaluate its market strategy yearly to assess how it is doing relative to its competitors. If the firm keeps introducing fresh, cutting-edge items like “Bubble Buzz,” it will maintain its position as the industry leader in creating nonalcoholic beverage brands. However, to guarantee that customers continue to purchase their goods, the new product has to stand out from identical offerings from other companies (LOPEZ, 2013). The research demonstrates that certain economic, administrative, financial, and technological factors mainly affect the world beverage market. Technology-related goods may fall within its jurisdiction, but political, social, and economic factors require that its advertising approach be modified to account for changing circumstances. The Coca-Cola Company is experiencing enormous problems due to the water shortage. Long-term problems with the water deficit in the U.S. would persist. It will turn out to be the company’s most fortified region. Increasing the availability of low-calorie drinks encourages consumers to purchase healthier goods, and the U.S. economy will inevitably expand.

References

Alhawsawi, R. (2016). Marketing Mix in FMCG’s leading Companies: Four Ps Analysis. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(2), 734-737.

Armstrong, G., Kotler, P., & Opresnik, M. O. (2022). Marketing: An introduction. Pearson.

Ashley, R. (2017). Coca-Cola Amatil: Insights from the company monitor. Equity, 31(6), 16–17.

Bertozzi, F., Ali, C. M., & Gul, F. A. (2016). Resource-Based View of an Organization and PESTEL Analytical Tool; An Analysis of Hotel Corallo, Rimini. EPH-International Journal of Science and Engineering (ISSN: 2454-2016), 2(11), 57-71.

Bonsu, S. (2019). Strategic Management: The Concept of Competing with Self. Journal of Marketing and Management, 10(2), 20–44.

Dimitriou, M. (2017). Example of Analysts’ Valuation Process: Information Context, Research Findings, and Future Priorities. In Multinational Finance Conference Booklet (Vol. 24, p. 87).

Fragouli, E., & Nikolaidou, Z. (2019). A Case Study Approach for Managing Risks & Challenges When Expanding to Emerging Markets. Risk and Financial Management (ISSN 2690-9790 e-ISSN 2690-9804), 1(1), p44-p44.

Gillespie, K., & Riddle, L. (2015). Global marketing. Routledge.

Gómez, E. J. (2019). Coca-Cola’s political and policy influence in Mexico: understanding the role of institutions, interests and divided society. Health policy and planning, 34(7), 520–528.

Kotler, P. (2017). From sales obsession to marketing effectiveness. Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.

Liu, L. (2020). Coca-Cola: A Study on the Marketing Strategies for Millenniums Focusing on India. Scientific Journal of Intelligent Systems Research Volume, 2(01)

Ozretic-Dosen, D., Brlic, M., & Komarac, T. (2018). Strategic brand management in emerging markets: consumer perceptions of brand extensions. Organizations and markets in emerging economies, 9(1), 135-153.

Sheth, J., & Koschmann, A. (2018). Do brands compete or coexist? How persistence of brand loyalty segments the market. European Journal of Marketing

Singaram, R., Ramasubramani, A., MEHTA, A., & Arora, P. (2019). Coca-Cola: A study on the marketing strategies for millenniums focusing on India. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, 4(1), 62-68.

The Code Of Ethics In Nursing Essay Example For College

Nursing, like other professionals, has set up values, ethical principles, and standards to which they aspire to act and can be judged. Ethical behavior results from nurses’ commitment to acting ethically. Ethical codes are adopted so that professionals differentiate right and wrong and know their expectations. They can apply understanding in their decisions. A code of ethics will guide nurses in conducting their functions honestly and with integrity. The Code of ethics encompasses the best professional practice in nursing. Contravening the Code of ethics in nursing results in professional disciplinary actions, which may even mean termination. According to American Nurses Association, standards of practice for registered nurses are responsibilities they are supposed to perform. The execution of these responsibilities is supposed to be done competently. In collaboration with standards of nursing practice, ethical practices bring out the nursing professional identity.

