Compare and Contrast Martin Luther King, Jr. once said, “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter,” and staying silent is just what many civil rights activists, including Martin Luther King, Jr. avoided. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X are just two of the prominent leaders during the civil rights movement. Martin Luther King Jr. believed in nonviolent protesting, where Malcolm X believed in doing whatever it takes to accomplish a goal. Although these men both possess contrasting beliefs, together they sparked a social transition that would affect society for decades to come.
The biggest difference in the two leaders comes with their leadership tactics. Martin Luther King, Jr. believed heavily in nonviolence. To achieve equality with nonviolence, he used sit-ins, marches, and protests. He traveled from city to city to spread his message of nonviolence because he felt “compelled to carry the gospel of freedom” (MLK). King felt that the answer to equality was intelligence and high morals. As blacks furthered their education they would gain rights, equality, and respect from whites (“Martin Luther King – Biography” 1).
His nonviolent leadership tactics got many people across the country, and even the world interested in his beliefs. Although Malcolm X became more peaceful later on, his self-defense tactic was his original message. His motto, “By any means necessary! ” meant that if believed necessary, violence was acceptable. His beliefs acted as the core for a civil rights activist group known as the Black Panthers. As time went on Malcolm X became more peaceful, yet he still stated that “I no longer subscribe to sweeping indictments of any one race,” (Malcolm X 302). Both Martin Luther King, Jr. nd Malcolm X were very affective in the civil rights movement; they just held different beliefs in how to get equality. Along with having very different tactics, both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X lived through strikingly different conditions as children. Martin Luther King, Jr. had a nice childhood. Born and raised in Kentucky, Martin Luther King, Jr. attended a segregated all-blacks school and experienced a minimum of racism (“Martin Luther King – Biography” 1). His nonviolent childhood was the foundation in which he built his tranquil philosophy and beliefs.
Malcolm X, born and raised in Nebraska, was the only black student in his class. Being the only black, Malcolm X experienced many more racism experiences first hand. At a young age, his dad died. He suspected white supremacists were the cause of his father’s death which led to his bitter outlook on whites (“Malcolm X – Make It Plain” 1). The experiences Malcolm X had to overcome at such a young age act as one of the reasons why he believed in Black Supremacy. Malcolm X’s and Martin Luther King, Jr. ’s childhoods served as a strong foundation of their beliefs of how whites and blacks should interact with each other.
The purpose and audience of the Martin Luther King, Jr. letter differed from Malcolm’s which resulted in the difference of tone used. King’s purpose was to respectfully reply to a group of clergymen who criticized him for being “unwise and untimely” (MLK). Throughout the entire letter, King stays respectful when he could have easily lashed out. In particular, he noted their “genuine good will” and called their criticisms “sincerely set forth” (MLK). He continued using the same, peaceful tone throughout the entire letter. King never strayed away from his belief of peace and thus, handled the situation maturely.
Malcolm X’s intention of his essay was to serve as a warning to America. As a result, the overall tone of the article came across as a little harsh. While King ended his letter in a friendly manner, Malcolm X ended it with the bold statement, “If white America doesn’t think the Afro-American, especially the upcoming generation, is capable of adopting the guerrilla tactics now being used by oppressed people elsewhere on this earth, she is making a drastic mistake. She is underestimating the force that can do her the most harm” (Malcolm X 306). Due to the differences between Martin Luther King, Jr. nd Malcolm X’s purposes for writing the articles, each article took on a different tone. Throughout both writings, the two leaders used their tone to urge and imply that the longer blacks waited to get equality, the less likely it became. Martin Luther King, Jr. noticed that his dream was endangered. Time was running out and patience was running low. More and more people started to turn to violence as the answer. In his letter he wrote from Birmingham Jail, he calmly explains his impatience when he says, “There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair” (MLK).
While Martin Luther King, Jr. calmly explains this, Malcolm X discusses it rather vengefully when he stated, “The 22 million Afro- Americans are not yet filled with hate or a desire for revenge, as the propaganda of the segregationists would have people believe” (Malcolm X 303). In their letters, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X both agree that time was running out for blacks to gain equality, but approached it differently. Martin Luther King, Jr. did not describe it as harshly as Malcolm X did. Both of the leaders knew that patience was running low; they just addressed it in different ways.
During the civil rights movement, it was Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X that helped progress black equality. Even though their philosophies were quite contrasting, both of them were extremely influential leaders towards their beliefs. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X change the world and society to this day. The influence that Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X held during the civil rights movement is one of the greatest examples of leadership the world has ever seen, regardless of the contrasting styles they used to express their feelings and show their actions.
