Comparison And Contrast Between Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory And Self-Determination Theory Sample College Essay

The Self-Determination Theory and Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory are two well-known psychological theories used to examine how people behave in various situations. These two theories have diverse viewpoints and concentrate on various facets of the human experience, but they also have some things in common. Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and the Self-Determination Theory are closely compared and contrasted in this article.

A social psychological theory called Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory explains how people who belong to minority groups, such as sexual minorities, endure stress due to external and internal pressures. Internal stresses include hiding one’s identity and feeling ashamed, while external stressors include encounters with stigma and prejudice. According to the hypothesis, this stress may result in negative mental health consequences like sadness and anxiety, and the social context may worsen these negative results. The theory contends that people may create coping methods to lessen the negative impacts of minority stress, including seeking social support and forging a sense of community.

On the other hand, Self-Determination Theory is a motivation theory focusing on the inherent elements influencing human action. According to the principle, people have three fundamental psychological needs: relatedness, competence, and autonomy. While competence and relatedness pertain to the demand for mastery and accomplishment, autonomy and relatedness refer to the need for control and self-direction. According to the hypothesis, when these requirements are satisfied, people feel good within and are more motivated to take action, which produces good results.

The importance of social ties and relationships is one area where Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and Self-Determination Theory appear similar. According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, social support and a sense of belonging can lessen the negative impacts of minority stress. At the same time, the Self-Determination Theory contends that human conduct is motivated by a basic psychological urge for relatedness. Both theories recognize the value of personal autonomy and control. However, Self-Determination Theory emphasizes this idea more.

One of their main differences is the emphasis on external vs. internal elements in these two theories. According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, stigma, and discrimination are the main causes of stress and poor mental health outcomes. On the other hand, Self-Determination Theory emphasizes internal elements, such as psychological needs, as the influences on behavior and well-being. Another distinction is that whereas Self-Determination Theory applies to all people regardless of their social identity, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory concentrates on marginalized groups.

The Self-Determination Theory and Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory are independent psychological theories with various focuses and viewpoints on human behavior. Despite some commonalities, they differ in their emphasis on external versus internal causes and their application to certain groups. Both ideas can be used in different settings and are useful for understanding human behavior.

Essay Argument

Several theoretical frameworks can be used to tackle the study question, “Does social media use, affective engagement, behavioral engagement, and cognitive engagement predict gay men’s self-esteem?” However, one of the best hypotheses that fit this study’s question is Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory. First off, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory focuses primarily on the pressures that members of disadvantaged groups, such as those who identify as gay or homosexual, suffer. This approach emphasizes the distinct stresses and societal elements, such as prejudice, discrimination, and social exclusion, that impact the mental health of people from minority groups. Given that it focuses exclusively on the experiences of gay men and their self-esteem, the theory is most suited to assess the study topic in this situation.

Second, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory stresses how social and environmental factors influence how people from minority groups experience their mental health. This concept contends that people’s social environments significantly impact how they experience their mental health. Use of social media, emotional engagement, behavioral engagement, and cognitive engagement are a few examples of social and environmental aspects that can affect someone’s sense of self. Therefore, this theory offers a comprehensive framework for comprehending how these elements affect homosexual men’s self-esteem.

Finally, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory highlights the significance of context in comprehending the consequences of minority group members’ mental health. This theory acknowledges that social and cultural factors impact how people from minority groups see the world. Given that the social and cultural background of homosexual men’s experiences influences those experiences, this is especially pertinent to the research issue. Thus, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory offers a complex and contextualized view of the elements affecting gay men’s self-esteem.

Social Media Prediction of Gay’s men Self-esteem Using Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory

For many people, especially homosexual men, using social media has become essential to daily life. Social media use may have both beneficial and detrimental consequences on self-esteem, according to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and research on homosexual men’s self-esteem. Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory states that homosexual men may feel stress due to prejudice, stigma, and other outside stresses associated with their sexual orientation. Self-esteem may suffer as a result of these pressures. The hypothesis does, however, also imply that those who can manage these stressors and retain positive mental health outcomes, including self-esteem, may be better able to tolerate the adverse impacts of these stressors.