Importance of Code of Ethics

Nurses have been ranked the most ethical profession in the United States every year, besides one since 1999. Most years, nurses are way ahead of all other disciplines by point count. Due to ethical codes that arise from systematic guidelines, nurses have been shaped to a desired ethical behavior. Ethics in nursing offers a framework that helps them ensure the safety and well-being of patients and other healthcare providers. ANA’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements is the nationally accepted guide called The Code. The Code of ethics establishes the ethical standards in the nursing profession and guides in ethical analysis and decision-making (ANA, 2015).

In the healthcare setup, ethical values are paramount to every healthcare provider. Nurses, however, require ethical principles since they are patient caregivers. There are four main ethical principles in nursing: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence. These are daily nursing practices that nurses should be aware of to ensure safe, best, and most humane care to all patients. Most states in the US have included the ANA’s Code of ethics in their practice statement not only to be ethics related but also to provide legal implications. Continued revision is done regularly due to the importance of the Code to the nursing profession.

Nursing principles of ethics make them patients advocates. As patient advocates, nurses ensure every patient has the right to self-determination and decision-making. Patient education, medical information, and an explanation of available treatment options are done. Patients are then allowed to make an informed choice after explaining all potential risks, complications, and benefits. Ethical factors influencing patient acceptance of treatment, like age, culture, gender, social support, and sexual orientation, should be carefully thought through (Landis et al, 2020).

Ethically nurses should act for the good welfare of the patient. According to ANA, nurses should be kind and charitable. It is a nursing attribute to be compassionate. Fairness is paramount in all nursing and medical decisions. All patients should receive the same level of care despite individual financial status, social status, race, religion, gender, and sexual orientation. Nurses are ethically bound not to harm any patient. Patient harm may come; as a result, intervention and care or lack of it. Nurses are ethically bound to choose interventions and care that cause the least harm to the patient or the community and report treatment options that cause harm.

ANA Standards of Practice for RN Licensure

American Nursing Association has developed standards of nursing practice to ensure excellent nursing practices. A registered nurse should perform their functions responsibly and competently. The nursing care process involves assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation, follow-up, and evaluation which is the basis of standards of practice. Registered nurses collect essential patient information. Comprehensive analysis of data collected on assessment is vital to ensure all patient needs are met and he is served in a dignified manner. Analysis determines the diagnosis and possible problems and challenges that might arise. From this, potential outcomes are identified, and the plan is individualized. The identified care plan is implemented through strategies to help attain expected results. Implementation of the care plan is supposed to be holistic, systematic, effective, timely, and patient-centered by ensuring its multidisciplinary team. Performance should be evidence-based, equitable, and efficient manner. After implementing patient care, the registered nurse should evaluate patient care continuously using the set outcome expectations. For nurses to achieve the level of the competencies mentioned above, they must complete a postsecondary training program to licensure to practice. They are also required to complete an associate degree in nursing from an accredited nursing institution to register for NCLEX-RN

Conclusion

The Code of ethics in nursing addresses the core values expected by a nurse as they perform their functions. The nursing profession’s Code of conduct creates the nursing professional identity. The Code of Ethics outlines four ethical principles that nurses should employ in patient care and management. These principles guide nurses in their decision-making. They are autonomy, recognizing patients’ rights and self-determination; beneficence; acting for the good and welfare of the patient; justice; fairness, and nonmaleficence, focusing on not harming the patient (Duquesne University, 2020). The codes of ethics help shape the quality of patient care by being non-negotiable. Standards of care emphasize every nurse’s expectations regarding competence and professionalism (Landis et al, 2020. The basis of the standard of care is the nursing care process. Patient care should be safe, efficient, timely, and patient-centered. Through continued individual and collective efforts by the nurse, advances in the standards of care are made through safe, quality, and conducive healthcare. Advances through scholarly inquiry, professional development, and health policy development help improve standards of practice.

