Company Research Report – Tesco Free Writing Sample

1. Introduction

Tesco is a leading multinational retailer that operates in 12 countries and serves millions of customers each week. As one of the largest employers in the UK, Tesco offers a range of opportunities for internship and placement students to gain valuable experience in the retail industry. The company’s products and services include groceries, clothing, electronics, financial services, and mobile phones. Tesco’s size and structure are vast, with over 6,800 stores worldwide and more than 450,000 employees. The company’s culture and values are centred on customer satisfaction, innovation, and sustainability and they are firmly committed to corporate social responsibility. In terms of financial performance, Tesco has recently shown a positive trend, with a 9.9% increase in revenue in 2021. However, the company faces stiff competition from major players such as Sainsbury’s, Asda, and Morrisons.

Tesco has adopted an approach to sustainability and corporate social responsibility, setting ambitious targets to reduce carbon emissions and waste and promote healthy eating habits. The company’s future strategy includes further expanding its online offerings and reducing its carbon footprint through investment in renewable energy.

Overall, Tesco is a dynamic and innovative company that offers a range of opportunities for interns and placement students. Its strong commitment to sustainability and customer satisfaction makes it an exciting company to work for, and its future strategy promises continued growth and development in the retail industry.

2. Products and services

Tesco is known for its wide range of products and services, offering customers a one-stop shop for all their needs. The company’s core business is grocery retail, with Tesco being one of the UK’s largest and most popular supermarket chains. Customers can find various food and drink products in-store and online, including fresh produce, dairy products, meat, bakery items, and more. Tesco’s clothing range is also popular among customers, with the company offering a range of stylish and affordable clothing for men, women, and children (Tesco Plc, 2023).

In addition to groceries and clothing, Tesco also offers a range of electronics products, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, and TVs. The company’s financial services division gives customers access to credit cards, loans, and insurance, providing a convenient way for customers to manage their finances. Tesco Mobile, the joint venture between Tesco and O2, is also a popular choice among customers, offering a range of mobile phone plans and devices at competitive prices. Overall, Tesco’s wide range of products and services sets it apart from other retailers, providing customers with a convenient and comprehensive shopping experience (Tesco, 2023).

3. Size and structure

Tesco’s structure is designed to facilitate effective management of its diverse business operations and enable it to provide high-quality products and services to its customers across different markets. The company’s UK retail business, Tesco UK, is the largest of its business units, with over 3,000 stores and more than 300,000 employees. This division is responsible for the company’s core business of grocery retail and includes a range of store formats, including Tesco Extra, Tesco Metro, and Tesco Express (Palmer, 2015).

Tesco Europe operates stores in Ireland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. The company’s operations in Europe focus on delivering high-quality products and services to customers in these markets, with a range of store formats tailored to meet local needs. Tesco Asia, on the other hand, operates stores in China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and South Korea. This division is focused on leveraging the growth potential of these markets, which have large populations and significant economic growth.

Tesco Bank is the company’s financial services division, which offers its customers a range of banking and insurance products. This division was launched in 1997 and has become a significant player in the UK banking and insurance markets. The division’s products include credit cards, loans, insurance, and mortgages, designed to meet the diverse financial needs of Tesco’s customers.

Overall, Tesco’s structure is designed to enable effective management of its diverse business operations while also providing high-quality products and services to its customers across different markets.

4. Major competitors

Tesco operates in a highly competitive retail industry, facing intense competition from several major players. Sainsbury’s is one of Tesco’s key competitors, with similar products and services, including grocery retail, clothing, and financial services. Sainsbury’s operates over 1,400 stores across the UK, making it a significant rival to Tesco’s dominance in the market.

Asda is another major competitor, with over 600 stores nationwide. Asda is the UK’s third-largest grocery retailer, offering various products and services, including groceries, clothing, and financial services. The company’s low prices and focus on value appeal to customers looking to save money on their weekly shopping. Morrisons are the fourth-largest UK grocery retailer, with over 500 stores. The company’s focus on fresh food and produce sets it apart from its competitors, attracting customers looking for high-quality, locally-sourced products. Aldi and Lidl are also significant competitors in the UK retail industry, offering a limited range of products at lower prices. These discount retailers have gained market share recently, appealing to customers looking for value and convenience (East and Hogg, 1997).