There are conflicting findings from studies on homosexual men’s use of social media and self-esteem. Social media has been linked to better levels of self-esteem in some studies (Bazarova et al., 2015; Chou & Edge, 2012). However, other studies have indicated the opposite (Kircaburun & Griffiths, 2018). These variances in usage patterns, social media platforms, and individual traits could cause these discrepancies. According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, gay men’s use of social media may predict self-esteem through internal and external pressures. Social media can reinforce or combat external pressures associated with sexual orientation, such as stigma and prejudice. For instance, social networking sites can offer a venue for homosexual males to interact with and get support from other LGBTQ+ people, which can lessen loneliness and boost self-esteem. In addition, using social media can expose users to favorable portrayals of homosexuality, which can counteract cultural prejudices against it and boost self-esteem.

However, internal pressures like self-objectification and social comparison can also be made worse by social media. It thus lowers one’s self-esteem. People constantly compare themselves to others on social media. It causes poor self-esteem and feelings of inadequacy. Self-objectification occurs when someone places a greater value on their outward appearance. It happens when individuals exhibit themselves in a way that is more focused on their outward characteristics and ideas than on trying to obtain other people’s acceptance. It could also lower one’s self-esteem.

Based on Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and the available research, it is likely that social media use can predict homosexual men’s self-esteem. However, the direction and intensity of the link may depend on several factors, such as the particular social media platform and use. A platform for support, community development, and positive representation of homosexuality may be found on social media, which can lead to increased self-esteem. However, it can also contribute to harmful internal pressures that might lower self-esteem, like self-objectification and social comparison.

In light of Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, it can be concluded that homosexual men’s social media use can predict their self-worth. Social media use and self-esteem can have a complicated relationship depending on the type of use, particularly social media platforms. Future research should explore the relationship between homosexual men’s use of social media and their feeling of self-worth to develop effective treatments that can enhance mental health results.

Affective Engagement Prediction of Gay’s men Self-esteem Using Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory

The degree to which a person is emotionally committed in a given activity, circumstance, or relationship is called affective involvement. Affective engagement may be defined as the degree to which gay men feel emotionally connected and invested in their relationships and communities, despite experiencing internal and external stressors related to their sexual orientation in Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and self-esteem among gay men.

Minority group members are said to endure stress as a result of a mix of internal and external pressures, according to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory. Some of them include hiding their identity and experiencing shame. Stress can result in negative mental health effects like low self-esteem. However, the idea also implies that those who establish supportive networks and relationships can handle these pressures. They can also preserve favorable mental health outcomes like self-esteem.

Effective participation has been linked in studies to good mental health outcomes like self-esteem. Wang et al. (2020) say people who are emotionally committed to their relationships and communities tend to have greater self-esteem. Little research, however, has specifically looked at how homosexual men’s self-esteem is predicted by emotional involvement using Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory. Huebner et al. (2002) did one study examining the connection between affective engagement and self-esteem among gay men. They discovered that gay men’s self-esteem was higher in those who expressed greater affective engagement with their love relationships. The authors hypothesize that these findings may result from romantic partnerships’ supporting and validating qualities, which may act as a protective barrier against the damaging effects of minority stress on self-esteem.

According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and the research that has been done, it is likely that affective engagement among gay men predicts self-esteem. Particularly, gay men who are emotionally committed in their relationships and communities may be better able to handle the pressures connected to their sexual orientation on the inside and the outside, which will result in higher levels of self-esteem. A big buffer against the damaging effects of minority stress on self-esteem may also come from romantic relationships.

In general, Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory suggests that affective engagement among gay men may predict self-esteem. Gay men feeling deeply connected to their relationships and communities may be equipped to face the stresses of being gay. It aids in increasing their levels of self-esteem. It is important to explore better the relationship between affective involvement and self-esteem among gay males and other marginalized groups. It will develop effective therapies that can enhance mental health outcomes.