References

Landis, T. T., Severtsen, B. M., Shaw, M. R., & Holliday, C. E. (2020, July). Professional identity and hospital‐based registered nurses: A phenomenological study. In Nursing forum (Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 389-394). https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12440

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

Duquesne University: School of Nursing (2020). Ethical principles in nursing: Tips for nurse leaders in promoting ethical practice. https://onlinenursing.duq.edu/blog/ethical- principles-in-nursing/

Emissions Of Carbon Dioxide Sample Essay

Introduction

Human and natural sources contribute to the release of carbon dioxide. Respiration, decomposition, and ocean discharge are some examples of natural sources. Burning fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas is an everyday human activity, as is making cement. Both are toxic, but whereas emissions from natural sources sink back into the earth, those from human activity stay in the atmosphere because they have nowhere else to go. This forces a dangerous range and throws the CO2 levels out of equilibrium (Friedrich & Damassa, 2014). Despite the fact that there are several sources of CO2 emissions back into the atmosphere, human causes account for the majority of these emissions.

Background of the Research

According to the flat global CO2 emissions in 2015 and 2016, the trend of CO2 emissions is now rising. The drop in coal use in various regions, including China, the United States, and Europe, is the cause of the flat worldwide CO2 emissions in 2015 and 2016. Additionally, several nations worldwide are developing renewable energy sources like solar and wind power to replace natural gas in power plants (Friedrich & Damassa, 2014). The patterns in primary energy consumption and energy mix are to blame for the rising trend in CO2 emissions in 2017.

Since CO2 emissions are the primary source of the greenhouse effects that result in global warming, tracking CO2 emissions is crucial to understanding a country’s development. Applying technology to renewable energy to replace fossil fuels would reduce CO2 emissions, which will be beneficial to every nation (Friedrich & Damassa, 2014). Additionally, it contributes to lessening global warming’s detrimental effects on the environment, human health, and economic growth. Additionally, several entities, not just one, are required to reduce CO2 emissions. Therefore, creating policies and rules for commercial firms to abide by is vital in this circumstance, and it is the government’s job. The most contentious policy concerns affecting the global economy of low-, middle- and high-income countries are those related to environmental safety, efficiency, and improvement (Friedrich & Damassa, 2014).

According to academics, gross national income and CO2 emissions are closely associated. Carbon dioxide is more significant in high-income nations like the U.S.A., China, and others than in low-income nations (Friedrich & Damassa, 2014). Due to the widespread use of conventional energy sources by several companies in high-income nations to support their production processes, the demand for fossil fuels is considerable.

Purpose of the Research

The most significant greenhouse gas automobiles produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Methane and nitrous oxide are two other gases that vehicles create. However, the number of emissions in cars varies. The amount of gasoline a vehicle can burn and its fuel type affect CO2 emissions(Ibikunle & Gregoriou, 2018). Over the past few years, Australian road transportation has experienced substantial growth. Due to this expansion, more fuel-consuming vehicles are now on the road, which has subsequently led to a rise in CO2 generation from the sector. Emissions from transportation increased by 3.4% in 2017 alone and around 63% since 1990 (Ibikunle & Gregoriou, 2018). Thus, the problem has been becoming worse and worse. Vehicle traffic has increased as a result of population expansion. Likewise, more than 80% of Australians commute to work by automobile. High emissions from vehicles have also been caused by increased shipping demand.

Scope and objectives

The increasing threat of global warming brought on by greenhouse gas emissions is something the world is battling to manage. As a result, the sea level increases, temperatures rise, precipitation varies, and extreme weather conditions continue (Ibikunle & Gregoriou, 2018). Due to their effects on food, water, air, and weather, these changes endanger human health. One of the most significant contributors to this threat is the transportation industry. Therefore, the research aims to analyze the C.O. emissions worldwide and recommend ways to get ahead of the situation.

Literature Review

Friedrich & Damascus (2014) claim that between 1850 and 1960, the industrialization age, there was a rapid rise in global emissions. China and other developing Asian nations have emerged as the leading CO2 emitters, replacing developed nations, which held that position until the early 2000s. Despite stabilizing, emissions in the United States and other western nations are still high. From the 1990s to 2011, Asia’s economy grew rapidly. As a result, the area has risen to the position of top CO2 emitter and now produces more than half of all CO2 emissions worldwide.

