Comment On The Use Of Humour And Comedy In ‘the M.C.C.’ Essay Example

Born in 1906, R. K. Narayan was brought up in a country struggling to gain independence. ‘The M. C. C. ’, an excerpt taken from the larger novel Swami and Friends by Narayan, was published in 1935, a time when Anti-British sentiments were at their height, engaging Indians from every corner of the country. In fact, Narayan himself was quoted as saying, “growing up in the first half of the twentieth century in India one couldn’t but be swept away by the rising tide of the nationalist movement,” (p. 202, Alam). The 1930’s were a time where “all that a writer could write about became inescapably political,” (p. 79, Alam). The first part of a trilogy, the semi-autobiographical Swami and Friends was Narayan’s first published work. The excerpt covers Swami and his friends’ attempts at starting their own cricket team, and the comical twist of events that follows. Through the excerpt, Narayan offers his quiet critique of colonialism mainly through clever use of humour and comedy, as well as bringing to the fore the concept of ‘colonial modernity’. Narayan’s simple, unpretentious narrative style serves to contrast with, and thus highlight, numerous amusing over-dramatizations of events taking place in the chapter.

Using the simplistic views of his child-protagonists, Narayan exaggerates various occurrences in the story, casting them in a laughable, almost farcical light. From the very beginning of the chapter, Rajam’s musings that he forgave Swami for his sins and political activities is an over-the-top way of describing the reasons for their fight. Similarly the line, “Rajam had not spoken to him since the day when his political doings became known,” (p. 72, MIL) adds as an example of the pettiness and immaturity of the boys. The Pea, too, is described as being “a man of a hundred worries now,” (p. 3, MIL) an amusing exaggeration in attempting to describe Swami’s feelings at losing his old group of friends. Upon receiving the reply from Messrs Binns, the children’s failure to comprehend the meaning of certain words lead them to feel ridiculed by Binns, claiming they “had written nothing in their previous letter to warrant such expressions as ‘obliged’, ‘remit’ & ‘25%’,” (p. 81) again a heavy over-dramatization. The final scenes in the excerpt are resplendent with hyperbolic expressions, representing the children’s emotions. For example, once they realize the Pea fails to bring the wickets, “a cloud descended upon the gathering,” (p. 2) symbolic of the sadness they were experiencing. Moreover, this exaggerated imagery is described again as an idea is seen as a ray of light being cast. As shown through the characters Swami and Rajam, Narayan manages to articulate the thought-processes and sensitivities of children in a light yet effective manner. The children, in their naivety and innocence, both serve to be enjoyable vessels for humour in the chapter, displaying an almost unconscious irony in them, in that what they perceive to be so in a situation often is the opposite of the true happenings.

The children’s triviality is on display when their friend Somu who failed to advance to the next year, was “automatically excluded from the group, the law being inexorable in that respect,” (p. 73, MIL). After expressing his apprehension about playing cricket for the first time, Swami finally comes to the simplistic conclusion that “probably (Jack) Hobbs was too shy and sceptical before he took the bat and swung it,” (p. 74, MIL) somewhat oblivious to the rationalization that confidence comes through practice.

Also, there lies an innocent honesty in the children which also serves to add humour to situations. Examples of this honesty are when Swami and Rajam are cutting out pictures of cricket players, though Swami “secretly did not very much care for those pictures, as there was something monotonous about them. He sometimes thought that the same picture was pasted in every page of the album,” (p. 74, MIL). Swami, though not fully able to comprehend the sport and activity they were undertaking doing still continued due to a slight fear and pressure from the more dominant Rajam.

Also, when looking through the catalogue, Swami though also pretending to admire a cricket bat, was “indiscreet enough to say, ‘It looks like any other bat in the catalogue’,” (p. 77, MIL). Upon receiving a reply from Messrs Binns, Swami also comes to the conclusion that they would receive goods, naively declaring, “If he did not wish to supply you with things, would he thank you? He would have abused you,” (p. 81). Both children, while enthusiastic about starting a cricket team, have little to no knowledge on the exact procedure. Hilarity ensues as they start to worry about being taxed for their team name, with Rajam later going on to ay “the government seems to tax everything in this world,” (p. 76). He later adds that “the government did not seem to know where it ought to interfere and where not,” (p. 76). Evident here is a passive criticism of government taxation policies, though not fully comprehended as it is from the point of view of a child. The children’s imagination get the better of them after they start speculating about paying taxes, the government wouldn’t recognize their team, as well as the shock of being asked for two separate taxes from the team.