Behavioral Engagement Prediction of Gay’s men Self-esteem Using Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory

The level of an individual’s behavioral engagement describes how actively they engage in the relationships and activities that are significant to them. Behavioral engagement may be used to describe how actively gay men behave and engage in activities that are consistent with their values and identities, despite experiencing both internal and external stressors related to their sexual orientation; in Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and self-esteem among gay men.

According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, individuals of minority groups experience stress due to internal and external challenges, including hiding their identities and dealing with humiliation. Stress can have detrimental psychological effects, including low self-esteem. The idea contends that those who can act in ways consistent with their identities and beliefs may better handle these stressors. According to the theory, creating a supportive network of people and communities can favor mental health, like self-esteem. As per research, engaging in activities is linked to benefits for mental health, including self-esteem. According to studies, people with greater self-esteem actively engage in activities and actions compatible with their beliefs and identities (Hadden et al., 2018; Sheldon & Hoon, 2007). Little research has, however, specifically looked at how the behavioral implications of Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory affect homosexual men’s self-esteem.

The relationship between behavioral participation and homosexual men’s self-esteem was studied by Williamson et al. (2017) in one study. They discovered that gay men with greater levels of self-worth engaged in activities that were important to them. They include community service or membership in LGBTQ groups. These findings can be linked to the support and validation one receives from engaging in activities congruent with their beliefs and identities. This sense of support and validation can function as a barrier to prevent the negative impacts of minority stress on self-esteem.

Gay men’s behavioral involvement is likely to predict self-esteem, according to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and the data that are accessible. Suppose they actively participate in behaviors and activities compatible with their beliefs and identities. In that case, gay men may be better equipped to handle the internal and external pressures associated with their sexual orientation. A higher sense of self-worth may result from this. To prevent the damaging impacts of minority stress on self-esteem, involvement in LGBTQ groups and community events may be crucial.

According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, behavioral involvement among gay men may predict self-esteem. Gay men with greater levels of self-esteem may be better able to handle the pressures associated with their sexual orientation if they actively engage in behaviors and activities consistent with their beliefs and identities. Future research should continue investigating the connection between behavioral engagement and self-esteem among homosexual men and other stigmatized groups. It will create efficient interventions supporting favorable mental health outcomes,

Cognitive Engagement Prediction of Gay’s men Self-esteem Using Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory

Cognitive engagement is the level of a person’s mental commitment to the relationships and activities important to them. Cognitive engagement may refer to the degree to which homosexual men actively process, challenge, and reject negative thoughts and beliefs linked to their sexual orientation in favor of adopting positive and affirming self-concepts, as it relates to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and self-esteem among gay men.

According to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory, people who belong to minority groups endure stress. It is because of internal and external pressures. They include masking their identity and experiencing shame. Stress can occasionally result in poor mental health effects, such as low self-esteem. The theory also contends that those who challenge negative beliefs can better manage stress and form positive self-concepts. They can also retain beneficial mental health outcomes, including self-esteem.

Cognitive engagement has been linked in studies to good mental health outcomes, including self-esteem. According to studies (Kashdan & Steger, 2007, Wood & Saltzberg, 1990), those who talk to themselves positively and question their negative beliefs have greater self-esteem. However, little research has particularly examined how Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory predicts cognitive engagement for self-esteem among gay men.

In one study, Pachankis et al. (2015) investigated the connection between cognitive involvement and self-esteem among gay men. They discovered that lower internalized homophobia mediated this association, with greater self-esteem levels reported by gay men with a positive and affirming self-concept. Internalized homophobia refers to unfavorable attitudes and feelings that gay men may develop due to prejudice and discrimination towards homosexuality. The authors contend that adopting positive self-concepts, particularly cognitive engagement, may act as a protective barrier against the damaging effects of internalized homophobia on self-esteem.

Cognitive engagement among gay men is probably a predictor of self-esteem, according to Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory and the existing studies. Gay men may be better able to manage internal and external stressors related to their sexual orientation. They can become more confident by actively processing and challenging negative thoughts and beliefs about their sexual orientation. Positive and affirming self-concepts can also help them manage stressors and build confidence.