Overall, Tesco faces significant competition from a range of established and emerging players in the retail industry. The company must continue to innovate and evolve its products and services to stay ahead of the competition and meet the changing needs of its customers.

5. Values and Culture

Tesco’s values and culture are essential to its business operations, guiding the company’s decisions and actions. The company’s core value of putting customers first is its commitment to providing high-quality products and services and ensuring customer satisfaction. Tesco understands that customers are the lifeblood of its business and strives to meet their needs by offering competitive prices, quality products, and excellent customer service.

Innovation is another key value that drives Tesco’s success. The company constantly seeks new and innovative ways to improve its products and services, such as introducing new store formats and online shopping options. Tesco is committed to investing in technology and digital solutions to enhance the customer experience and stay ahead of competitors.

Sustainability is a vital aspect of Tesco’s values and culture. The company is committed to reducing its environmental impact and promoting sustainable practices. Tesco has set ambitious targets to reduce waste, carbon emissions, water use, and responsibly sourced products. The company is also committed to supporting local communities and improving the lives of its customers and employees through various community initiatives and charitable donations. Overall, Tesco’s values and culture are integral to its customer-focused, innovative, and sustainable retailer identity. By upholding these values and embedding them into its business operations, Tesco can continue to grow and succeed while positively impacting society and the environment (Tesco Plc, 2023).

6. Swot analysis


  • Strong brand recognition and reputation
  • Extensive product and service offerings
  • Large international footprint
  • Strong commitment to sustainability and corporate social responsibility


  • Heavy reliance on the UK market, which can be affected by economic and political factors
  • Intense competition in the grocery retail sector
  • High levels of debt, which can limit investment in growth opportunities


  • Expansion into new markets, such as South America or Africa
  • Growing demand for online shopping
  • Development of new products and services, such as electric vehicle charging stations in Tesco car parks


  • Intense competition from major players such as Amazon and Alibaba
  • Increasingly strict environmental regulations could increase costs and reduce profitability
  • Political instability and economic uncertainty in some of the markets in which Tesco operates

7. Recommendation

Based on the research conducted on Tesco, it is clear that the company is a significant player in the retail industry, with a solid commitment to customer satisfaction, innovation, sustainability, and community engagement. Tesco’s diversified product range, financial services, and reliable online presence give it a competitive edge. However, to maintain its position and continue to grow, Tesco needs to focus on several areas:

  • Addressing the competition: As discussed, Tesco faces stiff competition from other major retailers. Therefore, Tesco should continue to invest in technology and innovation to enhance the customer experience, improve its product offerings and pricing, and differentiate itself from the competition.

  • Sustainability: Tesco’s commitment to sustainability is commendable, but the company needs to continue to focus on reducing its environmental impact and sourcing products responsibly. Tesco should also consider expanding its sustainable product offerings to meet the increasing demand from customers for eco-friendly products.

  • Community engagement: Tesco is firmly committed to supporting local communities, but the company can do more to enhance its community engagement initiatives. By partnering with local organisations and charities, Tesco can demonstrate its commitment to positively impacting society.

  • Digital transformation: Tesco’s strong online presence is an advantage, but the company should continue to invest in its digital capabilities to enhance the customer experience and keep pace with technological advancements.

8. CSR

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a critical aspect of Tesco’s business strategy. Tesco is committed to operating sustainably, reducing its environmental impact, and supporting the communities in which it operates. One of Tesco’s key CSR initiatives is its commitment to reducing its carbon footprint. Tesco has set ambitious targets to reduce carbon emissions by 60% by 2025 and become a zero-carbon business by 2050. The company has invested in renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, and has implemented energy-saving measures across its stores and distribution centres. Tesco is also committed to reducing waste and increasing recycling. The company has set a target to achieve zero food waste by 2030. It has introduced a range of initiatives to achieve this goal, such as redistributing surplus food to charities and community groups. Tesco has also introduced recycling schemes in its stores, encouraging customers to recycle their packaging and reducing waste sent to landfills.

9. Conclusion

In conclusion, Tesco is a prominent player in the retail industry, offering a diversified range of products and services, including groceries, clothing, electronics, financial services, and mobile phones. The company’s commitment to customer satisfaction, innovation, sustainability, and community engagement has helped it maintain a strong position in the market. However, to support its growth and success, Tesco must continue to focus on addressing competition, sustainability, community engagement, and digital transformation. By doing so, Tesco can continue to meet the evolving needs of its customers and remain a leading retailer in the industry.

