Coed Military Training Homework Essay Sample

Introduction

Coed military training has been a hot issue in contemporary military operations. Although the modern military units have already introduced this innovation, they have viewed their results with doubt. Inevitably, there are some proponents and critics of this innovation, depending on how an individual views the role of women in the army and the need for their involvement. It seems at this point that coed military training does have some merit in raising women’s participation in the military. However, it is associated with serious concerns and potential downsides and at present should be used with caution so as not to impair the morale of soldiers and impair the image of the army.

Brief History of Coed Training in the US

The first attempt to join women and men in initial military training was made in 1977 in the Basic Initial Entry Training Test that showed the reality of training women and men together. TRADOC then quickly integrated females into military police and chemical OSUT and integrated women and men down to the company level at Forts McClellan and Jackson. However, this program that ran for five years was dismantled “when reports were received that male performance was declining” (Chapman, 1994).

A new coed training program in the US Army was proclaimed by the Secretary of Defense in 1994 and implemented in the same year. This program was realized based on the ideas advanced by Maj. Gen. Richard Chilcoat who insisted that gender-integrated work in non-combat positions was to be preceded by similarly integrated training, since the primary principle of training was to teach as you will serve. The program included lower physical requirements for women, based on the idea that they have weaker bodies. Although the program in general was considered successful, it was criticised, for instance, on the grounds that, by the observations of supervising officers, “female recruits suffered more injuries and illnesses – perhaps a result of pushing themselves too hard to keep up with their male colleagues” (Chapman, 1994). The officers faced complaints from men about unequal requirements which they perceived as unfair, and the officers were concerned that this could motivate men to perform worse, as in the 1977 experiment. Women, on their part, were dissatisfied with the quality of premises formerly used by men that contained too few bathrooms.

Problems with Coed Training

Thus, the basic problem with coed military training is the difficulty in defining the right amount of energy expenditure for women and men and instilling a feeling of fairness in them. The requirements for men and women cannot be the same because it will overstrain women. On the other hand, if the requirements are different, men will feel that women are getting it easier and will perceive the training as unfair. The possibility of a decline in male performance is a real one and has been confirmed by evidence from previous training. The double standard that so far acts as a main argument against mixed combat units is also relevant to coed training.

One more serious problem that has not been addressed in TRADOC report is the reported sexual harassment and abuse scandals that are associated with co-ed programs in the military. The Navy’s experience in the administration of coed programs in the Navy’s Great Lakes Training Center proves the existence of such pitfalls in genter-integrated programs. According to the Chicago Tribune report on May 8, 1998, “five drill instructors, called recruit division commanders in the Navy, have been charged with fraternization, obstruction of justice, abuse of authority and sexual misconduct” (Donnelly, 1998, p. 28). The instructors allegedly intimidated female recruits into having sex with them, promised favors in exchange for oral sex, and one was even charged with making one of the women trainees pregnant.

Even if these cases are not so frequent, it is certain that coed training will result in “sexual distraction” for both sexes (Marley, 2000, p. 17). For men especially, the environment that previously inspired them to pay attention primarily to the training, coed programs will offer new distracting factors. It is certain that not all men will sexually abuse women because such behaviour is conditioned by social norms and cultural values and not just by hormones, but many will struggle to suppress these impulses. There is virtually no way to eliminate the risk of such behaviour in officers and drilling sergeants, and as a result women will be at permanent risk of sexual abuse.

Another side to consider is the public image of the army. Any scandal that happens to the separate representatives of the US military, be it abuse of prisoners at Abu-Ghraib or Guantanamo Bay or impregnation of a female recruit, negatively affects the whole institution. The army is also closely associated with the nation itself. The question then is: do we want to risk the image of the nation and its military for the purpose of advancing women’s roles in the army through coed training? The evidence suggests that one should either try to regulate the training programs in such a way as to eliminate the threat of sexual harassment happening or find other ways to promote women’s positions.

Advantages of Coed Training

As noted above, the main idea behind coed training was that “If one of the Army’s foremost principles was to train as you were going to fight and support, did it make sense to train men and women separately during their first eight weeks in the service?” (Chapman, 1994). However, the role of women in combat positions, for instance, is by no means indisputable. There are many objections to the greater involvement of women in these positions, in particular the notorious double standards. As a result, coed training may simply not make sense. On the contrary, many oppose it on the grounds that it will increase the pressure for introducing women in combat units.