Works Cited King, Martin Luther, Jr. “The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. , Preaches Nonviolence from the Birmingham Jail (1963). ” Print. Litwack, Leon F. “Fight The Power! ” The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement. ” Journal Of Southern History 75. 1 (2009): 3-28. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2012. X, Malcolm. “Racism: The Cancer that is Destroying America. ” Egyptian Gazette. 25 August 1964. Print. “Malcolm X – Make It Plain. ” Pbs. org. Web. 3 May 2012. “Martin Luther King – Biography. ” Nobelprize. org. Web. 3 May 2012.
Annotated Bibliography For Child Attachment
Annotated Bibliography Elizabeth E. Thrall, C. W. (2009). screening measures for Children and adolescents with reactive attachment Disorder . Behavioral Development Bulletin , XVI, 4-10. This article evaluated two screening measures designed to aid in diagnosing reactive attachment disorder (RAD): the Relationships Problem Questionnaire (RPQ) and Reactive Attachment Disorder – Checklist (RAD-C). Fifty-three parents/guardians completed both rating scales.
Thirteen were adoptive/foster parents of children with a prior diagnosis of RAD, 12 were adoptive/foster parents whose children did not have a diagnosis of RAD, and 28 were the biological parents of children who did not have a mental health diagnosis (control) or a history of maltreatment. This article evaluated two screening measures designed to aid in diagnosing reactive attachment disorder. The RPQ was developed by Minnis to aid in the diagnosis of RAD. To date there has been limited information on the reliability or validity of the RPQ, and the research that has been conducted has been in Great Britain.
The initial study on the RPQ was with 121 foster families with 182 children in central Scotland. Test- retest reliability was assessed by having the caregivers complete the questionnaire twice with the second completion being done within three to five weeks after the first completion. Fu Mei Chen, H. S. (2011, April). The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children’s Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children’s Attachment Security . Journal of Child and Family Studies , 403-410. This study was intended to examine the relationship among children’s emotionality, parental meta- emotion, and parent–child attachment.
Mothers who tended to adopt an emotion- coaching philosophy were more likely to achieve secure parent–child attachments, as reported by their children. Children whose mothers tended to adopt an emotion-dis- missing philosophy reported lower levels of attachment security. There were no direct or indirect effects of children’s emotionality on their attachment security. Proper emotional interaction between parent and child is important to the formation of attachment. Children tend to rely on the attachment figure in times of stress.
High maternal sensitivity is especially important if infants in distress are to form adequate attachment security with the mother. The parents who were inclined toward emotion? listened to and talked with their children. This behavior is very important for forming secure attachment relationships. On the other hand, the parents who chose an emotion-dis- missing strategy wanted only to get rid of the anger; there was no supportive interaction. These parents not only lost the chance to know their children better, but the children did not feel accepted and supported.
The emotion-dismissing approach endangers children’s secure relationship with their parents. Gilani, S. N. (2011). Relationship of Parental and Peer Attachment Bonds with Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy among Adolescents and Post- Adolescents . Journal of Behavioural Sciences , xxi, 33-47. The relationship of parental and peer attachment bonds with career decision making self-efficacy among adolescents and post-adolescents was studied with a sample of 300 males and 250 females recruited from different government colleges and universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.
Significant positive relationship was found between parental as well as peer attachment bonds with career decision-making self-efficacy. When the relationship of parental and peer attachment bonds and career decision making self-efficacy was investigated separately for males and females, no difference was found. Study concluded that both parental and peer attachment bonds contribute in predicting career decision making self-efficacy, although parental influence seems stronger than the peer influence. Career development is another important aspect of adolescents’ life.
Selecting a career can be a daunting task for many youths who must balance their own interests with what is acceptable to their parents. Career decision-making is especially challenging for youth if their parents believe that only certain careers will lead their children to success. Parental attachment bonds are likely to have positive association ? with career decision-making self-efficacy of adolescents and post- ? adolescents. Jane S. Wimmer, M. E. (2009, July). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Attachment Therapy for Adopted Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder .
Child Adolescent Social Work Journal , 351-360. The purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of attachment therapy for adopted children diagnosed with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD). The children’s behavior in their adoptive families was characterized by lack of affection and an overall inability of the parents to effectively deal with their difficult children. Many of the parents expressed doubts about their ability to maintain the child as a part of their family if attachment therapy did not provide some improvement in their relationship with their child.
Attachment theory is based on the premise that infants need to form a strong bond with their mother or other primary care giver during their first year of life. A consistent, emotionally responsive caregiver is necessary for the development of emotional wellbeing and emotional attunement to others. Treatment modalities that have been empirically shown to be effective with families and children living with RAD have seldom been reported in the research literature.
The lead article in the September 2003 issue of Attachment & Human Development stated that there are no ‘‘established clinical guidelines for treatment or management’’ of disorders of attachment in spite of their inclusion in the DSM. The Georgia Office of Adoptions developed the Attachment Therapy for Adoptive Children with Special Needs program in response to the appeal from adoptive parents in the state for services that would help prevent them from returning their children to the foster care system. Kaye Colmer, L. R. (2011). Attachment Theory and Primary Caregiving .