Reference list

East, R. and Hogg, A. (1997). The anatomy of conquest: Tesco versus Sainsbury. Journal of Brand Management, 5(1), pp.53–60. doi

Palmer, M. (2015). Retail multinational learning: a case study of Tesco. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, [online] 33(1), pp.23–48. doi:

Palmer, M. (2019). International Retail Restructuring and Divestment: The Experience of Tesco. Journal of Marketing Management, [online] 20(9-10), pp.1075–1105. doi:

Serwaa Ofori-Nyarko, N., Wang, F. and Annoh, W. (2020). SWOT ANALYSIS: WAL-MART STORES INC. International Journal of Recent Research in Commerce Economics and Management (IJRRCEM), [online] 7(3), pp.32–35. Available at: [Accessed 27 Mar. 2023].

Tesco (2023). Online Groceries, Banking & Mobile Phones. [online] Available at: [Accessed 27 Mar. 2023].

Tesco Plc (2023). Tesco PLC. [online] Tesco plc. Available at: [Accessed 27 Mar. 2023].

Compare And Contrast The Presentation Of The Effects Of War On The Individual In Sebastian Faulks’ Novel ‘Birdsong’ And R.C.Sherriff’s Play ‘Journey’s End Essay Sample For College

One of, if not the worst, conflict in military history is the First World War. The lack of progress and years of stagnation on the western front directly resulted from the poor and repetitive nature of the techniques used. Poor sanitation meant soldiers were at risk for illnesses like trench foot and millions of rodent and lice infestations. Images of troops living in such filth have become iconic, and the immense human misery of World War I is often connected to them. Literature provides a window into the realities of the trenches during World War I. R.C. Sherriff’s drama “Journey’s End,” written in 1928 and based on his own experiences, paints a vivid portrait of life in the trenches during World War I (Sherriff and Bartlett p 1). Yet, Sebastian Faulks’s subsequently published book Birdsong (2005) presents a fictitious notion based on Faulks’s expertise and comprehension of World War One trench fighting (Faulks p 8). These works are distinct in tone and style because their writers selected various mediums to express the realities of war. A drama follows the characters as they interact with one another via speech, whereas a book may take the reader inside the minds of its characters to reveal their inner thoughts and feelings. The play by R. C. Sherriff and the book by Sebastian Faulks was written at separate times. R.C. Sherriff’s play, published in 1929, was based on his experiences as a soldier during the war. In contrast, Sebastian Faulks’ book, published decades after his birth, was inspired by his grandfather’s wartime experiences and research. However, the conflict’s impact on soldiers has been conveyed well by both authors.

The protagonists in both Journey’s End and Birdsong strive to cope with and escape the horrors of trench warfare by various means, including alcohol, physical altercations, reminiscences of happier times, and even humor. Every person would react differently to living under continual dread of death, and so do the characters. The protagonists, Stanhope and Stephen, in “Journey’s End” by R.C. Sherriff and “Birdsong” by Sebastian Faulks, are portrayed in several ways. Their leadership skills, how they are presented, the impact of the war on them, and their complicated relationships with women are all factors. Sherriff relies on his recollections, whereas Faulks uses reports; therefore, the disparity between the two writing genres and the historical periods in which they were produced might alter the overall depiction of the characters. The audience’s impression of the characters could change.

The physical burden of war on the protagonists of both stories is vividly shown. “He is well looking, more from beautiful characteristics than the healthy good looks of Raleigh,” we are told of Stanhope upon first seeing him (Sherriff and Bartlett p4). His complexion is browned from months spent outdoors, yet he still has a bluish cast and heavy circles under his eyes. Indeed, the consequences of war may be seen in some of these characterizations of appearance. Stanhope has been having some sleep issues, as we discover. As Osborne begs Stanhope to go to sleep, Stanhope responds, “sleep – I can’t sleep.” (Sherriff and Bartlett p 73) For another, when Osborne once again brings up sleep, Stanhope screams, “Sleep! Don’t expect me to waste time sleeping. ” The “black shadows beneath his eyes” must result from Stanhope’s lack of sleep.