Feminists also argue for coed training, insisting on it as a way to break one of the last barriers to women’s development. It would undermine the inequality between men and women and promote a woman’s role in society. However, opponents argue as well that feminists may be sacrificing the army’s integrity and achieving spirit, disorganising soldiers and dampening morale for the sake of their experiments aimed at developing women (Marley, 2000, p. 17). This is not permissible if one considers the interests of the whole nation and not just one group of people, even if a large one.

Pitfalls of Coed Training

Even though coed education in schools and universities is a centuries-old tradition, its value is by no means indisputable. Webb (2001) points out that all-male education is now regaining popularity on the grounds that, like girls, “boys too have their distinctive patterns of development” that will be best addressed in institutions targeted exclusively men. Unlike girls, boys may more in need of “tough challenges and regimentation to gain self-esteem”, an issue that will not always be accurately addressed in a co-ed environment (Webb, 2001). The special value of same-sex bonding is also not to be discounted.

These issues that surface in same-sex college education are not to be discounted in the military as well. For men, coed environments may fail to address their needs and bring out their potential. In the same way, they will expose women to the danger of sexual harassment and make them act in “men’s way”, while drill sergeants will be oblivious to the needs of their female trainees.

Conclusion

 Evaluation of the pros and cons of coed military training vividly demonstrates that the time is not yet ripe for such programs. The downside, associated with declines in male performance, perceived inequality of physical requirements, and sexual distraction resulting in harassment and cohabitations, is too serious to be disregarded. Those insisting on training to advance women’s involvement in different social roles forget that the army is a unique institution that depends on the spirit and morale to be effective, and these foundations have been created over time by generations of officers. If coed training poses a threat to the military, its implementation has to be postponed before the officers are sure it will not damage the army spirit. In contrast, the officers can find other ways to promote women’s roles, by offering them different positions and introducing separate training programs.

References

Chapman, A.W. (1994). TRADOC Annual Command History – 1994. Chapter 2: Training and Leader Development. Retrieved March 2, 2006, from http://www.tradoc.army.mil/historian/pubs/TRADOC25/chap2.htm

Donnelly, E. (1998, July 6). Boot Camp Should Not Be Proving Ground for Feminist Theories. Insight on the News 14 (25), 26+.

Marley, D.J. (2000). Phyllis Schlafly’s Battle against the ERA and Women in the Military. Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 18 (2), 17.

Webb, S.H. (2001). Defending All-Male Education: A New Cultural Moment for a Renewed Debate. Fordham Urban Law Journal 29(2), 601+.

Evaluation Of Colorado Accounting Code Of Ethics

I-                   Introduction

Accountants are performing work in a community dominated by intricate sets of rules, philosophy, and system.  Like any other professionals who were performing their tasks, they are also expecting to take a certain responsibility.

In performing their tasks, they are challenge with legal rules of behavior or ethics fashioned for specific situations.  Accountants by accepting specific roles also accept the consequential obligations and ethical responsibilities of roles.  It means that there are ethics behind every task that needs moral judgments regarding what are morally wrong or right.

The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles is the basis of ethical guidelines for Certified Public Accountants.  In the State of Colorado, the State Board of Accountancy provides the regulation of the accounting practice.

II-                The Accounting Code of Ethics

CPAs must perform their responsibilities with technical competence and highest ethical standards.  They should adhere with the strict code of conduct with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), (GAAS) Auditing Standards, and some regulatory declaration.  By these standards, they should be of neutral in preparation and presentation of financial reports and give justice in its outcome.  Should be just, equitable, and impartial, and should not be influence by special interest.

In 1929, the State of Colorado adopted the “accountant-client privilege” (Zaveral, 1999).  It is an addition to an already existing privilege for patients of doctors and clients of lawyers.  The accountant-client privilege adopted by Colorado legislature to ensure confidentiality of communication amid certified public accountant (CPA) and clients.

Furthermore, the Colorado Supreme Court supports the legislation and declares it is paramount to permit candid communication among CPA’s and their clients in order to give comprehensive professional advice uninhibited from consequences or fear of disclosure.

