Communication Among Peers Homework Essay Sample


Communication is defined as the transmission of information from one person to another. Effective communication skills ensure that the message is decoded accurately. If the message is encoded incorrectly, communication will not be effective. Communication facilitates the exchange of ideas and problem-solving. Institutions, including political and healthcare institutions, rely on communication to transfer information among colleagues or between employees and management.

Effective communication requires adherence to certain principles. These include brevity, which means that the message should be concise and to the point. The message should also be substantial, conveying the intended meaning in a shorter length. Clarity is also important, as the information contained in the message must present explicit meaning to avoid ambiguity. Completeness is another essential component of effective communication; messages should provide all necessary information. Finally, courtesy is of utmost importance.

Effective communication is essential in any situation, whether it’s personal or professional. It involves the exchange of information and ideas between individuals or groups. Good communication skills can help build strong relationships, increase productivity, and prevent misunderstandings.

Effective communication is crucial in a healthcare facility because it helps maintain high-quality relationships, which ultimately contribute to the overall health of individuals. The process of effective communication involves factors such as how one communicates, the frequency of communication, and the ability to initiate conversations.

Effective communication among peers should involve the use of good communication skills and strategies to influence individual and collective decisions that promote a healthy lifestyle. Health Communication has been found to enhance efforts to improve service and responsibility for both personal and public health (Kowalski, 2008). Communication enhances the performance of healthcare service providers and encourages the development of all aspects of healthcare, including disease prevention and healthcare promotion.

The following aspects of healthcare services are likely to improve:

  • Health service provider and patient relations, which are likely to improve and increase understanding
  • Encouragement for individuals to embrace exposure and challenges
  • Peers finding the psyche to search for and use appropriate healthcare information
  • Effective communication improving individuals’ observance of clinical commendation and course of therapy
  • Encouragement for the exchange of general healthcare messages and promotion of practice (Kowalski, 2008).

Peer communication in healthcare institutions has important consequences, including the efficient dissemination of information on health hazards to individuals and the community as a whole (known as risk communication), which yields good responses and solutions. Health-related messages can be more widely distributed through media channels, thus reaching a larger audience that may not have otherwise accessed the information. Additionally, those seeking healthcare services can learn how to gain access to the institution and benefit from its services (Kowalski 2008).

Communication barriers can hinder effective communication between individuals or groups. These barriers can be physical, such as distance or noise, or psychological, such as cultural differences or language barriers. It is important to identify and address these barriers in order to facilitate clear and productive communication.

Communication barriers in the healthcare scenario can be very hazardous. Any blunder could create a significant problem because the situation in healthcare is closely associated with human life and wellbeing (Sinickas, 2007). Therefore, healthcare communications require utmost care. To address this issue, the healthcare sector has established specialized communication consultants such as Serento Healthcare, Bioquest, and Imprimis Life Therapy.

Communication barriers are obstacles to effective communication that result in partial or incomplete messages being conveyed. There are several types of communication barriers, with noise being the main barrier. Noise can come from many sources, ranging from machines to people (Sinickas 2007).

One type of communication barrier is language. The choice of words when speaking is crucial because wrong interpretation can easily lead to distortion of information and risk the lives of patients.

Another type of barrier is the receiver’s perception, which may be biased. This describes what the receiver perceives the encoder could be saying when they have not understood the message. This can be dangerous and entail projection and self-fulfilling prophecies.

Personal relationships also influence how people perceive information based on past experiences. Miscommunication may sometimes result from cultural differences, which cover differences in talking styles, aspirations, and other basic values (Kowalski 2008).


Communication must be effective to be useful. To enhance its effectiveness, individuals in all organizations must improve their communication skills and increase the frequency of communication aimed at explicitly addressing issues and providing solutions. The benefits of communication discussed in this text far outweigh the disadvantages; therefore, healthcare institutions should work hard to improve peer communication and interpersonal relationships for efficient healthcare service provision.


Kowalski, K. (2008). Tough Questions: Recognize and Resolve Communication Breakdown. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39(2), 57-89. Larkspur, Colorado: Kowalski & Associates.

Sinickas, A. (2007). Breaking down departmental barriers: Strategic Communication Management. Highbeam Research, 12(1), 11-50.