Similarly, the conflict has had a tangible effect on Stephen Wraysford’s body. When Jack Firebrace first meets Stephen in Part 2, he describes him as follows: “Jack saw a guy with black hair that was growing grey at the sides, he had a thick mustache that concealed his top lip, and wide brown eyes that peered thoughtfully at him.” He may have been anywhere between the ages of 25 and 40. The war is to blame for these changes since Stephen is described as having “black hair” and “Stephen raised probing eyes” in the novel’s early pre-war sections. In addition, we learn that Stephen is just 20 years old (Faulks). The conflict has altered Stephen’s look, as shown by the available evidence.

The structure of Faulk’s Birdsong enables us to see how the War affected many people across many generations. Faulks uses a variety of recurring themes and ideas to bridge the gap between the novel’s 1914–1918 setting and the current day. The lingering effects of the War imply that history should never be forgotten, and this is the central lesson of Birdsong. in contrast, the actions in this play are divided into three acts that occur over four days. Show I open with a single scene, followed by Act II with two scenes and Act III with three. Hence, as the play progresses, the scenes become shorter. As we near the finish line, the action picks up speed, and the men’s anticipation of the impending attack causes tension to build on the bench. It illustrates how much waiting there was during the conflict and builds suspense as viewers wait for a specific event.

Journey’s End depicts war’s detrimental effects and terrible circumstances on Stanhope and his troops. Stanhope is a committed cop, yet he is also mysterious. This drama uses structure and language to demonstrate how combat affects forces and the changes Stanhope experiences while serving his country. The 1900s saw cheerful, carefree, and laid-back living. Towns were bustling with vitality as people went about their daily lives carefree. Then, as the battle broke out, shock descended. All the males vanished, leaving towns, villages, and cities in ruins. Rationing started, and people soon realized that contrary to what they had previously believed, war was not amusing or a game. People would go to the theater to be entertained. So, the grim imagery presented in the drama Journey’s End differed from what audiences had anticipated. English, which is both formal and aggressive, is used in Journey’s End. It creates the impression of poetry and romantic language, but not inherently romantic. Sherriff’s portrayal of the characters is responsible for this sensation.

Faulks uses the effects of war on the characters in Birdsong to explore the concept of “how far men may be degraded,” a theme throughout the novel. Being unique is what makes us human. During his three days of relaxation, Jack thinks about how each soldier might have been outstanding if it weren’t for the ‘shadow of what awaited them, were interchangeable,’ an analogy to how the War was governed and how the troops were reduced to numbers (Faulks). Stephen’s card game with the guys and his declaration that He would prefer a “malign providence than an indifferent one” shows that the guys are looking for some kind of predetermined destiny for themselves inside the War (Faulks). Tipper’s “iris lost all brightness and feeling of life” when the rounds landed near him, as described by Faulks during an intense bombardment. An individual’s eyes symbolize their uniqueness and have been called the “window to their soul.” Tipper has lost his humanity due to the war, as suggested by Faulks’ depiction of the dimming of his eyes.

In “Journey’s End,” Sherriff uses the basic foundations of his craft. As a play is primarily a visual experience, he does this by having his actors physically embody the roles they portray. With stage instructions like “his eyes are wide and gazing,” he evokes the audience’s intended response from them—in this example, shock and dismay at the death of his friend. This technique is used often throughout the play, such as when Sherriff explains how the actor responded by saying, “Stanhope turns furiously at Raleigh,” signifying that Stanhope’s patience had finally run out. A fight was about to erupt (Sherriff and Bartlett, p68). The audience can plainly see the hero’s inner conflict on each occasion.

In place of visual representation, birdsong uses graphic imagery. As opposed to “Journey’s End,” where Mr. Raleigh is described as having “been there, sir. We are given a realistic description of how Stephen’s “hand was going in towards the man’s lung” and how “his blood went up the inside of Stephen’s uniform” when Douglas is hurt in “Birdsong” after he gets shot in the back. Both his face and hair were covered with it. Although the text conjures up visuals that are far more powerful than those in “Journey’s End,” this is likely because the stream-of-consciousness format makes it easier for us to connect with the event itself. The blood “had a unique smell, not unpleasant itself,” Stephen noted in his head. It’s more poignant to have a sensory experience than to see a play because “it was fresh; it was like the smell at the rear of a butcher’s shop.”

