Comparison Between HIPAA And GDPR Health Regulations Essay Example

Privacy and security of sensitive information, especially in the healthcare industry, have become critical in today’s interconnected world, where personal data is routinely collected and exchanged (Terry, 2012). There are many regulations in place around the world to protect people’s health information and guarantee legal observance. Two essential laws in this field are the GDPR in the European Union and the HIPAA in the US. Both laws strive to safeguard people’s right to privacy and control how health data is handled, but they differ in their applicability, legal foundations, and particular requirements. The aims, essential clauses, and repercussions for healthcare organizations and individuals will all be compared and contrasted in this section between the HIPAA and GDPR health legislation. Stakeholders in the healthcare sector will be better able to navigate the complicated world of privacy and data protection if they are aware of the similarities and variations between these standards.

The scope and applicability of each law are critical distinctions between HIPAA and GDPR (Tovino, 2016). To create national guidelines for the privacy of particular healthcare data, HIPAA was passed in 1996 (Moore & Frye, 2019). HIPAA, which is relevant to affected parties such as health professionals, health plans, and clearinghouses for healthcare, primarily focuses on health information privacy and security within the United States. Their business partners who manage protected health information (PHI) on their behalf are also covered (Moore & Frye, 2019). Contrarily, the GDPR, which governs the safeguarding of individual information, including details about health, has a broader scope and applies to all of the European Union member states (Dove, 2018). Healthcare is included in GDPR, an extensive data privacy regulation that was implemented in 2018 and applies to all sectors of society. No matter where an organization is located, if it handles the personal information of people living within Europe, it must comply with the GDPR. Furthermore, there are differences between HIPAA and GDPR concepts and terminology regarding health data (Tovino, 2016). PHI is defined under HIPAA as health data that may be used to distinguish a particular person and that is transferred or stored by a Covering organization or business associate. (Moore & Frye, 2019). It covers any data concerning a person’s past, present, or potential future health state, including medical records, payment history, and other data. On the other hand, the GDPR explains individual data as anything you know pertaining to a natural person who may be identified or located. Other types of information, including names, addresses, identification numbers, and online identifiers, are also included in addition to health-related data (Regulation, 2018).

The enforcement methods and sanctions for non-compliance between HIPAA and GDPR vary (Tovino, 2016). The Security Rule and the Privacy Rule are the two main rules of HIPAA. While the security regulation focuses on protecting electronic PHI, the Rule of Privacy establishes guidelines for handling PHI (Moore & Frye, 2019). In the US, Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at HHS upholds HIPAA compliance. Depending on the degree of negligence, non-compliance with HIPAA may result in civil monetary fines that range from $100 to $50,000 per violation (Szalados, 2021). In extreme circumstances, criminal penalties that result in incarceration may also be applied. The data protection agencies (DPAs) in each member state of the European Union enforce the GDPR. DPAs have the authority to launch investigations, levy penalties, and enact corrective actions. The maximum fines for violating the GDPR are €20 million or 4% of the yearly global sales (Wolff & Atallah, 2021), whichever is higher. Failure to comply using the GDPR results in substantial penalties. The two organizations are different in terms of international data flows (Gupta et al., 2020). Although HIPAA allows international data transfers, covered companies must enter into business partner agreements with any outside parties handling PHI (Seddon & Currie, 2013). These contracts guarantee that the third parties also follow the rules for security and privacy under HIPAA. According to Tikkinen-Piri et al. (2020), the GDPR limits the dissemination of personal information to countries beyond the EU with insufficient data protection standards. However, transfers may occur according to particular legal frameworks, such as the application of mandatory corporate standards or standard contractual clauses.

Both HIPAA and GDPR strongly emphasize getting people’s consent and giving them control over their health data. Without receiving express consent, Per HIPAA, covered organizations may use and disclose PHI for the administration, payment, and provision of healthcare (Tovino, 2016). However, individuals have the right to view their medical data, request restrictions on the use or disclosure of their PHI, and get notification of privacy practices. Contrarily, the GDPR demands individuals’ explicit agreement before processing their data, including health information (Clarke et al., 2019). Additionally, it gives people several rights, including the opportunity to view their data, correct errors, demand erasure (or “right to be forgotten”), and transfer their facts in a portable format.