Olthoff & Christensen (2018) note that it is anticipated that global CO2 emissions will set a record in 2018 and continue to rise in 2019. The increase is attributable to the number of automobiles on the road and the comeback of coal consumption. The Global Carbon Project anticipated that CO2 emissions would increase by 2.7% in 2018 compared to the 1.6% increase observed in 2017. Nearly every nation is to blame for the growth, claims the research. With an increase of 4.7%, China now leads the world in emissions, followed by India (6.3%), the U.S. (2.5%), and the E.U., which had almost flat growth.

The United Nations began raising awareness about the need for a global effort from all countries to combat the epidemic as it became clear that the earth was in danger due to carbon emissions. The United Nations made its first attempt to unite nations in May 1992 when it persuaded them to join the “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” (UNFCCC), which went into effect in March 1994 after being ratified by a sizable number of nations. Stabilizing the atmosphere’s greenhouse gas concentration was its primary goal (Ibikunle & Gregoriou, 2018). However, this pact proved ineffective because it imposed no-strings-attached emission caps on nations and lacked enforcement measures.

Nations ratified the “Kyoto Protocol” on December 11, 1997, in Kyoto, Japan, in an effort to increase compliance. The Kyoto Protocol, which replaced the previous accord and established legally enforceable carbon reduction goals at the global level, went into effect on February 16, 2005 (Kitidis et al., 2019). In December 2015, the most recent deal, “the Paris Agreement,” was adopted in Paris as part of the Paris Climate Conference. It outlines a global action plan meant to help the earth avoid the disastrous impacts of climate change. This is the first universal, legally binding international climate treaty, and it has been ratified by 195 nations (Kitidis et al., 2019). The accord seeks to cut the upper limit on global warming to 1.5°C with additional reductions.

According to I.T.F., one of the biggest producers of CO2 and black carbon is the transportation sector. Around 25% of global CO2 emissions are attributed to the sector. Commercial freight and passengers are the two main sectors of the global transportation business. Due to increased global commerce and the diversity of value chains for the majority of products, commercial freight is growing quickly (Kitidis et al., 2019). Most of the passenger market is made up of urban travel, where commuters take short-distance but frequent excursions and long-distance journeys by ship, road, train, and air.

I.T.F. continued to claim that if transportation sector emissions are not reduced, they will be by 60% by the year 2050. From around 110,000 billion ton-kilometers to 330,000 billion ton-kilometers, the need for freight transportation is predicted to treble (Olhoff, 2018). The demand for passenger transportation, on the other hand, is anticipated to rise from roughly 50,000 billion passenger kilometers to 120,000 billion by the year 2050. The number of motor vehicles is also anticipated to rise from 1 billion in 2015 to 2.5 billion by 2020 (Olhoff, 2018).

Moreover, given that most means of transportation use oil-based fuels, the likelihood of increased CO2 and black carbon emissions grows as this industry continues to grow. According to I.T.F., the global oil consumption by the transportation sector is 65 % (Olhoff, 2018). Forty per cent of the CO2 emissions from the transport sector are attributed to the freight sector. A third or so of the emissions in this group are primarily from maritime traffic. Rail and highway traffic are to blame for the remaining pollutants. In emerging nations with inadequate rail infrastructure, the growth of road transportation is remarkably rapid. In the transportation sector, the passenger segment is responsible for 60% of emissions (Olhoff, 2018). Urban transport is responsible for around half of the emissions in this sector. Only 16% of emissions from passenger transport are caused by air travel. Passenger traffic on the sea produces very little emissions.

Methodology

Data

Data was collected from 235 countries around the world, and the observations of CO2 emissions were recorded from 1980 to 2019. The data showed the sum of C02 emissions per country from 1980 t0 2019. In addition, data was collected on energy types worldwide and how they have contributed to CO2 emissions over the years. These types of energy include; coal, natural gas, nuclear, petroleum, and renewables. These data were also collected from the year 1980 to 2019. The dataset was made available on Kaggle.com. It presents 55441 Rows and columns A to K (11 columns), and the entries present information on each country’s energy production and consumption, population, G.D.P., and CO2 emission from 1980 to 2019.