In their despair, “Rajam realized at this point that the starting of a cricket team was the most complicated problem on Earth,” (p. 76) again a sweeping statement meant to be humorous. Requiring cricket supplies for their team, the boys decide to mail a letter of order to Messrs Binns, taking half an hour to think of what to say. After fixating over trivialities like whether to address Binns by sir or not, finally the letter, full of punctuation errors and humorously dramatic reads, “Dear Sir,

Please send to our team junior Willard bats, six balls, wickets and other things quick. It is very urgent. We shall send you money afterwards. Don’t fear. Please be urgent. Yours Obediently, Captain Rajam (Captain). ” Upon sending the letter, the children immediately receive another letter, and fantastically think it to be from Binns, J. B. Hobbs, or their Headmaster among others. Again on display is Narayan’s talent for writing from a child’s perspective, capturing the wild imagination and far-fetched suggestions that are so common among them.

Another example of Narayan’s prowess at depicting children is through the second letter by Sankar, Swami’s old friend. Again, full of the same grammatical mistakes and peculiar writing that boys of that age are prone to, the letter contains laughable lines like, “my father came here. My mother is also here. All of us are here. And we will be only here,” (p. 79). The simplistic logic employed by the children and their inability to comprehend certain situations fills the excerpt with instances of situational humour.

The children, after reading Sankar’s letter, enthusiastically decide to reply at once. “Mani copied Sankar’s letter verbatim,” (p. 79) an instance of idiocy on the part of the boys add humour to the situation. Further foolishness is committed on Rajam’s part when he concludes that Binns would supply them goods simply because he thanked them for their letter. Even after informing Binns that they had received the wrong letter, they still continue to be optimistic in receiving their supplies, completely unaware of the situation.

Narayan’s character Rajam also serves as a deeper symbol of British colonialism and modernity. His very domineering nature, his elitism and cynicism are all manifestations of 20th century colonialism. He speaks of his father being modern and secular, another symbol of the specific kind of modernity that colonialism engendered in India. Being the son of a government servant, Rajam does not approve of Swami’s previous political activities as his family works under the British.

His strong personality is evident during his conversations with Swami, in lines like, “he was in a debating mood, and Swami realized it and remained silent,” (p. 74). Rajam is constantly in an argumentative mood and adopts a sceptical tone in conversations with the others. He continuously refers back to his days at Bishop Waller’s school as being superior, and derides Swami for his ‘Board High School’ mentality. Furthermore, his elitist leanings are on display from the line, “I won’t say ‘Sir’. It is said only by clerks. I am not Binns’ clerk,” (p. 9). While writing the letter, he self-appoints himself as the Team Captain, and later during the match proceeds to open the batting himself. As Rajam belongs to the comprador class of Anglicised Indians he has almost internalized the colonial arrogance and prejudice from the people of the time. Swaminathan by contrast is reflective of the Indians under British rule, and serves as Rajam’s foil of sorts. Swami is more docile in nature, and continuously submits to Rajam’s will, reminiscent of subjugated Indians under the ruling British.

This is apparent from lines like “Swami felt the safest course would be to agree with him,” (p. 74). In addition, the “example of absolute submissiveness,” (p. 74) Swami makes by agreeing with Rajam flatters him, catering to his whims and fancies. Swami at times is also bullied into certain things, as shown by the line “Swaminathan was forced to accept it in spite of his protests,” (p. 78) consolidating the reading the boys have internalized the master and subject relationship fostered by colonialism.

Towards the end of the chapter, the instance of Swami bowling out Rajam could be seen as a disguised challenge to colonialism and British rule at the time, leaving the reader end on a rather amicable and optimistic note, possibly significant of Narayan’s own aspirations regarding Independence. Also prevalent in the excerpt are instances and references to the concept of ‘colonial modernity’, and the subconscious influence the British have on the town Malgudi and its inhabitants. The very title, ‘M. C. C. ’ for Marylebone Cricket Club is an example of British influence on the residents, a very prestigious and successful club in the UK.

The children’s own prejudices are revealed when Swami admits that “As M. C. C. it sounded imposing, the name (Malgudi Cricket Club) was really a bit tame,” (p. 75). The game of cricket itself at the time was a colonial and very elite pastime, and Swami admits to not having “thought of cricket as something that he himself could play,” (p. 74). While the boys are busy deciding on how to form the cricket team, they are more concerned with the government recognizing them officially than concerned with the players in it, the idea of being recognized and given legal legitimacy also a Western concept.

The very idea of ordering goods from a catalogue, all produced and manufactured from factories is a direct example of industrialization and modernity. Finally, the example Rajam uses of a Rolls-Royce also serves as a benchmark for quality, as well as prestige. Even more interestingly enough, all the boys seem to be very familiar with the Rolls-Royce and its specifications, regardless of whether they have their facts correct or not, exhibiting more of the subconscious British influence on them.