CPA’s look after client files that contains vulnerable material about their clients such as “financial plans, goals, objectives, and strategies”(Zaveral, 1999). Confidential information could be priceless to rivals, political foe, labor contract mediators, court case adversaries, and other parties hostile to the client.

The private communication between CPA’s and their clients are store in CPA’s files.  A sensitive and “sacred property” (Zaveral, 1999) of the client and fundamentally has the right to be left alone.

In relation with this arguments, the Colorado legislative body expanded the scope of the “accountant-client privilege” in 1993 (Zaveral, 1999) aimed to include the work of CPA who are employed in the office of the State Auditor.

Arguments against the privacy implications of the “accountant-client privilege” which claims, “privacy is not a concern and it’s not a present day issue”(Zaveral, 1999) were refuted by surveys and political views from government.  In 1998, Vice President Al Gore said, “Americans should have the right to choose which of their personal information is disclosed”(Zaveral, 1999).  Colorado’s own government officials also expressed their deep concern over the incursion of government into areas that should be reserved.  The Senate resolution (88-0), introduced by Senator Phil Gramm and Colorado’s Senator Wayne Allard urging the government to pull out the invasion rules.

Violations of the accounting code of ethics may result in criminal or civil liabilities.  Fraud is the main and common violation of the accounting system that is definitely unethical.  Violations of GAAP arising from fraudulent financial reporting, forging records or documents and other deliberate attempts to hide the truth.  Intentional act of repressing the effects of concluded transactions, and deliberate strategy to alter information.

Common basis of cases filed in courts resulting to litigation are “overstated net incomes”(KSCOURT, 2003) to cover company’s operational problems.  This is done by “accelerating the recording of income”(KSCOURT, 2003) which is a violation of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

III-             Conclusion

The State of Colorado strongly supports the accounting code of ethics particularly the “accountant-client privilege” for privacy.  However, the Colorado State Board of Accountancy (a state government regulatory board) can easily regulate Certified Public Accountants privilege statute by obtaining client consent to view private information.

The Colorado legislature adoption of the “accountant-client privilege” that sets the control of private financial information in the hands of “clients” and not the  State, guarantees fundamental right of privacy.  It should continue to ensure the privacy of Colorado general public and business entities.

IV-             References

Gordon, Marcy, 2004, Associated Press, [online], http://www.rgj.com/news/printstory.php?id=80948

KSCOURT, 2003, “Appeal from the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado,” [online], http://www.kscourts.org/ca10/cases/2003/08/02-1208.htm

Zaveral, Frank, 1999,”Private Accountant-Client Relationship,” [online], http://i2i.org/article.aspx?ID=595

Analysis Of Code Of The Street

        This paper is an analysis of Elijah Anderson’s Code of the Street[1].     The book is a study of inner city life in some of the areas of Philadelphia, where one could observe and experience the inner city culture where there is a come apart between the majority who are referred to by the author as decent and the large minority who are referred in the book as “street.” Drawing from sociological perspective, Anderson’ goal  is basically to explain how the two groups of people mentally live in the community where they are considering the sociological, economic, and geographical factors.   The methods that the author used in on a micro-level approach where he tries to describe the the people living in the communities as described are doing on an everyday life basis. I have read chapters 1 and 2 for this book. Chapter 1 is about the Decent and Street

Family while Chapter 2 is about Campaigning for Respect.

       Anderson has explained in the book that the life of the two groups people living in the inner cities is somewhat governed by an unwritten set of rules that governs behavior.  At one extreme, are minority which includes the street-oriented group, who usually make up the criminal element of the inner city? Being casualties of the social and economic system, the extreme street group clinches the street code with all their hearts. Lacking also in decent education but not intelligence, Anderson described these people to as follow:

“…many pride themselves on living the “thug life,” actively defying not simply the wider social conventions but the law itself. They sometimes model themselves after successful local drug dealers and rap artists like Tupac Shakur and Snoop Doggy Dogg, and they take heart from professional athletes who confront the system and stand up for themselves.” (Anderson, page 36)

       Believing that people in real authority such as public officials to be unworthy of respect and hold little moral authority, these extreme people feel alienated and this fact causes radiate widespread disrespect for an extensive scheme of things since they consider people in authority to have  nothing but contempt for them. No wonder, these people are desperate and they have “a cynical outlook, and trust of others is severely lacking, even trust of those they are close to.”(Anderson, 37).  Given such attitude they consider the rests of persons and situations to be putting before them challenges to beat causing them to strategize by believing they should always outsmart others.