Background Of The Issue

It has been 40 years since President Johnson’s administration declared war on poverty in the United States, yet progress remains sluggish. In the mid-1970s, insecurity in the living status of non-elderly individuals arose due to extensive inflation, soaring unemployment rates, and decreasing real wages (Danziger 2005). The United States has fallen victim to globalization as specific trends of inequality and social segmentation confront it. From the 1950s up until the early 1970s, poverty and income inequity experienced a significant decline before reaching their weakest point. Today’s poor are younger than previous generations and are part of the working group rather than being unemployed. These new outlines of inequality and poverty – children and working individuals – contradict growth but coincide with falling unemployment rates since halfway through the 1990s, an outcome once believed improbable (Hytrek et al. 2008).

The United States has shifted its national priority away from combating poverty. This is reflected in certain changes to the welfare policy, which now focuses on increasing the work efforts of the poor instead of their income. Political efforts to address the gap between those who have and those who do not have enough have weakened. As a result, the present generation seems less interested in supporting welfare policies unless they bring jobs to marginalized communities (Danziger 2005).

This brief aims to assess the United States government’s antipoverty efforts and their impact on the community. It also suggests innovative ways to reinvigorate these initiatives as necessary. It is important to note that without poverty alleviation policies, the poor will never fully benefit from the economic growth of the overall economy (Danziger 2005).

Efforts to Alleviate Poverty

For forty years, the US government has been in a constant battle against poverty. In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson set up his own War on Poverty with the aim of eradicating income poverty. While his foremost economic advisers assumed this goal would be completed by 1980, it became apparent that this was not the case after the onset of the 1970s. As of 2003, the official poverty rate remained at about 12.5 percent of the entire US population – a figure that had remained relatively unchanged for three decades (Danziger 2005).

Initially, the agents of war fervently pursued their cause, as reflected in the programs and policies implemented from 1965 to 1975. These anti-poverty endeavors had a significant impact. One policy that became most valuable for families with children was the Earned Income Tax Credit, which emerged in the mid-1990s (Danziger 2005). However, as time passed and generations changed, precedence on similar efforts eventually vanished. This trend intensified when the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) was passed; thereafter welfare lost its seat among America’s most contentious concerns. Despite numerous critics of the reform, it was declared a success by both Republican and Democrat elites. Furthermore, a population of indigent women with children but lacking cash has emerged and constantly increased; many have exhausted cash provisions from Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Hildebrandt et al., 2009).

Similarly, Americans have developed false impressions towards reducing welfare as a mere trifle. For instance, when welfare is discussed with White Americans, they would probably regard it as something that only benefits black Americans. The foremost reason for this phenomenon was media coverage – newsmakers implicated welfare as a tremendously black and appalling social program (Dyck et al., 2008).

Poverty is not a Priority

There are three reasons why welfare, specifically poverty reduction, can be in a dismal state for a country that can do better. It all boils down to prioritization. Unfortunately, the government seems to have deprioritized poverty. The eradication of poverty has gone from being at the forefront of public concern to being an afterthought.

Currently, only the elderly have a robust social safety net that shields them from the volatile business climate and secular economic trends that have led to declining real wages for many workers and increased poverty levels for households with children. US anti-poverty programs for seniors are no longer as effective as they were 25 years ago and are much less helpful than those in other modern economies.

Since 1980, major anti-poverty initiatives have received relatively little political and public attention in the US (Danziger 2005).

Danielson (2008) reported in his study that upon the re-entry of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in 2006, government officials under the Bush administration declared a dramatic success in welfare reform. However, studies have not thoroughly reviewed to what degree certain welfare policies contribute to a decline in the caseload.

Regardless of the U.S.’ pursuit of providing equal opportunities, poverty is not a top priority for the government since it is not considered a public main concern. Compared to other modern nations, the social safety net in the U.S. is less effective. Social safety nets are means to eliminate the consequences of poverty and other risks for vulnerable families (World Bank Group, 2008).

It appears that the incidence of poverty in the United States is higher compared to other industrialized countries. This is because Americans focus on increasing the poor’s work, which often does not reduce income poverty. Opinion polls show that Americans believe in improving their quality of life through self-reliance and hard work. Therefore, most Americans are unsympathetic to government redistribution of wealth.