Cognitive engagement may generally predict homosexual men’s self-esteem within the framework of Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory. Gay men who actively confront their sexual orientation-related negative attitudes and beliefs and replace them with positive and affirming self-concepts may be better able to handle the stressors connected to their sexual orientation, likely leading to greater self-esteem. Future studies should examine how cognitive engagement and self-esteem relate to homosexual males and other stigmatized groups. They will help to create efficient interventions supporting favorable mental health outcomes.


The Self-Determination Theory and Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory are independent psychological theories with various focuses and viewpoints on human behavior. While they have certain commonalities, they diverge in their application to particular groups and emphasize external vs. internal causes. Both theories are valuable resources for comprehending human behavior and can be used in various situations. Self-Determination Theory is an appropriate theoretical framework for comprehending the elements that motivate individuals, including those who belong to marginalized groups like gay men, and for understanding the research question of whether social media use, affective engagement, behavioral engagement, and cognitive engagement predict gay men’s self-esteem.

However, social media use, affective engagement, behavioral engagement, and cognitive engagement may all be indicators of homosexual men’s self-esteem in the context of Meyer’s Minority Stress Theory. Gay men’s levels of self-esteem can be influenced by a variety of factors, including the type of social media use, the degree of emotional investment in relationships and communities, active participation in behaviors consistent with values and identities, and active processing and challenging of negative thoughts and beliefs about sexual orientation. To provide efficient therapies that support homosexual men’s and other oppressed groups’ improved mental health, future research must continue examining these associations.


Ryan, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2019). Toward a social psychology of authenticity: Exploring within-person variation in autonomy, congruence, and genuineness using self-determination theory. Review of General Psychology23(1), 99-112.

Manuoğlu, E. (2020). Differences between trolling and cyberbullying and examination of trolling from self-determination theory perspective.

Jaspal, R. (2022). Social psychological aspects of gay identity development. Current Opinion in Psychology, 101469.

Ashraf, S., Jamil, F., & Mairaj, S. (2022). Journal of ISOSS 2022 Vol. 8 (3), 125-138 RELIGIOSITY PREDICTS COLLECTIVE SELF ESTEEM, MINORITY STRESS & RESILIENCE AMONG TRANSGENDER OF LAHORE, PAKISTAN. Journal of ISOSS8(3), 125-138.

Creating A Care Plan Essay Sample For College

Diabetes is a severe condition that, if not treated properly, can cause fatigue, hunger, and encounters with other severe complications. Patients can practice individualized care for their wellness and health by developing a plan of care that supports improved diabetes disease control. A diabetic care plan may include information on treatment objectives, prescription dosages, blood sugar monitoring, and insulin administration. The author will concentrate on type 2 diabetes mellitus and explain why it was chosen as the topic of discussion. Furthermore, the author will clarify the Healthy People 2030 aim concerning type 2 diabetes and give a thorough care plan. An overview of the first four weeks of care and developing a care plan and approaches for involving medical professionals and relatives in the care process will be included.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus was chosen as a target because of its enormous impact on death rates in the United States. The Healthy People 2030 goals emphasize the need for individual care in managing the illness, especially for those aged five and up (Wetmore et al., 2017). Regular monitoring, physical activity, smoking cessation, medication adherence, and dietary restrictions are all necessary for effective Management. It is critical to understand the diabetic population’s susceptibility and to give specific care.

Healthy People 2030

Healthy People 2030 aspires to lower the number of fatalities brought on by diabetes and support individualized glycemic control for people with diabetes. Additionally, it emphasizes lowering the number of undetected cases and raising the proportion of daily users of self-blood glucose monitoring. In addition, a comprehensive strategy is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of diabetes therapy (Santana et al., 2021). As a result, nurses take a comprehensive approach to patient-centered care, which is significant. Additionally, having a comprehensive plan of care improves patient therapy. Nurses can also provide patient-centered care, which is essential in providing adequate treatment, patient recovery, and healing. Furthermore, having a holistic approach to treatment necessitates nurses coordinating with the patient’s family and friends. As previously stated, people use the autonomy principle to judge diagnosis confirmation and patient care—nonetheless, coping strategies and considering the patients’ worries result in an effective care plan.