Health data security must be maintained, and both regulations provide mechanisms for breach notification. To protect PHI and stop unauthorized access or disclosure, HIPAA mandates that covered entities implement administrative, physical, and technical security measures (Sfikas, 2003). Covered entities are required to alert the impacted parties, the HHS (Health and Human Services) department, and, in some circumstances, in the event of a breach, the media. To preserve personal data, particularly health data, and guard against data breaches, enterprises must also comply with the GDPR (Tikkinen-Piri et al., 2020). A breach must be reported to the proper supervisory authority within 72 hours of becoming aware of it unless it is unlikely to endanger the rights and freedoms of individuals. Finally, for healthcare companies and individuals, HIPAA and GDPR both have substantial effects. Under HIPAA, covered companies and business partners are obligated to follow the regulations to keep PHI private and secure (Moore & Frye, 2019). Failure to comply can have severe fines and penalties, a negative impact on one’s reputation, and even legal repercussions. Similarly, enterprises governed by the GDPR must implement suitable safeguards to secure personal information, including health information, and guarantee compliance with the law (Georgiou & Lambrinoudakis, 2020). Significant fines and penalties may result from non-compliance with the GDPR, which might harm an organization’s reputation and financial stability. Both laws give people more control over their health data, the ability to access and update it, and the confidence that their information is being managed safely.

In conclusion, despite having the same objective of safeguarding personal health information and assuring privacy and security, HIPAA and GDPR differ in several ways. While the GDPR has a broader scope and is applicable to the European Union, HIPAA concentrates on health information privacy and security within the United States. The two regulations also have different definitions, consent criteria, enforcement strategies, and punishments. To maintain compliance and safeguard patients’ privacy rights, healthcare companies operating in both regions must know these parallels and variances. Depending on their location and the data they manage, firms must evaluate their duties under HIPAA and the GDPR and put the necessary policies, procedures, and safeguards in place to protect health data. Healthcare organizations operating in both jurisdictions need to be aware of these variations and ensure they follow all applicable laws. Organizations can protect health data’s privacy and security while offering individuals high-quality healthcare services by comprehending and negotiating the complexities of HIPAA and GDPR.

 References

Clarke, N., Vale, G., Reeves, E. P., Kirwan, M., Smith, D., Farrell, M., … & McElvaney, N. G. (2019). GDPR: an impediment to research? Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-), 188, 1129–1135. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11845-019-01980-2

Sfikas, P. M. (2003). HIPAA security regulations: protecting patients’ electronic health information. The Journal of the American Dental Association134(5), 640-643. https://jada.ada.org/article/S0002-8177(14)64157-X/abstract

Georgiou, D., & Lambrinoudakis, C. (2020). GDPR Compliance: Proposed Guidelines for Cloud-Based Health Organizations. In Computer Security: ESORICS 2020 International Workshops, CyberICPS, SECPRE, and ADIoT, Guildford, UK, September 14–18, 2020, Revised Selected Papers 6 (pp. 156-169). Springer International Publishing.

Wolff, J., & Atallah, N. (2021). Early GDPR penalties: Analysis of implementation and fines through May 2020. Journal of Information Policypp. 11, 63–103. https://scholarlypublishingcollective.org/psup/information-policy/article-abstract/11/1/63/291999

Seddon, J. J., & Currie, W. L. (2013). Cloud computing and trans-border health data: Unpacking US and EU healthcare regulation and compliance. Health policy and technology, 2(4), 229–241. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211883713000622

Terry, N. P. (2012). Protecting patient privacy in the age of big data. UMKC L. Rev.81, 385. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/umkc81&section=18

Tovino, S. A. (2016). The HIPAA privacy rule and the EU GDPR: illustrative comparisons. Seton Hall L. Rev.47, 973. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/shlr47&section=36

Gupta, S., Venugopal, V., Mahajan, V., Gaur, S., Barnwal, M., & Mahajan, H. (2020, January). HIPAA, GDPR and Best Practice Guidelines for preserving data security and privacy-What Radiologists should know. European Congress of Radiology-ECR 2020. https://epos.myesr.org/esr/viewing/index.php?module=viewing_poster&task=&pi=155809&searchkey=