In conclusion, though ‘The M. C. C. ’ only serves as an entree to ‘Swami and Friends’, it nevertheless offers enough scope for analysis in R. K. Narayan’s colonialist critique. Masked by the innocence and naivety of children, the excerpt doesn’t openly indicate Narayan’s stance on colonialism and Indian independence, yet it simultaneously offers a subtle criticism and opinion of colonial attitudes towards Indians. The humour and comedy serve to lighten he undertones of the novel, which allowed Narayan to apply focus to his main characters without it becoming too idealistic, allowing people of all ages to relate as well as enjoy ‘Swami and Friends’.

Analysis Of A Speech Made By Rene Boisvert

Analysis of a speech made by Rene Boisvert, a Québec separatist Rene Boisvert’s speech about the wish to make Québec independent includes many oratory devices to make the speech effective in getting the attention of the audience and making an impression. First of all he focuses on the use of logos and, especially, pathos in the speech.

In the first paragraph we can find logos in sentences such as “eight of the other Canadian provinces are overwhelmingly English-speaking”. In this sentence it is obvious that he uses logos because he is informing us about the issue. But what is not as noticeable is that, as he is directing his speech towards people of Québec, this sentence is also pathos because it is pointing out that the they are a minority that have to stand together, or rather showing them that “this is how the rest of Canada views us”. Throughout the entire speech we can find uses of pathos in phrases such as “we”, “us” and “my fellow Québecois”, and at the same time separating the people of Québec from the rest of Canada by saying “English-speaking Canada” and “the rest of Canada”, which really makes the audience separated from “the others”.

He also uses repetition with multiple uses of the phrase “we want”. This both focuses the speech around the point of the main message and about the goals that they want to achieve. Especially when re-using the phrase at the end of the speech to create a strong ending with the sentence “we want independence”. Not only does the short sentence end with a powerful word, but because of the repetition of “we want” he also makes the beginning of the sentence powerful. He has created a very strong ending to the speech that will engage the audience and create an impression that will last. Of course there are many other devices used in this speech, but I found these to be the most important and most effective.

A Case Study: Organizational Culture Of Ultimate Shield Security

Domingo Partido, a former Military attache, founded Ultimate Shield Security Agency, Incorporated in the late 1980’s. Inspired by his military experience, he established USASi – Ultimate Security and Allied Services, Inc. in 1989. The agency started operating during the same year.

Ultimate Shield has expanded its presence beyond the Metro Manila Head Office. It now has branches in two other regions – one in La Union, serving the northern Luzon area, and another in Surigao Del Norte, covering the lower region of the country. With over 300 security guards stationed in Metro Manila and other parts of the country, Ultimate Shield Security offers services to institutions, organizations, companies, and establishments in and around the Greater Manila Area and provincial areas. These clients seek quality security services rooted in USSAi’s strong values and morals.

USSAi has partnered with various companies, including AMOSUP, Seamen’s Hospital, Max’s Fried Chicken branches, Via Mare Tomas Morato, GMA Network, Peninsula de Punta Fuego, and Araneta Coliseum. The main objective of USSAi is to offer and sustain an outstanding and professional security service based on its fundamental corporate policies and guidelines. USSAi aims to prioritize the client’s welfare by delivering the highest quality security service and adhering to both the agency’s and the client’s rules and regulations.

USSAi is committed to delivering excellent service and recognizes the importance of professional development for both security personnel and office staff. Regular trainings are provided to ensure their skills and knowledge are on par, if not superior, to those in other agencies and companies. Honesty and integrity are core values for USSAi in all internal and external interactions. As a medium-sized corporation, USSAi follows the following organizational structure:

The staff’s active organization structure from 2011 to 2012 is as follows: Each individual within the office staff has their own rank and position. However, due to the small size of the staff (only eight people), tasks and responsibilities can be flexible. This allows for easy delegation of work, whether it involves fieldwork or administrative tasks. Consequently, all employees must be aware of each other’s assignments and stay informed about the progress of each task. Such coordination facilitates smooth transitions and seamless workflow continuity.

The office staff members have informal interrelationships due to the small size of the staff and limited office space, which is unlike other companies. This fosters open communication and creates a friendly atmosphere within our organization.

On the other hand, the structure among the security personnel differs significantly. In this industry, a militaristic culture is followed, resulting in a formal and strict structure among the guards. The guards are hierarchically ranked, starting with the Security Officer/Supervisor/Manager who oversees all guards stationed at different locations.

In the field, the Detachment Commander (DC) and Assistant Detachment Commander (ADC) act as representatives for the Company Officers. They are supervised by the Security Officer/Supervisor/Manager and their main duty is to ensure the smooth functioning of their detachment while following instructions from the Head Office. Additionally, the Shift – in – Charge, who works under the DC and ADC, oversees all order implementation during each shift. It is crucial to strictly abide by security industry regulations and rules because not doing so can result in serious consequences.

