Cold War And Events That Caused It Essay Example

What was the Cold War and what events caused it?Cold War is the term used to describe the intense rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of Communist and non-Communist nations. On one side were the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) and its communist allies that referred to as the Eastern bloc. On the other side were the United Staes and its democratic allies, usually referred to as the Western bloc. Cold War was characterized by mutual distrust, suspicion, and misunderstandings by both the United States and the Soviet Union, and their allies. The United States accused the Soviet Union of seeking to expand Communism throughout the world. The Soviets charged the United States with practicing imperialism and with attempting to stop revolutionary activity in other countries. Each blocs vision of the world also contributed to East-West tension. The United States wanted a world of independent nations based on democratic principles. The Soviet Union attempted to control areas it considered vital to its national interest, including much of Eastern Europe.

The Yalta Conference is often cited as the beginning of the Cold War. During the seven days of February 4 11, 1945, the Big Three Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Josef Stalin met in Crimea at the Lavidia Palace on the Black Sea. The main purpose of Yalta was the re-establishement of the nationas conquered and destroyed Germany. Poland was given back its independence and given its own natinal election in order to create a new, independent government. The Yalta Conference agreed to divide Germany into zones controlled by each of the three nations present. One result of this discussion was that Stalin was persuaded to endorse a Declaration on Liberated Countries which pormosed free elections and other democratic practices and liberties in Eastern countires that were at the time the site of Red Army victories over the Nazis. During 1945 and early in 1946, the Soviet Union cut off all contacts between the West and the occupied territories of Eastern Europe. In March 1946, Winston Churchill warned that an icon curtain has descended across the Continent of Europe. He made popular the phrase Iron Curtain to refer to Soviet barriers against the West. Behind these barriers, the U.S.S.R. steadily expanded its power. In 1946, the U.S.S.R. organized Communist governments in Bulgaria and Romania. In 1947, Communist took control of Hungary and Poland, and the Czechoslovakia early in 1948. These countries became controlled by the U.S.S.R. Yugoslavia also joined the communist bloc. Communists led by Josip Broz Tito then took over the government. The war against Japan was not as devastating as the United States had expected. One by one, the important cities of Japan were bombed. Some bombings were targeted at military sites; others were terror bombings of civilian populations. Hiroshima, a city know for its military importance, evacuated non-essential citizens for fear of an American attack. The decision to drop the bomb was made by Harry Truman. Hiroshima was destroyed by the atomic bomb just a few days after the Postdam conference in which Truman announced the existence of the bomb to his allies in order to show military superiority. Cold War tensions increased in the early 1980s resulted from the Soviet intervention in Afganistan and from continued American fear of Soviet and Cubal influence in thr Middle East, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Central Amrica. U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his administration adopted a policy they called linkage, tying any U.S. arms agreement to consideration of Soviet Expansion.

According the historians the Cold War was never really a war, and so it never officially bega or ended. Perhaps the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 will be remembers as the symbolic end of the Cold War.

Can Prejudice In A Community Be Repressed?

In To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, certain individuals in the community attempt to chasten prejudice by embracing the values and beliefs that differ from their own. When Atticus agrees to take a case defending a Negro he furthers the destruction of Maycombs usual disease (88). Conversely, the majority of the towns people are annulling the bonds that connect them as a community.

By defending the Negro, Tom Robinson, Atticus takes a much-needed step towards suppressing the people of Maycombs prejudice and helping other individuals already against it to speak out. When Jem becomes upset over the trial at Miss Maudies house, she explains that (Atticus is) the only man in these parts who can keep a jury out so long in a case like that()were making a stepits just a baby-step, but its a step (216). Miss Maudie explains to Jem the significance of the jury being out a long time. She is telling Jem that because of his father, some individuals are taking steps towards restraining the prejudice that currently resides in Maycomb. Atticus shows courage by going against the beliefs of most Maycomb residents and defending a Negro.

His courage spurs other just individuals into speaking their mind. Soon after Tom Robinsons death, Mr. Underwood writes an editorial stating it(s) a sin to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting, or escaping. Toms death (is similar) to the senseless slaughter of songbirds by hunters and children (241).

Not only does Atticus affect the current adults of Maycomb, but he also affects the coming generation. When Scout hears her teacher, Miss Gates, talking about her dislike for Hitler and what he does, she comes home confused. Not sure who to talk to Scout goes to Jem and says Well, coming out of the courthouse that night Miss Gates wasshe was goin down the steps in front of us, you musta not seen hershe was talking with Miss Stephanie Crawford. I heard her say its time somebody taught em a lesson, they were getting way above themselves, an the next thing they think they can do is marry us. Jem, how can you hate Hitler so bad an then turn around and be ugly about folks right at home (247).