Care Plan

Diabetic patient is thrilled to live a healthy life when they learn how to manage their ailment and receive quality care. For instance, BT, who was told she had diabetes mellitus, has struggled to control and manage her illness. But as part of her therapy, she must undergo routine eye exams to identify any vision issues brought on by her diabetes. She also needs much help from her family, especially regarding eating and ensuring a healthy food plan supporting her care (Almutairi et al., 2020). She must also accept the diagnosis as the first stage of healing and recovery, which will help her start therapy before the problem worsens. Finally, BT needs specific skills, particularly the ability to intervene emotionally, for her medical condition management to be successful.

Week 1 – 4 Summary

In week one, the problem of healthy people with convergent goals in 2030 was recognized. I choose diabetes mellitus as it is a chronic illness linked to high blood sugar levels. The Healthy People 2030 campaign seeks to lower the annual number of people receiving a type 2 diabetes diagnosis (Guzman-Martinez et al., 2020). According to studies, 12.5% of persons with Hispanic heritage report having diabetes, making them more susceptible to developing the disease. According to Lee et al. (2020), there are roughly 30 million diabetics in the US. If the condition is not managed, the patient is at risk of developing concurrent conditions such as bladder cancer, overweight and obesity, blindness, breathing problems, foot amputation, and CVD. Diabetes type 2 Mellitus has also harmed the country’s health because it is one of the conditions leading to an increase in hospital admissions and disability, which has led to an increase in healthcare spending of nearly $237 billion (Lee et al., 2021). Finally, a questionnaire was developed to improve care quality.

Responses were written in week two following the questionnaire created in week 1. BT needs family assistance to change her diet, according to the feedback, as she has said that she eats predominantly foods that are very heavy in fat. She hasn’t been exercising consistently, so her condition is worsening. Additionally, contrary to expectations, she has yet to routinely monitor her blood glucose levels, raising concerns about her health. She added that listening to music has helped her deal with her stress because she is the family provider, and her stress levels have increased. Therefore, this answer should be the main focus of her care strategy.

The information interpretation for the third week was acquired in week two. According to Almutairi et al. (2020), BT support concerns were listed from most important to least important, starting with eye exams, foot exams to check for diabetes comorbidities, physical activity to lower cholesterol, refraining from eating foods high in calories, and the need for a counselor with expertise in advising on the importance of drug prescription adherence. It highlighted how nurses could act as advocates for patients and help diagnoses be accepted to support patient welfare. In addition to encouraging patients to live positively even after a diabetes diagnosis, nurse advocacy helps examine the compound health setup.

Week 4’s focus was on readily accessible resources for diabetic patients. These resources help patients get in touch with doctors and other diabetic patients. Some examples of these resources are the DMC, American Diabetes Association, and Phoebe Putney Memorial (Buse et al., 2020). These materials help diabetic patients learn about diet, healthy lifestyle choices, and diabetes care. Although there is no cost to join these platforms, there are some resources where membership fees of a modest amount are necessary.

Nursing Diagnoses

One of the diagnoses is improper blood sugar level monitoring. As suggested, BT does not follow a healthy diet because she enjoys foods high in carotenoids. Patients with diabetes are advised to limit their intake of junk food since it replaces nutrients that the body would otherwise consume. She doesn’t exercise, which is a problem that causes fat and the condition to get worse.

Data Evaluation


According to the interview, BT does not maintain a healthy diet as advised. This is because BT enjoys fast food despite the adverse effects and knowledge of doing so. Therefore, she must be aware of her diet and have an eating schedule to manage her weight and general wellness.


BT has been battling her ailment for a while, but she can still not control it. She has been unknowingly experiencing high and low blood glucose levels because she hardly checks her blood sugar levels. She is not proficient enough in understanding the relevance of the s blood sugar tracking.