Sebastian Faulks uses poetic language and devices to convey mood and give his descriptions greater force and creativity throughout the book. Also, he employs symbolic language to enlighten or remind the reader of specific important details subtly. The report of the home where the Azaire family resides at the beginning of the book serves as an illustration of this. It is a “strong, formal,” according to Faulks, a structure that has “unseen footsteps” hidden underneath it (Faulks p 9). These descriptions give the house characteristics similar to those of its owners, including strength and mystery, but they also imply unspoken intrigues. This foreshadows the boat ride on the River Somme, where he creates a steamy, sensual, indulgent ambiance, heightening the suspense that a covert event might be about to take place inside this building (Faulksp 8). In a book of this nature, when the reader otherwise cannot hope to fully comprehend the reasoning behind the acts of the persons involved, creating authentic suspense or mood is crucial.

Sherriff employed language to convey the position of the different soldiers, their personalities, their various occupations, and their common bond—the war—to the audience. The language also serves the purpose of reflecting the status of the characters. All police officers, except Trotter, speak English with excellent grammar and clarity. The less intelligent men don’t. These men’s omission of the letter “h” makes this clear. Some unique terminology also indicates the differences in education. The words “sarabridges” and “lorst” used by Mason reveal his lack of education.

The struggle between innocence and experience is covered in the birdsong novel. Change is frequently portrayed negatively in “Birdsong”: Europe shifts from a state of tranquility and harmony to chaos and death (Faulks). But Raleigh’s character develops in Journey’s End. The only time change is detrimental is when we fail to recognize or capitalize on the gains or losses associated with it. When Raleigh first joins, Osborne looks after him and tells him about life in the trenches. But, at the end of Journey, we see this expanded in the topic of comradeship. Thus, we can see how experience and youth differ because, to Raleigh, this situation is “romantic,” whereas it is not to Osborne. This is particularly evident when Raleigh refers to the trenches as “silly,” emphasizing his childish words, while the men are “frightfully furious” at the calamity in their trench.

Throughout the play, Sheriff makes use of nature to set the scene. He contrasts the good (nature’s innocence) and the evil (human-made evil) by using the “moon,” “trees,” and “birds” to try and bring some normalcy to the lives of the soldiers (war). In the first chapter, Faulks emphasizes the natural beauty and peace of the Somme, which are subsequently devastated by the war (Faulks p 8). In a later chapter of the book, amid the conflict, Faulks refers to a “cloudless sky.” This is symbolic because it shows their separation from God and suggests that God may be embarrassed by what humanity has accomplished. Because clouds are frequently associated with the skies and are thought to provide consolation, saying the sky is “cloudless” might be seen as a distancing statement from God (Faulks). It seems as if nature is powerless to save us nowadays.

Before the tragedy of war, Stanhope and Wraysford’s characters are revealed before the tragedy of war in Journey’s End and Birdsong. Even though Journey’s End doesn’t show us Stanhope, before the war, Sherriff skillfully used Raleigh to paint a picture of who he was in his youth. One sees that Raleigh is a happy, patriotic guy who can’t wait to join the military and fight for his nation like his boyhood idol. Stanhope’s statement to Osborne that he was “Keen to come out here” indicates the feelings of many patriotic warriors at the outset of the First World War and may provide light on his state of mind before he came to terms with the realities of war. The war has profoundly affected Stanhope, as seen by the growing animosity between him and Raleigh. He was captain of Rugger at Barford and kept wicket for the eleven,” Raleigh explains, adding context to his picture of Stanhope as a young man. In addition, it’s a great bat. Although the first book provides some background on Wraysford, it is optional to understanding Birdsong. Unlike plays, novels enable authors to add complete backstories via narration rather than dialogue, allowing the readers to learn about one character’s viewpoint even if we never hear their thoughts and emotions. In Birdsong, which may delve deeply into the psychological toll that war has on its participants, I believe R.C. Sherriff utilizes the words and deeds of his characters to paint a picture of how they are feeling. This is a challenging idea to dramatize. Each provides a distinct look at the mechanics of combat.

R.C. Sheriff and Sebastian Faulks investigate how conflict might harm troops in general. A variety of themes and character developments serve to emphasize this. Yet, it is true that people from all different socioeconomic class origins have been affected psychologically and physically by conflict.

Works Cited

Faulks, Sebastian. Birdsong pp. 1-454.