Moore, W., & Frye, S. (2019). Review of HIPAA, Part 1: History, protected health information, and privacy and security rules. Journal of nuclear medicine technology47(4), 269–272. https://tech.snmjournals.org/content/47/4/269.short

Dove, E. S. (2018). The EU general data protection regulation: implications for international scientific research in the digital era. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics46(4), 1013–1030. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-law-medicine-and-ethics/article/eu-general-data-protection-regulation-implications-for-international-scientific-research-in-the-digital-era/D27C737B73315B64474BCD28932ACCB5

Regulation, G. D. P. (2018). General data protection regulation (GDPR). Intersoft Consulting, Accessed in October24(1). https://www.epsu.org/sites/default/files/article/files/GDPR_FINAL_EPSU.pdf

Tikkinen-Piri, C., Rohunen, A., & Markkula, J. (2018). EU General Data Protection Regulation: Changes and implications for personal data collecting companies. Computer Law & Security Review34(1), 134-153. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364917301966

Szalados, J. E. (2021). Regulations and Regulatory Compliance: False Claims Act, Kickback and Stark Laws, and HIPAA. The Medical-Legal Aspects of Acute Care Medicine: A Resource for Clinicians, Administrators, and Risk Managers, 277-313. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-68570-6_12

Critical Issues In Law Enforcement Essay Example

Technological advancement has played a critical role in shifting the status of the law administration landscape beginning in the 19th century. For example, technology such as thermal imaging knowledge has been introduced in law enforcement to advance the processes of law prosecutions automatically. Law Enforcement Technology conducted a study in 2015 and identified that technology and innovation are regarded as a multi-edged sword, promoting relevant reforms in law application. Since the 19th century, technological advancements have significantly affected law enforcement and home security, leading to improved security within the communities (Snow, 2007). The absence of technical innovations could have led most governments to experience adverse effects on civil liberties and social stability. Technology has been recognized as a critical promoter of positive reforms in the enforcement of law in various settings. However, criminals and terrorists have managed to identify tremendous opportunities where they utilize sophisticated weapons and tools to carry out their heinous crimes on innocent individuals. This review aims to discuss the research about technology in law enforcement, its impact, challenges encountered in mitigating the impact, and policies and practices that could be implemented to improve law enforcement.

Research

The emergence of new technology, such as the various social media platforms, has created opportunities for criminals to conduct illegal activities. For instance, the technological innovation of laptops and smartphones continues to help criminals in their online crimes and acts of terrorism. The new technology is attached to human life. It has become inseparable from daily activities, and thus, criminals have taken the opportunity to benefit from cyber security vulnerabilities by majorly using computer technology (Brey, 2017). In most cases, computer technology has been utilized by criminals since they find it to be the most appropriate channel for them to perform their crimes. Research has indicated that the most common form of technological crime is Ransomware crime. This crime involves using malicious applications that prevent a computer system’s retrieval through encryption or freezing of the computer systems. The systems are activated once the user purchases the ransom. The evolution of technology has led to the promotion of social networking since people can communicate easily regardless of distance and time. People can now communicate easily with their families and friends, establishing closer liaisons. However, computer technology in communication has created opportunities for internet social networking crimes. E-banking fraud has been recognized as an ordinary crime that has resulted from technological advancement. Banks and individuals have lost massive amounts of money due to the use of technology. Hackers identify vulnerabilities in online banking systems and make unauthorized transactions from the accounts of bank members. However, using technology, law enforcement is identifying mechanisms to counter the crimes being committed using technology.