While there is a formal aspect to adhering to rules and regulations, the agency also maintains an informal line of communication between security personnel and management. This can either facilitate or impede both parties. The organizational structure allows staff members to easily communicate with management, without any clear hierarchy among staff or between staff and management, as indicated in the aforementioned organizational structure.

The Executive Vice President in USSAi is responsible for major decisions and serves as one of the three main signatories for bank transactions and external formal documents. Despite being employed in a separate company, they are involved in the day-to-day activities and operations of the family business, particularly those related to clients, both current and prospective.

The Corporate Secretary in USSAi had multiple roles within the company. In addition to carrying out and implementing board decisions and ensuring compliance with statutory and regulatory requirements, she also played a key role in sales and marketing. This included contacting potential clients and finalizing deals and transactions. Moreover, the Corporate Secretary was actively involved in daily operations with existing clients. This included attending meetings, assisting detachment commanders and security officers with recruitment and scheduling, as well as handling emergencies.

The Corporate Secretary was responsible for various tasks including Administrative requirements, Operations, Sales and Marketing, and Finance. Specifically, she controlled and managed the agency’s finances. This involved allocating funds for different payables such as government dues (SSS, Pag – Ibig and Philhealth) and 13th month pay. Additionally, she was in charge of signing checks for payables and the payroll. The Corporate Secretary played a crucial role within the company, ensuring compliance with processes, reviewing reports, and collaborating with the accountant on USSAi’s financial statements.

All three assistants to the Corporate Secretary have the responsibility of fulfilling tasks required by the Corporate Secretary. This includes handling payroll, reports, necessary documents, and managing the allocation of funds. They also handle transactions between banks on behalf of the Corporate Secretary and take minutes during meetings. In addition, these assistants attend meetings on behalf of the Corporate Secretary and address personal needs for both the secretary and her family.

The duties of the Senior Security Supervisor include conducting inspections of various locations and areas where guards are stationed, including both Metro Manila and provincial areas/posts. The purpose of these inspections is to ensure that guards are adhering to client requirements, following rules and policies, and maintaining updated equipment. Additionally, the Senior Security Supervisor is responsible for updating the list of guards and equipment, such as radios, firearms, and transportation, which is submitted to government agencies and security governing bodies like SOSIA and PADPAO. Finally, the Senior Security Supervisor serves as a mediator between the agency and security guards who file labor complaints with the NLRC and DOLE.

He is responsible for numerous security-related concerns and acts as the intermediary between management, security personnel, and agency management. The Security Supervisor also oversees inspections, similar to the Senior Security Supervisor. Additionally, the Security Supervisor manages government dues for the security personnel, including keeping track of payments to SSS, PhilHealth, and Pag-Ibig, as well as processing personnel’s loan applications and requests.

He serves as both the intermediary between the agency management and Araneta Coliseum, and as the company’s “go-to” messenger responsible for distributing billing statements, collecting monthly payments from clients, managing office supplies and equipment, arranging transportation, and running errands to assist anyone in need. Compensation and Benefits

According to government regulations, the salary for staff members, particularly security personnel, is determined by the minimum wage order, which is strictly followed by the agency. Those who have job descriptions and tasks that meet the criteria are entitled to receive allowances and overtime pay. Additionally, staff members are eligible for benefits such as SSS, PhilHealth, and Pag-Ibig, which also provide loan options.

Each staff member is permitted to take leave as long as they notify management and arrange for their workload to be covered and approved. Additionally, staff members are provided with life insurance. However, as a medium-sized family business with an informal organizational structure and culture, USSAi faces various challenges that may impact productivity and the overall performance of the company.

One issue is the lack of enforcement and written policies regarding tardiness and absenteeism at this family-owned business. Staff members do not take these matters seriously, with some believing that their tenure in the agency allows them to arrive late or leave early. Another issue is the high level of trust within the company due to its familial nature, with management placing a strong sense of trust in the staff members.

Assistant Corporate Secretaries are responsible for managing sensitive matters, including the company’s finances and personal family issues of staff members. Regrettably, there have been instances of misconduct that have had adverse effects on both the company and the impacted families. Consequently, one Assistant Corporate Secretary resigned during the first quarter of this year due to deficiencies in her management skills, lack of discipline, and dishonest behavior. These problems resulted in difficulties with specific payments and ultimately impacted the agency’s financial stability.

Despite the absence of solid proof, the issue remains unresolved as yet another employee has raised worries regarding the mishandling of finances by the current Assistant Corporate Secretary. The organization is currently facing operational and financial challenges following the unfortunate demise of the Corporate Secretary in the previous quarter. This is significant because not only was the Corporate Secretary a key driving force for the company, but they also played a pivotal role in various aspects.

One of the main concerns for the company is that its primary leader is no longer present. The former Corporate Secretary had been guiding the staff for over a decade, earning their trust and loyalty. With her passing, there are worries about whether the current management can effectively tackle these issues.

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