Interview Results

BT takes metformin since she has type 2 diabetes mellitus, the interview’s primary focus. A while back, she was hospitalized because of low blood glucose levels. She was also diagnosed with renal diabetes disorder and diabetes problems (Hemmingsen, 2021). Her primary challenges include managing her disorder, adjusting her nutrition, engaging in the advised exercise regimen, getting regular blood glucose readings, and exercising under control. She is distressed about her state.

Desired Results

The suitable diabetic diet’s relevance needs to be clarified for BT. Using a glucometer at least four times daily, her nurse should evaluate how BT monitors her blood sugar levels and offer advice on how often she should do so. She must also work out regularly and receive a dietician’s diet plan.

Actions and Interventions

Managing blood glucose levels through physical activity and a healthy diet is the first step. Additionally, BT needs to make an appointment with a dietitian to develop a better eating plan for diabetics that will help maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Vegetables are going to be a big part of the menu. Additionally, Hemmingsen 20221 notes that she needs much information regarding how frequently she must check the predominant blood glucose levels. To assist BT in improving her disease, her family must also be trained to use a glucometer and analyze the readings. Additionally, BT mandates that participants learn the indicators of low and high blood sugar levels and how to perform interventions in such situations. Last but not least, as the condition can run in families and to assess the family’s health.

Patient Outcomes Assessment

Before the examination can start, whether the patient’s blood glucose levels are abnormal or standard must be established, and the patient’s medication, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels must also be evaluated. If the patient’s weight drops, the caregiver may also start treatment. The patient’s outcomes are evaluated based on whether their blood glucose levels fall within the normal range (Pirbaglou et al., 2018). Finally, the focus of the evaluation can also be on the patient’s compliance with the suggested diet and whether BT is having any difficulties transitioning to the proper diet.

Caregiver Strategies of Care Plan

Delivering care assistance to patients with chronic illnesses is one of the plans. The caregiver must fully understand the patient’s position and condition to assist the patient in developing individualized care plans and managing her medical condition. For instance, healthcare professionals must offer patients individualized attention to encourage them to adopt a healthy diet (Pirbaglou et al., 2018). In BT’s case, she and the caregiver must provide care and hunt up additional diabetic information.


One of the illnesses that impair people’s lives in the US is diabetes. Therefore, controlling the condition requires a variety of therapy modalities. The patient may take the initiative to improve her well-being through exercise, a balanced diet, and blood sugar level checks. The Healthy People 2030 aims to lessen the burden that diabetes places on its sufferers. The patient must also know the coping mechanisms necessary for managing their diabetes.


Almutairi, N., Hosseinzadeh, H., & Gopaldasani, V. (2020). The effectiveness of patient activation intervention on type 2 diabetes mellitus glycemic control and self-management behaviors: A systematic review of RCTs. Primary Care Diabetes14(1), 12–20.

Buse, J. B., Wexler, D. J., Tsapas, A., Rossing, P., Mingrone, G., Mathieu, C., D’Alessio, D. A., & Davies, M. J. (2020). Correction to: 2019 update to Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia63(8), 1667.

Guzman-Martinez, A. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, O., Ramos-Melendez, E. O., Guerrios-Rivera, L., & Rodriguez-Ortiz, P. (2020). Morbidity and mortality of Hispanic trauma patients with diabetes mellitus. European Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery46(4), 887–893.

Hemmingsen, B. (2021). Diet, physical activity, or both for preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews12.

Lee, K.-C., Chung, K.-C., Chen, H.-H., Cheng, K.-C., Wu, K.-L., Song, L.-C., & Hu, W.-H. (2020). The Impact of Comorbid Diabetes on Short-Term Postoperative Outcomes in Stage I/II Colon Cancer Patients Undergoing Open Colectomy. BioMed Research International, 1–11.

Pirbaglou, M., Motamed, M., Pludwinski, S., Katz, J., Ritvo, P., & Walker, K. (2018). Personal Health Coaching as a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Self-Management Strategy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. American Journal of Health Promotion32(7), 1613–1626.