Scout demonstrates her understanding of the prejudice around her by talking to Jem about Hitler and Miss Gates. Scout dislikes the way Miss Gates talks about Hitler because she realizes that Miss Gates is a hypocrite. But most individuals that reside in the town are prejudiced and dont see Negroes as equals. Contrarily, the towns people (aside from select few) exhibit the prejudice that is destroying the ties that bind them as a community. When Jem and Scout pass by Mrs.

Duboses house, she yells to them (Finch) in the courthouse lawing for niggers! () Yes indeed, what has this world come to when a Finch goes against his raising? Ill tell you! () Your fathers no better than the niggers and trash he works for! (101-02). Mrs. Dubose being an old woman makes it evident that prejudice has been around for a long time and that it will take a significant amount of time to subdue it. Bitter old women are not the only prejudiced individuals that reside in Maycomb, there are also many members of Aunt Alexandras tea society that are as well. Mrs. Farrow of the tea society states I was telling Brother Hutson the other day () were fighting a losing battle () it doesnt matter to em one bit.

We can educate them until were blue in the face () theres no lady safe in her bed these nights (232). Mrs. Farrow evinces her prejudice by talking about Negroes like they are animals and inferior to her. Furthermore, the tea society exhibits prejudice by allowing the individuals there to speak about another human being in such a manner.

Even family members of Atticus are against the case and all Negroes. Francis, Scouts cousin, is a victim of his parents prejudice because he picks up their beliefs. When he is taunting Scout he calls Atticus a nigger-lover, and displays the affect his parents have had on him. If individuals keep passing down their ignorance from generation to generation, the prejudice of Maycomb will never be eradicated. If people dont learn to respect anothers values and beliefs than prejudice in a community will never be completely repressed.

When Atticus defends a Negro in open court, he begins the process of restraining the prejudice of Maycomb. However, if Maycombs people continue to demonstrate prejudice, they will break the ties that unite it as a community. Maycomb could continue its ways as a prejudiced community but if they do they will never be open to diversity and will be deserted when the rest of the world leaves its ignorance towards Negroes (and other racial groups) behind.

Tele Education: Distance Learning System


Background of Tele-education

Tele-education has a long history, beginning with systems like those for teaching children in the Australian Outback, the British Open University, and other such organizations. These built on the idea of correspondence courses where course materials are sent periodically by post and augmented the experience with broadcasts either on radio or on TV.

The problem of student isolation was addressed partially through techniques such as telephone access or two-way radio links with teachers. At the end of the 1980s, the vast majority of distance education throughout the world was still primarily print-based. Technologies used for distance education are evolving from primarily one-way technologies and applications, such as computer-aided learning, computer-based training, and computer-aided instruction, to more two-way technologies and applications, such as computer-mediated communications and computer conferencing systems for education.

The significance of two-way technologies is that they allow for interaction between participants and tutors, and perhaps even more significantly among participants themselves. This development has allowed, and in some senses forced, researchers to look more closely at the impact of the educational environment on the student’s learning experience. In the future, it is expected that telecommunications-based technologies will become the primary means of delivery of distance teaching.

The reasons for this are as follows:

  • A much wider range of technologies is becoming more accessible to potential distance education participants.
  • The costs of technological delivery are dropping dramatically.
  • The technology is becoming easier to use for both tutors and learners.
  • The technology is becoming more powerful pedagogically.
  • Education centers will find it increasingly difficult to resist the political and social pressures of the technological imperatives.

The Emergence of Tele-education

Radical changes in the computing infrastructure, spurred by multimedia computing and communication, will do more than extend the educational system, that is, revolutionize it. Technological advances will make classrooms much more accessible and effective. Today, classroom education dominates instruction from elementary school to graduate school. This method has remained popular for a very long time and will probably persist as the most common mode of education. However, classroom education has its problems, that is, the effectiveness declines with an increase in the number of students per class.

Other pressures affect the instructors, many of whom are not experts in the material they must teach, are not good performers in class, or simply are not interested in teaching. The biggest limitation of the classroom instruction is that a class meets at a particular time in a particular place. This essentially requires all students and the instructors to collect in one spot for their specified period. But with the emerging technology, these problems can be overcome.

Reasons for Studying Tele-Education

The current tele-education systems that have been applied in some countries are generally of multipoint transmission technique. It is found that this kind of transmission technique has several problems or defects, mostly raised during the application of the system. One of the significant problems raised is that, for multipoint transmission, the signals or information transmitted by the sender are not completely received by the receiver. This problem might be due to errors that occur during the transmission of the signals or information.