Tools Used

When conducting the research, we used a few tools that helped us analyze our collected data. These tools include; Tabulation, Excel, R, and Python. Data visualization helps data analytics by presenting data in a graphical way that makes it simple to understand and evaluate the data. Tableau is a program that makes it possible for even average users to visualize data to understand it. It does this by providing simple-to-use features and the capacity to display data visually using maps and graphs.

Excel has several built-in functions that may be coupled with user-defined equations in cells. Actual numbers are introduced into user-defined equations very infrequently, if ever. In most cases, equations relate to the cell addresses of the data-holding cells. Make an effort to structure spreadsheets such that data flows consistently from top left to bottom right. Users’ comprehension of how spreadsheets work will be much more simplified. User clarity and understanding are both improved by a good flow.

Analysis

Increased pavement softening and expansion from higher temperatures can result in rutting and potholes, which put stress on the joints of bridges. Construction is hampered by heat waves, particularly in places with high humidity levels. Road construction and upkeep may become more expensive (Shurpali, Agarwal & Srivastava, 2019). Frequent heavy rains might cause floods, which would delay traffic and obstruct building work. Climate change can also concentrate rain into stronger storms that seriously harm the nation’s transportation infrastructure. For instance, in Vermont, Tropical Storm Irene in 2011 destroyed nearly 2,000 roads, 200 miles of rail, and 1,000 culverts and caused the closure of 200 bridges (Shurpali, Agarwal & Srivastava, 2019).

According to E.P.A., ice roads may only form in places like Alaska when it is below freezing. Warming temperatures may shorten the time these roads are open, restricting travel to these areas since the tundra beneath the roadways is vulnerable to damage from routine vehicle use. Many cars also overheat in high temperatures, which has the added effect of hastening tire deterioration (Shurpali, Agarwal & Srivastava, 2019). Additionally, hot weather causes the rail lines to expand and buckle, which, if left unattended, can result in expensive derailments. Rail transportation may be disrupted and delayed if there is a lot of rain. As an illustration, in 2018, the Midwest experienced severe flooding that resulted in the daylong shutdown of east-west train routes.

Aircraft performance is impacted by prolonged periods of severe heat, which can result in flight delays or cancellations and limits on cargo. There may be delays in air travel due to increased rains and floods. During storms, entire airports may have to be closed. Airports around the Northeast and the Gulf Coast, respectively, were shuttered for days during Hurricanes Sandy and Hurricane Katrina (Shurpali, Agarwal & Srivastava, 2019). Climate change is likely to make these occurrences more often, which will make the airline industry experience more annoyance. According to the E.P.A., airport facilities, especially airstrips, are also harmed by floods. Airports closer to the water are more susceptible to storm surges and flooding. Rising temperatures similarly impact airports in permafrost regions like Alaska. Warmer temperatures will cause the permafrost to thaw, which might cause damage to the airports’ buildings and foundations (Shaheen & Lipman, 2007).

The depth of a canal and the presence of sea ice are only two of the numerous elements that ships take into account while planning their journeys. Climate change may impact these elements; for instance, many underwater bridges have less clearance due to rising sea levels (Shaheen & Lipman, 2007). Due to a drop in water levels and the resulting narrowing of channels, such as in the Great Lakes region, ships may also be subject to weight limits in inland waterways. Flooding can cause shipping channels to close, and increased silt from heavy precipitation can result in a pile of debris that makes channels shallower and less accessible. Extreme storms, such as hurricanes, cause coastal infrastructure, especially harbor facilities, to be destroyed (Shaheen & Lipman, 2007). For instance, Hurricane Katrina caused significant boat damage. One of the most exposed regions is the Gulf Coast, home to seven of the largest ports in the country.

Transport sector stakeholders are working to transition away from energy sources dependent on oil and toward greener energy sources. This concept is starting to gain traction among large international corporations. For instance, Maersk, the most enormous shipping corporation in the world, declared in 2018 that it will become carbon-neutral by the year 2050 (Shaheen & Lipman, 2007). Developed nations are pushing more and more drivers and freight operators to utilize more efficient vehicles, such as electric cars. Countries including Canada, Japan, the U.S.A., and China have established efficiency criteria, particularly for freight vehicles, to promote this changeover. Along with other nations, the E.U., South Korea, Mexico, and Brazil are contemplating emission rules.