Sherriff, R. C., and Vernon Bartlett. Journey’s end. Paris: librairie gaulon & fils, 39, rue madame, pp. 1–141.

Consumer Behavior Relating To Skincare Products For Aging Women Writing Sample


Consumer behavior refers to the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy their needs and wants. Thus, companies must understand their consumer behavior to develop effective marketing strategies resonating with the consumer target group. The current globalised and digitalized consumer population is constantly evolving; thus, companies must keep up with such trends and insights to remain relevant and competitive. In the past few years, the skincare industry has experienced significant growth, especially in consumer behaviour toward products targeting aging women. Essentially, as women grow old, their skin changes, prompting them to be more concerned about retaining a youthful appearance. As a result, skin care manufacturers have capitalised on this opportunity and established products that prevent and reduce signs of aging, such as age spots, wrinkles, and fine lines. This report will explore consumer behaviour relating to skincare products for aging women, including their level of involvement, value consumers seek, decision-making process, and situational factors affecting their behaviour. The report also examines the relevant consumer behaviour theories and marketing research methods to gather insights. The goal is to provide companies with actionable recommendations for developing effective marketing strategies to attract and retain consumers in this market.

Level of involvement and risks

A comprehensive problem-solving approach is taken when this consumer base makes skincare product purchasing decisions. The concern about their skin appearance prompts the age of women to spend a significant amount of time researching and evaluating different skincare products before deciding to make a purchase. In such a way, the involvement level for the consumers is high because they are investing in products they hope will yield visible results by improving their overall skin health. In addition, this consumer could seek recommendations from trustworthy sources, including family, skincare professionals, and friends. Therefore, they will be prompted to use products with significant benefits, such as specific formulations or natural ingredients. However, using these products comes with several primary risks that could cause adverse reactions and side effects. This is because as the skin ages, it becomes more sensitive and susceptible to damage, making it important for consumers to carefully research the ingredients in skincare products before making any purchases. Besides, there is a possibility of consumers experiencing allergic reactions or irritation from using the product, which can exacerbate the signs of aging or cause detrimental damage to the skin.

Moreover, using these skincare products is related to the risk of potential disappointment when the product does not deliver the expected results. In most cases, aging women will spend a lot of time and finances seeking routines likely to yield visible skin improvements. Unfortunately, when these products do not meet these expectations, the consumer will be frustrated, which could lead to disillusionment. Thus, the level of involvement and risks associated with buying skincare products for aging women is critical. Based on this understanding, companies can develop effective marketing strategies that help address such concerns while they provide more targeted solutions to this market segment. In such a way, building trust and loyalty with customers and establishing a reliable and trustworthy industry is possible.

Value consumers get

Utilitarian and hedonic value is most critical for consumers of skincare products, especially among aging women. On the one hand, utilitarian value explores the practical benefits consumers expect to gain when they use a particular product. For instance, the aging women consumer group expects skincare products to improve skin health and appearance. Thus, skincare products’ utilitarian value includes skin protection from environmental damage and building and maintaining certain moisture levels. On the other hand, hedonic value discusses the emotional and psychological benefits consumers will likely deliver when they use the product. In this case, an aging woman in the business world will feel more confident and youthful when running their business in the public domain. In such a way, using skincare products delivering both utilitarian and hedonic value will ensure that women feel better about their appearance and overall well-being. As a result, the industry could build a loyal customer base and maintain a competitive edge in the market.

Decision-making and buying process

The consumer decision-making process includes five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, product choice, and post-purchase evaluation. Like any other product, aging women will engage in these stages when deciding whether or not to buy skincare products. In this case, the initial step is problem recognition, when the women recognize the signs of aging on their skin and find the need to use skincare products. The awareness of these signs happens when aging women self-reflect or receive comments from friends and family about their skin. As a result, the women’s consumer base will move to search for more information by researching and gathering information concerning different skincare products and the content ingredients. They will engage in consultations from different sources, such as online reviews, recommendations from professionals and friends, and social media influencers. Further, in the third stage of decision-making, this women’s customer base will evaluate alternative products to compare and contrast the available products. In most cases, they will compare and contrast ingredients, prices, size, and other factors and use different criteria to choose the most effective, safe, convenient, and reputable products for them to use.

