Cognitive Neuroscience Sample College Essay

What is meant by “the method of converging operations”? Why is it important for neuropsychology?

Method of converging operations refers to experimental operations used to eliminate alternative hypotheses that explain experimental results. Neuropsychology is the study of the brain in relation to behavior. Therefore, numerous experiments are carried out in order to establish the above relationship (Banich 344). Varied concepts emerge from the experimental results thus experimental operations can be used to identify the concept that rightfully explains the results.

How are the brain damage and the lesion method used in diagnosing neuropsychological deficits? Which produces more specific structure-function correlations – diffuse, closed-head damage, or a cerebral artery stroke?

Banich indicates that the lesion method involves a correlation between a damaged part of the brain and an inability to carry out specific activities (345). Between diffuse, close-headed damage, and cerebral palsy stroke, cerebral palsy strokes have a more specific structure correlation as the condition is directly associated with damage to the cerebral cortex.

When describing underlying structural deficits responsible for some neuropsychological disorders, what is meant by “the disconnection syndrome”?

Disconnection syndrome refers to the damage of the convergence center where information from different parts of the brain is assimilated or the interruption of motor pathways that supply information to the convergence center. The convergence center hypothesis refers to the existence of a central point where all the brain functions are integrated (Singer 323).

With regard to understanding cognitive function and dysfunction, what are event-related potentials?

Event-related potential refers to the measured response of the brain to either internal or external stimuli. The event-related potential is measured by electroencephalography where a change in brain activity in presence of different stimuli is observed. Using the method, the neuropsychologist can relate ERP results to various cognitive functions.

What is a double dissociation and why is important for understanding structure-function relations in the brain?

Double dissociation refers to the separation of related cognitive processes. Different parts of the brain perform different cognitive functions (Banich 345). Although two mental processes are related, the associated cognitive processes may differ significantly. It’s, therefore, an important basis for establishing structure-function relations. Different cognitive functions can be associated with activity in different parts of the brain.

What is meant by hemispheric specialization? Give examples

The two hemispheres of the brain are highly specialized thus performing different functions. The left hemisphere in related to language acquisition and development. On the other hand, the right hemisphere is associated with spatial skills (Singer 323). For example, individuals with right hemisphere dominance exhibit ability in such fields as poetry.

What is the WADA test and how is it used in neuropsychology

Wada test refers to the use of sodium ammobarbital injected into the either brain hemispheres and inhibits memory and language functions in that particular hemisphere. Wada test is an effective tool in neuropsychology especially in research on the brain lateralization process. It is, also, used to study differences in activity in both hemispheres among different genders.

Who has the more lateralized brain– men or women? Explain

Men have increased brain lateralization than women. Differences in lateralization are evident in such facets as language processing. Men have an increased use of the left hemisphere which is associated with problem solving (Singer 323). Therefore, men seek practical solutions to various problems.

What is the divided visual field technique? How does it help us understand hemispheric processing differences?

Divided visual field technique is a method used to differences in processing of information between left and right hemispheres. In the technique, words are flashed to the subject from different hemi fields. Words processing is analyzed where words flashed to the left eye are processed in the right hemisphere and words flashed before the right eye are processed in the right hemisphere.

What other animals have demonstrated anatomical asymmetries? Explain

Several animals have shown anatomical asymmetries. The characteristic song from the songbirds has been seen to be controlled from one side of the brain. Also, research has indicated that some rat species have lateralized brain where the right hemisphere controls emotional behavior.

Works Cited

Banich, Marie. Cognitive Neuroscience. Beverly, MA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011: Print.

Singer, Wolf. The Brain, a Complex Self-organizing System. European Review, 17.2(2009): 321–329. Print.

The Vancouver Art Gallery: Perception Of Space

Introduction

At the moment, the Vancouver Art Gallery is located in what was previously the provincial courthouse. The former courthouse is an impressive and imposing building built originally in 1906 and has been constructed following the neo-classical style. In readiness for its conversion into an art gallery, the building underwent a massive renovation exercise and is today the Vancouver Art Gallery that we have come to identify with. The VGA is Canada’s fifth-largest art gallery but in Western Australia, it is the largest. It is located at the intersection of Robson Square and West Georgia Street.