Electric vehicles and trucks that run on batteries or hydrogen fuel cells are becoming more and more common among automakers. Mercedes-Benz will begin producing electric trucks in 2021, while Tesla, the leading manufacturer of electric automobiles, has begun making electric semi-trucks (Delasalle & Erdenesanaa, 2019). Large truck fleet users are adopting the new electric vehicles in their operations; Anheuser-Busch, for instance, just acquired 800 Nikolas hydrogen-powered trucks.

In order to increase fuel economy, the shipping industry has enacted strict air pollution standards. These rules contributed to a 30% rise in fuel economy between 2008 and 2015. Additionally, new ships must adhere to efficiency requirements set out by the International Maritime Organization. The cost of fuel-saving initiatives is also rising for airlines. Additionally, electric aircraft and ships for shorter distances are planned (Delasalle & Erdenesanaa, 2019. Electric and hybrid ferries emit 95% less CO2 and are already in use in certain nations, including Norway, Taiwan, and Finland. However, given that long-haul shipping and aviation are significant sources of CO2 emissions, there is a need for ongoing innovation in battery technology.

It was discovered that the railway sector is leading other industry sectors in the usage of greener sources of energy. However, when it comes to moving freight, this means of transportation is underused (Delasalle & Erdenesanaa, 2019). For instance, in the United States, compared to vehicles, which move 40% of the goods but are responsible for 60% of emissions, trains transport just 32% of the cargo but produce only 6% of the greenhouse gases (Delasalle & Erdenesanaa, 2019). However, businesses are switching from using trucks to trains. For instance, the U.K.’s Tesco store is now shipping the majority of its goods by rail to save driving 26 million miles on trucks annually. The corporation claims that the action has reduced fuel use by almost 16 million gallons.

China overtook the United States as the world’s greatest CO2 emitter as a result of its exploding transportation industry and brisk urbanization. A dramatic initiative for renewable energy has also been started in China recently. However, as globalization continues, developing economies invest a little bit more in their logic of mass consumerism. In light of this, they will be substantially accountable for increased GHG emissions in the years to come. According to one research, China’s infamously deadly air pollution causes the lives of 1.6 million people annually (4,400 per day), or 17% of all fatalities in the nation. This is due to the country’s export-oriented economic boom, fueled mostly by burning coal. Another research estimated that two-thirds of all fatalities were caused by air pollution, which also reduced life expectancy in China by an average of more than two years and as much as 5.5 years in the country’s north.

Forest destruction is encouraged by globalization. The greenhouse effect is caused by deforestation, which is a significant yet indirect contributor. The amount of CO2 plants converts to oxygen decreases by clearing and logging. The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will grow in an identical amount as a result, which strengthens the greenhouse effect. A significant amount of CO2 is released when the cleared wood is burned.

The development of a nation’s economy is significantly influenced by its energy supply. The urbanization factor needs to catch up when there are requests for energy utilization. Over 50% of the world’s population now lives in urban areas as a result of the worldwide phenomenon of urbanization. Urbanization is a trend that is rising steadily and quickly in emerging countries. Since urbanization is uncontrollable and cannot be prevented by legislation, no one is restricted from moving from one location to another. In emerging nations, urbanization is anticipated to account for around 65% of global urbanization by 2050. According to a number of empirical research, urbanization influences carbon dioxide emissions in both developed and developing countries. People relocate to cities in pursuit of employment prospects. For example, the number of automobiles in those cities will rise due to urbanization, which will impact the environment in those nations. Along with global warming, Pakistan’s usage of fossil fuels significantly increases carbon emissions. Industries also have a role in this; those located in Pakistani urban areas’ communities frequently burn fuels that have adverse environmental effects.

When it comes to the environmental expenses associated with urban crowding, vehicular traffic, congestion, and industrial pollutants in these metropolitan regions have all contributed to astronomically high prices. There has been a notable rise in Pakistan’s urban population since the country was created in 1948. Along with having a detrimental impact on sanitation, energy, education, law and order, and other areas, the rapid urbanization of Pakistan has also created a significant environmental degradation concern. In Pakistan, urbanization had increased dramatically since 1951, when 17.6% of the population resided in urban areas. This is also due to Pakistan’s rapid population growth, which has elevated it to the fifth-most populous country in the world with a 2% yearly growth rate.