Australasian Journal of Early Childhood , XXXVI (4), 16-20. Attachment theory was developed by John Bowlby in 1969 and provided a way to understand the nature of the mother/infant relationship. The quality of the attachment relationship forms the basis for emotional development. According to Bowlby, the foundations of emotional security are laid down in infancy (Harrison, 2003). In the early years this theory had some critics, as it was perceived as meaning that mothers were solely responsible for their infants, whom flew in the face of the feminist movement focused on emancipation of women.
The combination of responsive, warm and positive interactions, as well as continuity and consistency in the caregiving process, facilitates the development of secure attachment relationships. The focus in a primary caregiving system is on child-centered routines. Educators are able to ensure the routines in their primary care group are managed in a way that meets the needs of each individual child. The program is focused on the development of consistent, predictable relationships, which allow for primary caregivers and children to spend time together involved in experiences relevant to individual exploration and development.
A child whose primary caregiver is able to spend a significant amount of time with them throughout the day is better able to settle into the early childhood setting. Kerns, L. E. (2010, July). Mother–Child Attachment Patterns and Different Types of Anxiety Symptoms: Is There Specificity of Relations? . Child Psychiatry Hum Development , 663-674. The purpose of this study was to test Manassis’ proposal child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations.
Using a story stem interview to assess attachment and children’s reports of anxiety symptoms, we found some support for these hypotheses in a sample of 10–12 years olds. Anxiety disorders and high levels of anxiety symptoms are associated with negative out- comes such as avoidance of developmentally appropriate activities and difficulties in social and academic settings. Thus, it is important to identify etiological factors that may account for the development of anxiety. Etiological models of anxiety have identified parent–child attachment and behavioral inhibition as possible risk factors for the development of anxiety symptoms.
Attachment is an emotional, long-lasting bond that a child forms with a caregiver who is not interchangeable with another person. Attachment relationships vary based on the quality of care that a child receives, and are associated with distinct patterns of child behaviors and cognitions. Securely attached children perceive their caregivers as sensitive and available, and use them as a secure base from which to explore the environment and as a ‘‘safe haven’’ to return to in times of distress. Philip A. Cowan, C. P. (2009).
Adult attachment, couple attachment, and children’s adaptation to school: an integrated attachment template and family risk model . Attachment & Human Development , xi (1), 29-46. Outside the attachment tradition, family risk models assume that many family factors affect children’s adaptation, chief among them being couple relationship quality. Most attachment theorists assume that parenting style is the central mechanism linking the quality of parents’ attachment with their parents and adaptation in their children.
The hypothesis that parents’ behavior provides a link between adult attachment and child attachment was generated by observations that infants characterized as securely attached tend to have mothers who are responsively attuned to their needs. The adequacy of the template explanation of how adult attachment affects children’s development is limited in part by the fact that investigators who are partial to attachment theory generally fail to examine plausible alternative sources of variation in children’s adaptation outside mother–child relationships.
For example, most studies focus only on mothers even though it is clear that children have important attachment relationships with their fathers that are, at most, modestly concordant with their attachment to their mothers. Poehlmann, R. J. (2010). Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration . Attachment & Human Development , xii (4), 395-415. Rebecca Shlafer and Julie Poehlmann studied several different families, but focused on 57 specific families that were participating in the mentoring program where the children’s parents were incarcerated.
In this study they have documented children’s feelings about their relationships with their caregivers and their incarcerated parents, assessed caregivers perceptions about the children, and examine the associations among the relationships and perceptions. In addition, they assessed children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. About 63% of children were classified as having insecure relationships with nonmaternal caregivers with incarcerated mothers.
Compared to children who had experienced multiple caregivers since their mother’s incarceration, children who had been consistently cared for by one individual were more likely to be classified as secure. Symons, S. E. (2009, November). Representations of Attachment Relationships, the Self, and Significant Others in Middle Childhood . J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry , 316-321. This research examines the interrelations of attachment security, feelings towards the self, and attributions about others in middle childhood.
Five-to nine-year-old children completed the Separation Anxiety Test, which provided a measure of attachment security and a puppet interview was used to assess feelings towards the self. A subset of 89 participants received vignettes of social situations with ambiguous outcomes to assess the emotional valence of children’s attributions. Secure children saw themselves more positively than insecure children. Children who were secure made more positive attributions about the intentions of others, regardless of whether the protagonist was a peer, parent, or teacher.