The fourth decision-making stage is when the consumer selects one product among the alternatives. In this case, aging women could choose to use a single product or combine different products that work well together to achieve the desired results. Finally, the aging women consumer base will engage in a post-purchase evaluation process which involves assessing the products’ effectiveness to determine whether they meet the expectations. If the product does not meet the expectations, the consumer may decide to return the product or move to a different one. Based on this, the decision-making and buying process for the aging women group skincare products could be complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, companies must focus on the ingredients and benefits of developing their skincare products. Today, the consumer is increasingly interested in organic and natural ingredients because they are perceived as safe and more effective than synthetic ingredients. Companies committed to attaining profitability must prioritize their products’ safety and effectiveness. This is because negative reactions and disappointment will adversely affect their reputation and market share. Thus, the need to understand this decision-making and buying process and provide products that meet the consumer’s expectations.

Customer journey map for skincare products

The customer journey maps for skin care products consist of the awareness, consideration, purchase, use, and advocacy stages. The map should establish an understanding for the companies to know the consumer’s decision-making process and buying behaviour. In this case, the customer journey map starts when the customer realizes the signs of aging, prompting them to search for more information about skincare products. In addition, the map will include critical touchpoints for evaluating alternatives when consumers compare and contrast different products depending on the ingredients they need as well as the price. Therefore, a customer journey map is an essential tool for companies as they identify areas that need improvement in the consumer journey and opportunities that would promote better engagement with the target consumer to provide seamless and satisfactory experiences.

Situational Factors Affecting Consumer Behaviour for Skincare Products

Situational factors are temporary influencing conditions that impact how consumers behave. These factors, including physical surroundings, social surroundings, purchase purpose, and time, can significantly impact consumers’ willingness to buy skincare products. First, the physical surrounding, such as the environment in which the target audience shop their skincare products, could affect their buying behavior. For example, if the target audience shops in a crowded and noisy store, it is more likely that they feel overwhelmed and rushed, making hasty decisions. On the contrary, when a consumer shops in a clean and well-organized store, a positive shopping experience is created. Consumers are encouraged to take their time to evaluate the different products available. On the other hand, social surroundings influence consumers’ buying behavior in consideration of the people around the consumer, including friends and family. If a salesperson in a store provides the consumer with helpful information regarding a product, then the social surrounding could positively influence their purchasing decision. On the contrary, if family members or friends make negative comments about a product, then the consumer’s decision to purchase a particular product will be affected.

Furthermore, time is another situational factor as consumers will interact and engage with the skincare industry at different levels of urgency. For instance, when a consumer needs a product urgently for an event, they will only consider prioritizing their convenient appearance to choose a familiar brand other than researching and evaluating all possible alternative products. At the same time, the purpose of purchase will affect the decision ability of a consumer. This is because different consumers will have different motives when purchasing skincare products, including self-care, addressing particular skin concerns, or maintaining a youthful appearance. Thus, depending on the purchase purpose, consumers will be more willing to spend more on high-end products offering more visible results. In contrast, others could opt for cheaper alternatives for regular use.

Consumer behaviour theories relevant to skincare products

Several consumer behavior theories are relevant to understanding the decision-making process for skin care products for aging women. The theory of reasoned action suggests that a consumer’s behavior is determined by their attitude towards a product and subjective norm. Attitude refers to the consumer’s evaluation of the product, and subjective norm refers to the influence of other people’s opinions on the consumer’s behavior. For skincare products for aging women, the attitude towards the product may be influenced by factors such as the perceived effectiveness of the product, the perceived risk associated with the product, and the perceived value. The subjective norm may be influenced by the opinions of friends, family members, and beauty influencers.

The hierarchy of effects model suggests that a sequence of cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages influences a consumer’s decision-making process. The cognitive stage involves becoming aware of the product and gathering information about it. The practical stage consists in forming an emotional response to the product. The behavioral stage involves purchasing and using the product. For skincare products for aging women, the cognitive stage may include researching and evaluating different products, the affective stage may involve forming an emotional connection to the product, and the behavioral stage may consist of purchasing and incorporating the product into a skincare routine.

The social learning theory suggests that a consumer’s behavior is influenced by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior. For skincare products for aging women, this may involve monitoring the behavior of friends, family members, and beauty influencers who use and recommend certain products. The self-perception theory suggests that a consumer’s self-perception and identity influence a consumer’s behavior. For skincare products for aging women, this may involve a desire to maintain a youthful appearance and feel confident in their skin. Consumers may be more likely to purchase products that align with their self-perception and identity.