      At the other extreme are majority of the people on the inner city who are part of the decent family. This latter group has a real concern for the community and is characterized to have a certain amount of hope for the future that would further lead them to better life ahead of them.  The acceptance of the mainstream values by decent more fully than street families via instilling them in their children, may be attributed to have given the significant contribution of the decent family to society by producing generations in their young members. The great sense of sense of responsibility created in its younger members therefore allows the member of the decent family to be adjustable to external institutions including the schools and churches. These leave them therefore better adjusted to the community in which they live.  This positive development which are brought by value hard work and self-reliance by parent of decent family causes these children who will be members of the future generation of “harbor hopes for a better future for their children” rather “than dwelling on the hardships and inequities facing them” (Page 37)

      The concepts that may be inferred in the books include the realities of differences social behavior among different groups of people who are not similarly situated. Under normal circumstances, these groups of people will try to live in accordance with the rules they may create by defining what is acceptable and what is not acceptable but that they are part of society who are not just ready and willing to live with the set of rules.

To illustrate the author used the members of the decent family who are ready to comply with the set of rules while he used the extreme members of the street family who are suspicious of benefit that the set of rules of give to them.  Inherent therefore with trying to co-exist together between the different groups is the campaign for respect that author observed with the communities. Anderson noted that the inner-city environment respect on the street may be considered a structure of social capital that is useful and significant for the existence of the groups. The author thus saw the protective nature of the respect created as it could be the center of each person’s self esteem.

        I think the author is using micro more than macro sociological approach as the first concerns itself with the nature of everyday human social interactions that normally uses qualitative analysis as done by the author rather using statistics which is used in macro approach. The author’s description of certain families gravitates towards micro approach. As to how does micro sociological approach help bring issues forward and have voices from the neighborhood being heard, it may argued that this will provide the way how member of society find their differences and make the necessary adjustment that one may take into in order to live and survive with the community.

      The description and analysis of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods resemble any neighborhoods that I might have frequented. The fact that some people are more interested in feeding first their stomachs before the other needs of certain group of humans are confirmatory of how human try to struggle to live. The similarity therefore lies in the will for survival but the differences may be noted in the degree that behaviors are shown from different groups of people as to their coping mechanism  Different part of world have different level of economic development. In a society of affluence there is a certain part whose members are not.  In the case of Philadelphia,  the kind of life, typical of black minorities is evident where there is a struggle being exerted by  both groups. The more affluent one are not necessarily struggling since they are also practicing psychological and social adjustments with the communities they life. The poorer members who are part of the minorities have more struggles because they will have to exert more to attain economic satisfaction.

        To conclude, it is submitted that Anderson has presented an objective view of the Philadelphia’s population.  What is meant by objective view is whether the situation as described in the inner city in the book may be validated with to other areas of Philadelphia consisting of the analogous situation where the minorities are blacks. Another basis for confirming the validity of the author’s conclusion is also the validation of experience with minorities not only in Philadelphia but also in other parts of the United States.

        I am convinced of his description and analysis because of the fact the more affluent part of society have better values than more surviving. They value hope and good behavior and society while the extreme members of the street are only trying to survive and they may consider society as jungle for survivals. This sound logical as the latter may find less hope in finding better employment because of lack of education.  It is not difficult to accept that economic well being promotes social and psychological well being, too.

       I have learned many things from the book that I now understand hopelessness as a way of influencing people to the negative direction and how it will affect society if poorer people are not helped. Condemning poor people is not the solution because it will not address the cause. Give them hope and they become an asset of the community by first instilling hope which is the main ingredient of a dynamic society.

Reference:

Anderson, E. Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, W. W. Norton ; Company (September 2000)

[1]Anderson, E. Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City, W. W. Norton ; Company (September 2000)

;

error: Content is protected !!