As the center of the urban, business, and the tour operations in the city, the dynamic movement of people in the streets brings out the ideas of the space of visuality and multiculturalism. In this paper, I will investigate how space is produced and reproduced through by way of examining a specific space-Vancouver art gallery. First, the Vancouver Art Gallery shall be explored within the context of the former courthouse, then as an art gallery for nearly 30 years.

The size of the VAG is approximately 41,400 square feet, and the cumulative art collection at this gallery has been estimated at 8000. The exterior of the Vancouver art gallery was built in 1911 as the provincial courthouse and had been designed by Francis Rattenbury. The marble that was used in constructing the VAG had to be imported from Vermont and Tennessee. There are iconic columns that adorn the neoclassical building, whose original size was 165,000 square feet.

Formal porticos, ornate stonework, and a central dome are additional features that characterize this neoclassical building. Initially, the current-day VAG was home to some 18 courtrooms (Fairley 143). In 1912, an annex to the building was constructed, although this particular section does not constitute the actual gallery. However, the National Heritage list features the annex. Also, the original benches of the judge are to be found in the annex, along with additional features that characterized the courthouse. The most likable features of the Court House are the two lions that flank what was once the main entrance on Georgia Street.

The official appreciation of the building recognizes the exterior structure and interior designs (Vogel 23). The building has also heritage value. This is because the former courthouse was set aside as a national historic landmark due to its enduring existence and attractive visual perception and a symbol of Canada’s justice system. Truly, this is a paradigm of its function.

As a permanent building that was constructed for practicing law in British Columbia, this landmark is an illustration of the significance the Canadians have held to a strong legal system (Vogel 23). Since the creation of the judicial district in 1892, by 1906, it was necessary to have new facilities since many changes had taken place (Roth 123). The law court building is a very typical illustration of the neo-classical design that was highly regarded in North America in the 19th and 20th centuries – Beaux Art Traditional era (Vancouver Art Gallery 12).

Neoclassical is a term used in architecture about those buildings whose design has been inspired by classical architecture that are to be found in either Rome or Greece. The former Law court building was a very strong concrete construction that was designed in grand classical design. It is located on the city block in Georgia, Howe, and Robson. It is a monumental landmark that is found in the central business district of Vancouver. That building now functions as the gallery of Vancouver city.

A Neoclassical building is likely to have some (but not necessarily all) of these features: symmetrical shape, tall columns that rise the full height of the building, triangular pediment, domed roof (www.architecture.about.com). Rattenbury played all the right notes of neoclassical style – a façade colonnade, columned and pediment portico flanked by imperial lions, and a Palladian rotunda-to serenade the local judiciary with a flattering tune. However, he lacked the skill and rigor, the hard edge of discipline and restraint that sounds the chord of perfect classical proportion.

The interior of the rotunda is more deftly handled than the buildings outside detail. To enter the building today, one has to go through the back door. The pleasurable sense of the importance of both the building’s status (as the Vancouver Art Gallery) and one’s approach to it that once characterized the building has unfortunately been lost in the change of use.

Adjacent to the building and adjoining Georgia Street is the Centennial Fountain. Installed in 1996, it is a symbol of the unification of both Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Here is one notion of how sacred architecture is transferred to the secular building in the modern era. The origin of classical architecture started from the rise of ancient Greece up to the fall of the Roman Empire. At the time, great buildings were constructed according to precise details.

Marcus Vitruvius, an architect of Roman descent, was convinced that there is a need for builders to utilize mathematical principles during the process of constructing temples. “For without symmetry and proportion, no temple can have a regular plan.” The house of God as a sacred space was transferred on power and the authority of the Courthouse which had been constructed for practicing law in British Columbia and as an illustration of the significance, the Canadians have held to a strong legal system. This landmark puts more meaning in secular space, aside from the sacred.

The momentum of moving the art gallery to the site of the old courthouse was the occurrence of the potlatch deprivations, aboriginal land seizures, and the violent arrest of First Nations activist Leonard Pelletier. The artist and curator Doreen Jensen advocated for this movement. This is a reflection of the gallery’s contentious history and as such, the old building of the courthouse was shifted to the VAG following a very big fundraising activity.