Other polls asked if Americans agree with the government’s responsibility to close income gaps and provide guaranteed income for everyone. Results show that Australia had 43% who agreed and 51% who strongly agreed; Sweden had 53% who agreed and 46% who strongly agreed; UK had 66% who agreed and 68% who strongly agreed; West Germany had 66% who agreed and 58% who strongly agreed. In contrast, only 38% of Americans agree while only35 % strongly agree (Ladd et al.,1998).

There were also problematic and inconvenient policies implemented by the government. Some required welfare recipients to work in low-wage labor markets, which meant they had to frequently visit the welfare office during business hours. Such policies are not sustainable in the long run (Martin, 2008).

What Can Be Done?

The big question now is what the United States and its people can do to alleviate poverty. Past encounters with anti-poverty policies can be of great help in formulating future anti-poverty programs, as well as mobilizing the nation to prioritize the battle against poverty.

To begin with, there is a need to strengthen and harmonize the political will in the implementation of anti-poverty programs. Past experiences in the US during the 1960s and in the UK during the 1990s prove that strong political initiatives and concentrated efforts are necessary to address pressing poverty issues and champion major anti-poverty movements.

This study suggests that adept individuals and groups should initiate an awareness campaign on welfare policy reform. The stakeholders involved should be informed politicians, academics, NGOs, and mass media who have the power to influence and educate the community. This is in response to the growing indifference of today’s generation towards the underprivileged.

Over the long run, US policies have been successful in alleviating poverty among the elderly. Similarly, the UK’s comprehensive set of programs aimed at reducing child poverty has been victorious. In both cases, there has been a substantial increase in government spending.

During Prime Minister Tony Blair’s reign in the UK (1999), there was a noteworthy increase in cash welfare benefits. Compared to 1997, these increases noted an 85 percent rise by 2003. Similarly, a remarkable increase of 25 percent was achieved for universal child benefits during this period.

Rise in earnings was achieved when Working Families Tax Credit was introduced which is similar to Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) framework. Credits are more generous relative to average salary and returned to a greater proportion of families including employed adults without children. Additionally, a minimum wage some notches higher than the average US wage was introduced (Danziger 2005).

This paper is based on the premise that improving tax collection can enable a country to allocate more funds towards welfare programs. Some literature suggests that the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) can be an effective tool in combating poverty, particularly for African-American women (Olugbenga, 2008). This addresses the challenge of generating funds for such programs. For example, earning supplements like the Working Families Tax Credit or EITC are applicable in countries where most of the workforce pays income and payroll taxes since these entries help determine the credit amount for poor families. However, many developing economies may not find such programs practical (Danziger, 2005).

Stable and sustainable economic growth is the primary requisite for succeeding in antipoverty efforts in any country; otherwise, any initiative will be at great risk of failing. Furthermore, the highly competitive globalized economy and constant technological advances necessitate critical effort to capacitate the labor workforce with appropriate skills and human capital. All countries, including the US, are faced with the pressure of holding down wage costs due to globalization and technological breakthroughs leading to labor-saving machinery. Therefore, an increase in productivity suggests the closest means to increase real wages. Later on, this will require more access to education so that the labor force will have a higher educational background (Danziger 2005).

This study suggests that schools should be empowered to integrate Total Quality Management in order to enhance the quality of education delivery. Sustainable economic growth requires an adept workforce capable of meeting the demands of a constantly changing environment. This is an effort that cannot be achieved overnight, but it will eventually pay off.