Santana, S., Brach, C., Harris, L., Ochiai, E., Blakey, C., Bevington, F., Kleinman, D., & Pronk, N. (2021). Updating health literacy for healthy people 2030: Defining its importance for a new decade in public health. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice27(Supplement 6), S258-S264.

Wetmore, J. B., Liu, J., Li, S., Hu, Y., Peng, Y., Gilbertson, D. T., & Collins, A. J. (2017). The Healthy People 2020 Objectives for Kidney Disease: How Far Have We Come, and Where Do We Need to Go? Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN12(1), 200–209.

Evaluation Of A Quality Improvement Initiative In A Hospice Care Setting Sample Paper


Effective healthcare delivery requires a continuous process of quality improvement. Nurses play a critical role in providing high-quality, efficient healthcare. They must possess the necessary skills to review and evaluate performance reports and effectively communicate outcome measures related to quality initiatives. Patient safety and positive institutional healthcare outcomes require collaboration among nursing staff members to ensure the integration of their perspectives in all quality care initiatives.

This assessment will evaluate an existing quality improvement (QI) initiative related to a specific disease, condition, or public health issue of personal or professional interest. The report aims to determine if the QI initiative effectively improves patient safety, quality of care, cost and efficiency goals, and other desired metrics. The target audience for this report is nurses and other health professionals with specializations or interests in the chosen condition, disease, or public health issue.

Analyzing the QI initiative, we will identify the reasons behind its implementation, evaluate problems that arose during the Initiative or issues that were not addressed, and assess its success through recognized benchmarks and outcome measures required to meet national, state, or accreditation requirements. Finally, we will recommend additional indicators and protocols to improve and expand the outcomes of the current quality initiative. This report will adhere to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards and present supporting evidence in an appropriate tone and style.

Prompt for Implementation

The prompt for implementation refers to the reasons or factors that led to developing and implementing the Quality Improvement (QI) initiative in a healthcare setting. These prompts may be related to a public health issue, specific condition, or disease that needs improvement, or they may be caused by external elements such as accreditation requirements, state or national. Acknowledging the prompt for implementation crucial since it aids in identifying the objectives and goals of the QI initiative and the specific concerns it aims to address. It also offers insight into the stakeholders, resources, and possible obstacles that may impact the success of the QI initiative. Healthcare professionals can better understand the context and rationale behind the QI initiative by analyzing the prompt for implementation and using this information to determine its effectiveness.

Problems Addressed

The Initiative addressed various challenges, including the inadequate training and education of staff, the high prevalence of pressure ulcers in patients in the hospital care setting, the need for more standardization in pressure ulcer treatment and prevention practices, and the limited use of evidence-based interventions. Furthermore, important issues were identified as inadequate communication and documentation related to pressure ulcer prevention, assessment, and treatment.

The Initiative aimed at improving patient outcomes by standardizing pressure ulcer treatment and prevention practices across the hospice care setting, offering training and education to staff, and encouraging the employment of evidence-based interventions. The Initiative also aimed at improving communication and documentation related to pressure ulcer treatment and prevention to ensure that all staff members had access to critical information.

Despite the Initiative’s success in achieving its goals, several challenges were identified, including inconsistent compliance with the new practices and protocols, resistance to change among staff members, and the need for ongoing education and training to maintain adherence to the new standards.

The Initiative addressed several critical concerns about pressure ulcer treatment and prevention in hospice care. However, ongoing evaluation and monitoring are vital to ensure continued adherence to the new protocols and practices and to address and identify any emerging issues related to pressure ulcer treatment and prevention.

Problems Arising from the Initiative

It is crucial to consider the problems that arose from the Initiative when evaluating a current quality improvement initiative in a healthcare setting. These challenges may be related to the Initiative’s design or the implementation process, impacting its success and effectiveness.

Some common challenges that may arise from a quality improvement initiative include failure to implement changes consistently, insufficient resources or funding, resistance from staff or lack of engagement, and inadequate data collection or analysis. Additionally, there may be adverse effects on patient care or unintended consequences, such as reduced access to care, increased wait times, or a decline in patient satisfaction.