Nowadays, the VAG functions as a gathering place; numerous protesters, tourists, spectators, shoppers move through this space. The protesters use visuality in front of the art gallery as a participator in an experience of representations. They gather with any issues and circulate through space and use the facilities of the gallery and move out. This tells us that the lived experience is directly associated with images. In other words, the art gallery is presenting people’s movement as a visual representation outside while the regulation of the movement of people inside the art gallery makes it quiet.

Conclusion

Lefebvre argued that “social space is produced and reproduced in connection with the forces of production (and with the relations of production).” (Lefebvre 77). I suggest the VAG is one of the good examples that showing us the process of produced and reproduced. The sacred classical architecture adopted and produced as the courthouse reflects the secular life, while the neoclassical architecture provides an enduring visual landmark and symbol of justice and an exemplar of its functional type then reproduced as the art gallery after the historical contentions, and now it has an important role as a social gathering place.

Works Cited

Fairley, Jim. The Way We Were: The Story Of The Old Vancouver Courthouse. J. Fairley; North Vancouver, 1993.

Kostof, Spiro., Castillo, Greg., & Tobias. Richard. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals, London; Oxford University Press 1995.

Lee, John. Vancouver, Vancouver; Lonely Planet, 2008.

Lefebvre, Henri. The production of space. 1999. London: Wiley.

Roth, Leland. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, And Meaning. Boulder; Westview Press, 2007.

Vancouver Art Gallery. The Case for Taking the Vancouver Art Gallery to Court, Vancouver; Vancouver Art Gallery Association, 1998.

Vogel, Aynley. Vancouver: A History In Photographs, Vancouver: Talon books, 2009.

Importance Of Responsible Person

Being a responsible person entails doing the right thing in the right way. When one is responsible, he or she becomes accountable for his or her actions. Responsibility has everything to do with making wise consideration for all factors when making a decision.

Responsibility is required most when a situation pushes one to make hard decisions. At times of making hard decisions, responsibility comes in as options have to be weighed carefully; actually, being responsible may sometimes push one to make unpopular decisions. A responsible person, therefore, is one who does the right thing in the right way, and this often leaves such a person satisfied with his or her actions.

I feel responsible for many things in my life, but the major two are my studies and my physical body. I take care to do the right things and in the right manner in regard to my studies. I know that to succeed in life, I need to excel in studies. Excellence in studies calls for time management and dedication to studies, and this will only be possible if one feels responsible for his or her studies. I also take care to ensure that my physical body is healthy. I accomplish this by ensuring that I engage in responsible actions that expose no or minimal danger to my body.

There are things that are beyond my control, and these are often the ones that I do not feel responsible for. For instance, my parents are still taking care of my upkeep and, therefore, I feel less responsible for my personal upkeep. I also do not feel responsible for the legislations that our legislatures make as my position as an individual as a negligible influence in the legislation process. Furthermore, I do not feel responsible for the private lives of other students, especially those I am not close to. Whether they are engaged in substance abuse or not does really stir any concern in me and, therefore, I do not feel responsible for them.

My sense of responsibility extends beyond my immediate environment only in situations that I feel my influence has some weight. For instance, if a close friend gets engaged in substance abuse, then I will feel responsible for talking with him in regard to the dangers of engaging in substance abuse. I feel responsible for my friends because that is the reality of true friendship – we need to watch out for each other. My sense of responsibility also extends to strangers in special situations; for instance, if I realize a person I am with is doing something wrong but without his or her knowledge, then I will feel responsible for him or her and spare a few minutes to lend him or her some help.

I take things that are close to my life seriously. One such thing is my education. I know my future life is dependent on my education, and, therefore, I take my studies seriously. Another thing is my family. My family is always there for me, and it has made me what I am by providing for my physical and moral needs. In order to excel in education, I know that I need to stay healthy. I seriously care about my health, and I do this by watching my diet and constantly engaging in physical exercises.

My close friends are also quite important to my life, and I also take them seriously. This is because they are often strategic in my life: we exchange ideas and help each other in making correct decisions. Finally, I take my lecturers seriously in as far as studies are concerned. I respect them as they have authority over me in my studies, and I look upon them to perform well and excel in my studies. I often approach them for advice on academic issues, and because of this, they have become an integral part of my life.

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