Another problem is the lag of transmission. In this case, the signals or information transmitted do not arrive at all the receivers at the same time. For example, the question raised by the lecturer might not be received by the students at the same time, and this is not a good environment for the tele-education system. Some receivers receive the signals earlier than others, and some later or not at all. Therefore, it is essential to study the tele-education technology from time to time to overcome these problems so that the tele-education system could provide a more effective way of learning environment.

In order to have a lecture from, for example, a very famous professor from another country, it would require him to come to our place. But the amount of money spent on paying him to give a lecture would be very expensive, and this would also cause trouble for him. However, this problem can be solved with the tele-education system in which the professor does not need to go anywhere else to give his lecture. This would save a lot of expenses and time. Another reason is that, in normal classes, the learning process would not be very effective if the number of students in a class is very big. This is because the lecturer alone cannot coordinate such a large class. With the tele-education system, one lecturer could deliver his lecture to as many students as possible effectively, in a way that a large number of students from different sites are having the same lecture at once.

Purpose of Research

The purpose of this research is to study the current tele-education system that has been applied in some countries. This study covers the background of tele-education, including its definition, the publications of tele-education, which are any papers that discuss tele-education as a whole, the performance of applied tele-education, and also the technology of tele-education, which is its network architecture. However, the main purpose of this study is to understand the tele-education system that has been applied in another country and try to implement it in our country.

Method of Investigation

Since tele-education is a very new technology that is popularly discussed today, it is quite challenging to find any books that discuss tele-education from the library. Therefore, the easiest and fastest way to gather information relating to this project is via the internet. I have surfed and found many interesting sites that discuss tele-education. Besides surfing, I have also contacted several people who are involved in this area of tele-education by email. But unfortunately, this did not really help because most of them did not reply. Besides using the internet, I also get the information for this project from the IEEE Database at the library of Universiti Telekom.

Background Study: Definition of Tele-education

What is Tele-education?

Before discussing what Tele-education means, let’s look at what distance learning is. This is because Tele-education and distance learning are closely related to each other. Distance learning is the acquisition of skills and knowledge through electronic communications that allow students and instructors to be separate in either time or space.

The key to distance learning is asynchronous learning which can be loosely defined as learning at different times. It is a highly flexible method of training because the sender and receiver do not need to be synchronized in space or time. But Tele-education is more than just distance learning. In Tele-education, not only asynchronous but synchronous learning is also made possible. In other words, Tele-education is the evolution of distance learning.

As stated before, the asynchronous learning environment is not a real-time environment. It is a self-study-based application that is accessed via the Internet to a server. The requirement for the student is only an ordinary PC with standard software and Internet access. This application is applicable for a large number of users who can access the course independently of each other. Another type of Tele-education learning environment is the combination of the lecture part, group work part, and self-study part, which is synchronous learning. It is a real-time environment.

In this environment, students and lecturers can interact with each other simultaneously. Tele-education uses the technology of video teleconferencing that allows two or more parties in different geographical areas to interact with each other or to have a learning process together. But people usually get confused about whether video teleconferencing can be considered as Tele-education as well.

Tele-education is actually different from video teleconferencing in a way that Tele-education usually involves a large number of people compared to video teleconferencing. In video teleconferencing, many people use a single monitor to see other people in other areas, but in Tele-education, students have their own monitor that can be used not only to see their lecturer and colleagues but also to send and receive educational materials.

Publications on Tele-education

There are many papers discussing Tele-education. Most of these papers cover only the general or overall scope of Tele-education. For network architecture, they describe the protocol used for the Tele-education system and its network infrastructure. Performance of Tele-education covers the performance of the service of Tele-education and also the network performance. The description of these performances is from the customer’s point of view. For the operation and management of Tele-education, it describes what should be taken into consideration in order to provide a well-managed Tele-education service.

Examples of Systems

From the materials gathered, there are generally three examples of Tele-education systems that have been applied in Europe and Canada. Those examples are:

  • Tele-education NB
  • Delta’s Virtual College
  • ACTS Project AC052 (RACE Project Report)

The purpose of examining these examples is to try to understand the type of Tele-education systems that have been implemented, how Tele-education can be implemented, the requirements to implement it, and the considerations that should be taken into account for implementing it.


It is not easy to find materials or papers that report the architecture of Tele-education. Most of the materials found discuss the general idea of what a Tele-education system is, such as some papers that discuss the general system of a Tele-education service offered, its advantages over the current educational environment, etc. However, I managed to find very interesting material discussing Tele-education as a whole, which is the ACTS Project AC052 (RACE Report Project).

Therefore, I have chosen this report as my main reference in studying Tele-education’s overall system description covering the architecture. There are basically five main topics that will be discussed in quite a detail regarding Tele-education as a whole in this report.

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