  1. Ajilore, O.  (2008). The Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Poverty: Analyzing the Dimensions by Race and Immigration. Review of Black Political Economy, 35(4), 117.
  2. Danielson, C.  (2008). Did Welfare Reform Cause the Caseload Decline? The Social Service Review, 82(4), 731.
  3. Danziger, S., Danziger, S. (2005).The U.S. Social Safety Net and Poverty: Lessons Learned and Promising Approaches. University of Michigan.
  4. Hildebrandt, E., Stevens, P. (2009). Impoverished Women With Children and No Welfare Benefits: The Urgency of Researching Failures of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program. American Journal of Public Health, 99(5), 793-801.
  5. Hytrek, G., Zentgraf, K. M. (2008). America Transformed: Globalization, Inequality, and Power.  Oxford University Press, xvi, 238.
  6. Ladd, E., Bowman K. (1998). Attitudes Toward Economic Inequality. American Enterprise Institute. Washington, D.C.
  7. Martin, K. C.  (2008). Blame Welfare, Ignore Poverty and Inequality. Journal of Social History, 41(3), 765-767.
  8. Social Safety Nets (2008).
  9. The World Bank Group.,,contentMDK:20260748~menuPK:461663~pagePK:64156158~piPK:64152884~theSitePK:461654,00.html

Moto: Coming To America

            Moto is sent to Chicago to hire an American contracting company for his firm in Japan. He meets Mr. Crowell of Allmack to initiate the negotiation between the two companies. He expects Mr. Crowell to accommodate him with all the deference accorded to a valued future client and create for him a good impression of Allmack not only through its performance records but also through Crowell’s hospitality. Upon the first meeting, Moto wants to establish not just a business but also a personal relationship with Crowell. However, all his expectations are quashed as it becomes evident that Crowell is not aware of Japanese norms and mores when it comes to interpersonal communication.

            The “noise” in the communication process between Moto and Crowell begins the moment the Japanese becomes confused as to why Mr. Crowell behaves the way he does and he is left at a loss as to how to respond to the American’s behavior. Moto comes to the office straight from Japan expecting the American thinking that American culture is not way too different from his Japanese culture. He is wrong. The difference between Moto’s expectations and Mr. Crowell’s actual behavior is a “noise” which makes Moto uncomfortable and almost threatens the cordial relationship which he is supposed to cultivate with his visit. On Mr. Crowell’s part, meanwhile, his apparent lack of understanding of Japanese culture makes him unaware of the confusion happening within his foreign guest.

            Moto’s present of a handmade doll is supposedly his way of creating the personal relationship with Mr. Crowell as the latter’s future client. Member of Japanese corporate organizations are more cohesive than their American counterparts. They treat each other like family in sharp contrast with the American’s polite and impersonal relationships at work especially with first meetings with business prospects. Moto’s dolls are also handmade kokeshi dolls made from special maple near his mountain home in Japan and he is hoping that it would be considered a special gift by Crowell who also comes from the hilly state of Vermont. But the American is not able to get the meaning behind the present.

            Moto is further surprised when Crowell pockets his card without even glancing at it. Instead of commenting on his position at KKD as Moto is expecting, Crowell starts boasting about Allmack, and talks about his beautiful house and wife. To Moto, his credentials as Project Director translate to years of hard work which deserve deference, but Crowell doesn’t understand this. Americans call each other by first names. They are frank and talk about their achievements, in contrast to the Japanese who value humility and who, while they expect to be praised for their achievements, would not volunteer to tell these information to the other. Crowell’s remarks about Allmack threaten a loss of face from Moto’s perspectives because a Japanese company would not promote itself so vulgarly as if it is desperate to make a sale.

            At least Moto learns to understand the differences between his culture and that of the Americans when he meets Kubushevsky, an officer at Allmark whom Crowell assigns to help familiarize Moto with the company’s workings. At first Moto is wary of Kubushevsky because of his strange name and his polite and impersonal attitude. He is also surprised at Kubushevsky because he does not hesitate to tell him that he is planning to leave Allmack and calls Crowell a “dog”. Kubushevsky provides a contrast to the high value that Japanese has on loyalty. Eventually, however, after going out with the American for drinks, Moto realizes that in American culture one’s personal life is distinct to one’s work. Efficiency is more important than the kind of person one is. Once Moto and Kubushevsky become friends instead of simple co-workers, Moto learns to like Kubushevsky the person. When his Japanese superiors from KKD comes to America themselves for the contract signing, they too, experiences the same uneasiness and embarrassment that Moto felt during his first day especially during the instance when Allmack’s female lawyer argues with KKD’s male lawyer (a scene that would be scandalous to the Japanese). But Moto, after spending some time in America, has expanded his ability to understand the differences between the two cultures.

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