It is challenging to make any judgments about how income levels and CO2 emissions are related. After a country has undergone essential industrialization, there appears to be little correlation between per capita income increase and CO2 emissions rise. Industrialization in South Korea has been accelerating. They must use more fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, as a result of this region’s industrialization. In the past ten years, CO2 emissions and energy consumption have increased at comparable rates to G.D.P. Due to the increased usage of coal as a result of this region’s industrialization, the country’s CO2 emissions have worsened.

Already, there are significant environmental issues in this area of the world. Since so much coal is burnt, the air quality is infamously poor. The fact that South Korea only has roughly 16% of the population of the United States but is steadily increasing in terms of per capita income is another factor contributing to the rise in CO2 emissions. More things that enhance total energy consumption are available for purchase by the general public. Additionally, they have money to spend on things that save energy. Additionally, it indicates that people with incomes are high enough to purchase automobiles with poor emissions.

The amount of carbon emissions in the U.S. has been stable overall. Higher fuel economy regulations, energy efficiency promoted by high oil prices, and the conversion of coal-fired power plants to natural gas have all contributed to the U.S. taking the lead globally in lowering carbon emissions since 2006. One strategy to try to restrict the rise of carbon emissions is to add surcharges (taxes) to encourage conservation and promote the development of low-carbon substitutes. Certainly, the United States has adequate per capita money to cover these levies or move to low-energy items to cut CO2 emissions. In contrast to South or North Korea, the United States has access to hybrid automobiles, high-efficiency, low-energy appliances, and other alternatives to harmful products with emissions.

Over time, North Korea appears to be significantly lowering its emissions. They could not be as industrialized as the U.S. or South Korea, which could explain this. Their income has reduced over the years. Therefore they are unable to purchase items with high energy requirements and harmful emissions. They make enough money to cover essentials like food and housing. Therefore, as a result of having less money to spend on energy, their overall emissions will be substantially lower. To be able to pay for it, they must make savings. No energy can be wasted. The North Korean economy might be very different from the American one. Regarding the energy they can generate or import, as well as the policies in place to cut emissions, South Korea is a leader in the region. Even if they might impose a hefty tax on emissions, they cannot afford to pay the taxes since most people do not earn a lot of money. Less energy and emissions follow from that.

Graphs

Graphs

The graph looks identical on both sides of this point in a symmetric data set because the mean, median, and mode are all the same. This graph is referred to be right-skewed or positive-skewed if its tail seems to be dragged to the right. Adding additional numbers close to the distribution’s maximum may make it look like the graph is being pulled to the right. This pushes more firmly on the mean than on the median or mode. Left-skewed or negative-skewed describes a graph that seems to be dragged to the left. By adding additional values close to the distribution’s minimum, which lowers the mean value more sharply than it lowers the median or mode, we may appear to drag the graph to the left. The portion of a probability distribution furthest from the mean is called the tail, According to the histogram, the frequencies fluctuate from bin to bin. The highest frequency is recorded under 96203.97, followed by more.

histogram

The independent variable is shown on the horizontal axis, and the residuals are shown on the vertical axis in a scatterplot called a residual plot. Residual plots enable us to assess the suitability of a linear model for the provided data. The expected value is derived using a linear model, such as a line of best fit, and the residual is the “leftover” value after subtracting the anticipated value from the actual value. A residual plot demonstrates how the data points stray from the model. A linear model effectively approximates the data points without preferring any particular inputs if the residuals are randomly distributed around the residual = 0. We conclude that a linear model is suitable in this situation. A linear model captures the trend of certain data points’ residuals better than that of other data points, if the residuals have a curved pattern. A model other than a linear model should be taken into consideration in such a situation.

histogram 1histogram 2

A modified box and whisker plot limits the whisker length to a maximum of 1.5 times the interquartile range. In other words, the whisker reaches the number that is the farthest from the center while remaining within a range that is 1.5 times the interquartile range from either the lower or higher quartile. Data points on the graph that fall outside of this range are shown as points and are thought to be possible outliers. The left and right sides of the box represent the lower and higher quartiles. Fifty per cent of the data are included within the interquartile range, which is covered by the box. The median may be found along the vertical line that divided the box in half. A dot or a cross on the box plot may occasionally serve as an additional indicator of the mean.