Security of attachment with caregivers in the pre- school period has been found to relate to relationships with peers and teachers. This research examines feelings towards the self and attributions of the behavior of others in middle childhood; a crucial period of transition in attachment security. The first goal of this research is to relate attachment representations to feelings about the self. Children were asked to respond to structured questions about a series of pictures of parent-child separations from the Separation Anxiety Test, and feelings about the self were assessed using a puppet interview.
It was predicted that children’s security and positive self-feelings would be significantly related. Timmer, A. J. (2012). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent- Child Relationships . Psychosocial Intervention , XXI (2), 145-156. Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance.
Disruptive child behavior problems -including aggression, oppositional behaviors, and noncompliance- are the most common problems for which parents seek professional intervention. Throughout the history of delivery of child mental health services, ‘child-only’ approaches (e. g. , play therapy, individual therapy) have been the primary interventions to reduce these types of behavioral problems. However, during the last few decades there has been a strong movement toward treating these types of disruptive child behavior problems through interventions that incorporate parents or are focused on enhancing parenting skills.
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a 14- to 20-week, manualized intervention founded on social learning and attachment theories. PCIT is designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with dismptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. PCIT is conducted in two phases. The first phase focuses on enhancing the parent-child relationship (Child-Directed Interaction; CDI), and the second on improving child compliance (Parent-Directed Interaction; PDI). Both phases of treatment begin with an hour of didactic training, followed by sessions in which the therapist coaches the parent during play with the child.
From an observation room behind a two-way mirror, via a ‘bug-in-the-ear’ receiver that the parent wears, the therapist provides the parent with feedback on their use of the skills. Parents are taught and practice specific skills of communication and behavior management with their children. In addition to practicing these skills during clinic sessions, parents are asked to practice with their children at home for 5 minutes every day. Annotated Bibliography UGS: Modern Family Controversial Paper Alecia Pace UT EID:ap33553
Level 2 Reflective Account – Health And Safety
As a Health care worker I work in accordance with the Care Standard Act 2000, Codes of Practice and conduct, with the Legal and Organisational requirements, and procedures. Before I start work, I ensure that the environment is spacious to avoid any accidents. By ensuring that the floor is dry and clear of any obstruction or material that could result to risk of an accident to both the service user and member of staff in line with Health and Safety first Aids Regulations 1987.
I carry out checks on the residential areas and on the surroundings, fire checks and parked the wheelchairs and Zimmer frames in their appropriate places to avoid any accidents. I check to see that all doors and windows were locked and secured and areas are hazard free. It’s part of my responsibility to ensure, promote secure, healthy and safety working environment for both the service-users as well as the staff working within the care home. Taking standard precautions to avoid and prevent infection and cross-infection.
I start by first washing my hands before and after undertaking any task that involves coming in contact with the service users, I do on the spot risk assessment, wore protective clothing like the disposable aprons and gloves, ensure that these protective clothes are removed and replaced with clean ones after interacting with each service user. Correct disposal of protective clothes in accordance with the Organisational and legislative policies and procedures, COSHH 2002(Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulation, POVA(Protection of Vulnerable Adult Regulation, Health and Safety at work act.
I always take permission from my manager to access the care plan of the service users and I am able to communicate with each individual, which helps to facilitate and evaluate individuals preferred needs, choice and support. On one of my early shifts duties, as I started my shift, I noticed the presence of an unfamiliar person within the premises, who appeared to be finding it difficult to locate where she was going. I politely approached the stranger and asked her if I can be of any assistance to her?. She said that she is on a visit to see her grandmother who was a new resident to the home.
I was aware of rules and regulations and the Organisational and legal requirements in management of Health and Safety Regulations Act 1999, Human Right Act 1998, Data Protection Act 1998, and POVA (Protection of Vulnerable Adult Regulation 2004) that dealt with confidentiality. I kindly escorted her to the office reception, registered her and asked her to sign in the visitors log book which indicates the date, time, and name of visitor, whom she wanted to visit. However, I quickly checked with my duty manager before disclosing any information about the service user.
My first service-user of the day was Ms A, she is 65 years old. She suffers from depression and also panics attack, clinically obsess. I greeted her with a warm smile, introducing myself as her carer for the day. She responded back with a welcoming smile, I started building warm and friendly and positive communication with her. Already gone through her care plan, I was assessing her and asking her preferred support. She said that she preferred some freedom and privacy in the aspect of using the toilet without any assistance. I respected her views as these were set out on her care plan.
I agreed and respected her view under the Human Right Act 1998. I was assisted by my colleague and we followed the Manual and Handling Procedures, which states the process of supporting a service user to moving or position, with the aim of minimising the risk of injuries or pain to the service user and also to the service provider. I asked Ms A, to slide on the sliding sheet from her bed to the wheelchair with the support from my colleague and my self. But I was also conscious not to put undue pressure on her heart. She was fine and comfortable to do so.