Identifying and addressing these challenges is crucial to ensure that the quality improvement initiative achieves its intended objectives and does not create additional obstacles for healthcare patients or providers. By understanding the problems that arise during the implementation process, healthcare organizations can design effective strategies to overcome these obstacles and improve the quality of care offered to patients.

The Success of the Initiative

Evaluating the success of a quality improvement initiative entails analyzing how well it achieved its intended outcomes and goals. Success can be determined by examining the Initiative’s impact on patient outcomes, quality of care, patient safety, efficiency and cost objectives, and other desired metrics.

One way to examine the success of a QI initiative is to look at the basis of outcome measures used to determine its success. These measures may be based on accreditation standards, national or state. For instance, if the QI initiative aimed at lowering hospital-acquired infections, success could be evaluated by measuring the incidence rate after and before the implementation of diseases. Other measures include patient satisfaction scores, length of stay, or readmission rates.

Another way to determine the success of a QI initiative is to assess whether it led to sustainable changes. Sustainable changes continue to produce positive outcomes even after the Initiative has ended. For instance, success could be determined by analyzing whether this change persisted over time and whether it was replicated in other settings if a QI initiative aimed to decrease unnecessary antibiotics in treating pneumonia.

The success of a QI initiative can also be determined by examining the effect of the Initiative on the healthcare facility. This could entail assessing the financial impact, such as whether the industry led to increased revenue or cost savings. It could also involve analyzing changes in workflow or staffing as an outcome of the enterprise.

It is significant to remember that success is not a mandatory binary outcome. QI initiatives may achieve some, but not all, of their intended objectives and goals, which should be considered when analyzing their success. Furthermore, some outcomes may be harder to measure than others, and weighing the limitations of the data available when analyzing success is essential.

Overall, evaluating the success of a QI initiative needs a comprehensive analysis of multiple components, including sustainability, patient outcomes, adherence to recognized benchmarks and outcome measures and impact on the healthcare facility. Through careful evaluation, healthcare professionals can identify areas for improvement and areas of success, leading to more successful quality improvement initiatives in the future.

Interprofessional Perspectives

Interprofessional perspectives refer to the collaboration and involvement of healthcare professionals from various disciplines in implementing, developing, and evaluating quality improvement initiatives. These professionals can include social workers, pharmacists, nurses, physicians, and others who work together to improve the quality of care, patient outcomes, and efficiency. Interprofessional collaboration ensures that diverse expertise and perspectives are utilized to address and identify quality improvement opportunities and create sustainable, effective, and efficient interventions.

Interprofessional perspectives are essential in quality improvement initiatives as each healthcare professional brings knowledge, a unique skill set and a base. They contribute to the success of QI initiatives by collaborating to implement change, address problems, and evaluate outcomes. By incorporating Interprofessional perspectives, healthcare organizations can manage and identify issues that might go unnoticed and ensure that the interventions implemented are evidence-based and patient-centred.

Effective Interprofessional collaboration necessitates effective communication, respect for each other’s contributions and expertise, and recognition of the benefits of teamwork in achieving better outcomes. The involvement of healthcare professionals from different disciplines also promotes mutual understanding, aids in breaking down silos, and foster a culture of continuous learning, collaboration, and trust.

Additional Indicators and Protocols

When analyzing a quality improvement initiative, it is essential to consider if there are protocols or additional indicators that could be implemented to further good outcomes. This may include changes to protocols or processes and the addition of outcome measures or new technologies. By identifying areas for improvement, healthcare organizations can continue to strive for the better quality of care, cost efficiency, patient safety, and other desired metrics. Additional protocols and indicators may be informed by Interprofessional team members’ feedback or by examining similar initiatives’ best practices. It is crucial to carefully analyze any proposed changes to ensure they are feasible to implement, evidence-based, and aligned with organizational standards and goals. Ultimately, identifying more indicators and protocols aims to continue enhancing the effectiveness and quality of healthcare delivery.


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