Conclusion

Today, the threat that climate change poses to human populations all over the world is all but unanimously accepted. Assuming that human activity has accelerated climate change and that its impacts will typically have a negative influence on civilizations throughout the world, it is vital to talk about how mankind can best battle climate change in an effort to maintain the status quo of the environment. One well-known suggestion is the implementation of a “Green Revolution,” which calls for the development of a new “Clean Energy System” and other conservation initiatives in order to stabilize emissions. According to estimated emission patterns, the tipping point where environmental cycles will accelerate beyond human control will be reached in 2056, indicating that prompt action must be made prior to that time. Existing technology would be used in the Green Revolution plans, and whole industries would be created. However, the Green Revolution is doomed to failure because of social and economic issues brought on by the time restriction.

Theoretically, a decrease in CO2 emissions in the industrialized world might stabilize emissions and prevent the levels of greenhouse gases that are unacceptable, as proponents of the Green Revolution have demonstrated. As Socolow and Pacala demonstrate, taking action in a number of spheres of life might lessen the suffering experienced by any one sector while still advancing efforts to stop the continuous production of greenhouse gases. In addition to perhaps reducing CO2 emissions, this approach does it in a way that preserves the quality of the environment.

CO2 emissions, deforestation, and biodiversity loss are some of the environmental harms that emerging nation’s experience. They adhere to the “Race to the Bottom” theory, according to which open to trade and investment nations adopt laxer environmental restrictions out of concern about losing their competitiveness. They worry that their expenses will increase due to local regulations and that they would become less competitive with businesses outside. They issue a warning about lost sales, jobs, and investments to overseas rivals. In order to exert political pressure on their governments to reduce the weight of regulation, local manufacturers frequently raise the alarm about their country’s lack of competitiveness.

Globalization encourages CO2 emissions connected to business and consumer activity. Industrial activity was boosted by the expansion of cross-border trade and investment. In many cases, such as when producing electricity, which still primarily entails burning coal, oil, and derivatives, this is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Developed nations were the top polluters in the world for decades. Emerging nations are now big GHG emitters as a result of their extremely fast development over the past several years. Globalization, which promoted the industrialization of the Asian superpowers sometimes at the price of the environment, was primarily responsible for these nations’ development. Every week, China installs a new coal-fired power plant to slake its energy need.

The demand for vehicles will drive up carbon emissions unless the transportation sector takes steps to reduce them. If oil-based energy is still used by the vehicles, the predicted increases in freight and passenger transportation from 50,000 billion to 120,000 billion-passenger kilometers and 110,000 billion to 330,000 billion kilometers will have a negative impact on the environment. These increases will also result in an increase in the number of airplanes and large ships. In order to reduce carbon emissions across all industries, numerous organizations, nations, and the entire world are taking action. One effective method for lowering carbon emissions is carbon trading. Credits and permits to emit CO2 are purchased and sold in carbon trading. The majority of the participants in this commerce are E.U. member states, but other nations, particularly those in the Americas, have also started participating in it.

References

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Olhoff, A., & Christensen, J. M. (2018). Emissions gap report 2018. UNEP DTU Partnership: Copenhagen, Denmark.

Olthoff, A. (2018). & Christensen, JM (2018). Emissions Gap Report.

Shurpali, N., Agarwal, A. K., & Srivastava, V. K. (Eds.). (2019). Greenhouse gas emissions: Challenges, technologies and solutions. Singapore: Springer.

Shaheen, S. A., & Lipman, T. E. (2007). Reducing greenhouse emissions and fuel consumption: Sustainable approaches for surface transportation. IATSS Research31(1), 6-20.

Delasalle, F., & Erdenesanaa, D. (2019). Planes, Trains and (Big) Automobiles: How Heavy Transport Can Reduce Emissions and Save Money.