Understanding these consumer behavior theories can help companies develop effective marketing strategies for skin care products for aging women. By targeting consumers’ attitudes, emotional responses, and social influences, companies can create a strong brand image and increase the likelihood of consumer purchases.

Marketing Research Methods for Collecting Consumer Behaviour Information for Skincare Products for Aging Women

Marketing research is crucial in understanding consumer behavior for skin care products for aging women. Several methods for collecting consumer behavior information include qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Qualitative research methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and observation. These methods are useful for gaining insight into consumer attitudes, motivations, and perceptions of skincare products. Focus groups involve bringing together a small group of aging women to discuss their experiences with skincare products. In-depth interviews involve one-on-one conversations with aging women to gain detailed insights into their behavior and attitudes. Observation involves watching aging women naturally to understand how they interact with skincare products.

Quantitative research methods involve large sample sizes and statistical analysis. These methods include surveys, experiments, and online analytics. Surveys involve asking aging women to complete a questionnaire about their skincare product usage and preferences. Experiments involve manipulating variables to see how they affect consumer behavior. To understand consumer behavior, online analytics analyzes data from website visits and social media interactions.

Another helpful method is secondary research, which involves analyzing existing data from sources such as industry reports, academic literature, and government statistics. Secondary research is useful for understanding trends and patterns in consumer behavior and the broader skincare industry.

To ensure the accuracy and reliability of marketing research, it is essential to carefully design research questions, choose appropriate research methods, and select representative samples. Maintaining ethical standards and ensuring that research participants provide informed consent is also important.

In conclusion, several methods for collecting information about consumer behavior for skin care products for aging women include qualitative and quantitative research methods, online analytics, and secondary research. Each method has its strengths and limitations, and the choice of method will depend on the research objectives and available resources. Careful planning and ethical considerations are crucial for ensuring the accuracy and reliability of marketing research.

Key Insights from Social Media Analysis for Skincare Products for Aging Women

Social media analysis is an effective way of understanding consumers’ opinions, preferences, and behavior in the skin care products market for aging women. The first key insights result from product reviews and ratings, as most consumers will share their experiences with skincare products on different social media platforms. For instance, this could include opinions and ratings of certain products. This information could be used to determine the popular products, know the reasons behind their popularity and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various products. In addition, consumers of skincare products have increasingly become conscious of the ingredients companies use to produce their products. As a result, consumers are sharing their opinions on social media, which can help identify the most needed ingredients, their benefits, and any associated risks and concerns through analysis. Thirdly, social media influencers and brand advocates are critical in promoting skincare products to aging women. As such social media analysis can help identify the most influential individuals in the market, understand their preferences and opinions and evaluate the effectiveness of influencers in marketing campaigns.

Consumers have often used social media as a platform where they share their experiences with customer service. This could include complaints and issues with skincare products, information that can be used to improve customer services and address issues affecting consumer satisfaction. Lastly, social media analysis can be used to identify the trends and changes in consumer behavior over time while at the same time providing insights into the aging women’s target market. Thus, companies can stay updated with the latest trends and adapt their marketing strategies accordingly. In such a way, social media analysis will provide valuable insights into consumers’ behavior and preferences for skincare products. Such insights will be helpful in product development, marketing strategies, and customer services to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Recommendations for Companies Selling Skincare Products

Based on the insights gathered from the analysis, companies in the skincare product industry should consider the following recommendations. First, improve their product formulation by using the insights gathered from customer feedback. This could include incorporating new natural ingredients or changing the existing ones to improve efficacy and minimize negative reactions. Second, companies in this industry should increase their social media presence to engage with consumers and build a strong brand image easily. For instance, companies could use these platforms to educate consumers about the benefits and risks of certain skincare products, share product information and respond to customer queries and feedback. Further, companies should personalize their marketing efforts by tailoring their messaging and promotional activities to different segments of the aging women market. For example, companies can create targeted marketing campaigns for women in different age groups or with different skin concerns. Companies should also prioritize customer services by providing effective support to the customer, including detailed product information, offering personalized recommendations to customers, and addressing issues that customers raise. Lastly, companies should provide product bundles or samples to allow customers to try multiple products cheaply. This can help consumers discover new products that work well for them and encourage them to make repeat purchases.


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