In recent years, technological advancements have significantly altered the nature of law enforcement compared to the multiple tools and mechanisms utilized in the previous decade. The mechanisms used in the past have now become incompatible with the current technology (Goodison et al., 2015). Some of the advancement in technology in law enforcement include devices for monitoring location, which is utilized to track offenders, crime mapping software, which are used to deploy officers into areas prone to crime; and predictive analytics software. Other forms of technology utilized in law enforcement include crime scene technology, which facilitates evidence collection and processing, and interoperable web-based and other communication devices, which enhance the connections between the communities and the police. Koper et al. (2015) suggested that the use of technology in law enforcement has increased the capabilities of police. However, it is still being determined whether the technology has improved the effectiveness of law enforcement in carrying out their jobs (Roman et al., 2016; Lum, 2010). For instance, despite the advancement in DNA technology and the databases for collecting forensic data, the clearance rate for crimes involving violence and property has remained stable since the 1990s. Additionally, in law enforcement, improved efficiency does not translate into effectiveness. In the past, the police have been using the 9-1-1 systems, GIS, and computer-aided dispatch as mechanisms for deploying officers to crime scenes in a quick manner. However, it has been hypothesized that the mechanism has been appropriate in clearing more cases at the crime scene through arrests. Nevertheless, the ideology of the 9-1-1 system leading to more arrests has been contradicted by empirical research. Sherman and Eck (2002) conducted a study and indicated that the reduction in the response time does not have a remarkable impact on the number of arrests made. The researchers termed the primary reason as the delays in reporting crimes. Moreover, there is also the burden of responding to the 9-1-1 calls, where approximately half of them are not urgent, yet they must be responded to rapidly (Mazerolle et al., 2002). This exerts more pressure on the limited resources, leaving law enforcement agencies with inadequate time to engage proactively or in community-centered policing. The literature on the critical issue of technology in law enforcement reveals significant insights regarding the prevalence of various technological advancements in law enforcement units. The literature highlights the critical differences in the utilization of technology across the different agencies. Additionally, the literature has brought attention to implementing the challenges and the barriers associated with using technology in law enforcement. One primary theme in research is that the impacts encountered in a specific agency’s law enforcement are essentially not generalizable to the other agencies due to the vast differences in departments, especially in implementation processes, the challenges encountered, organizational capacity, and other characteristics specific to the agencies.

Impact

Technology in law enforcement has positive and negative impacts. With the current technology, which includes intelligent device data, biometrics, savvy cruisers, body cameras, and drones, law enforcement officers are now more capable of finding criminals quickly, thus, protecting citizens. The evidence in the crime scenes can now be tested using DNA (Koper, Lum, & Willis, 2014). Crime trackers are now utilized to determine areas with crime and where the officers should be patrolling to enhance the safety of the citizens. Technology has been utilized to protect people and to provide justice. However, despite the appreciation of technology in law enforcement, there is also potential for negative impacts. With the emerging technology, people believe that the agents snoop into their private lives (Strom, 2017). Officers can tap into cellular devices without the provision of a search warrant. People believe that it is inappropriate for the officers to access private conversations. Sometimes, citizens believe that law enforcement goes beyond expectations regarding technology. For instance, the technology meant to enhance safety may become a public safety issue. The recent robot drones that keep the surveillance to ensure no terrorist threats may create issues for citizens since they cannot recognize when an individual poses a threat. Technology has brought more good than harm to law enforcement. It is the responsibility of law enforcement policymakers to ensure that technology’s adverse impacts are mitigated.

Challenges

The challenges faced in the mitigation of the impact of technology on law enforcement include the distraction of law enforcement professionals, the potential invasion of individual’s privacy, and additional costs for the new technological equipment. Although technology is helpful, it may cause more distractions to the officers than help. More advanced technology requires adequate training for the officers to improve their attention and focus on details while using the technology to avoid distractions. Some of the technologies, such as tracking systems and facial recognition, are regarded as invasions of privacy for the citizens (Jacobson, 2022). People prefer carrying on their lives in the communities without tracking systems or cameras that record their actions. Technological innovations are prone to vulnerabilities, and people’s lives may be interrupted when mistakes occur. Furthermore, most of the technologies used by police officers are expensive to install. Technologies such as body cameras, monitors, and hard drives for viewing and storing are expensive. These technologies require additional costs, which may be expensive to the department, but considering the benefits associated with the technology, it is necessary to incur the costs.

Prediction

Strategic policies and practices should be emphasized when a police department acquires new technology. The policies should be specific to the law enforcement agency’s goal and mission or the policing strategy being preferred. The strategic plan should include specific personnel to impart knowledge to the police officers regarding the use of technology. Police agencies should consider ways of quantifying their success while working closely with researchers to evaluate the efficacy of both the policies and processes involved in implementing technology in law enforcement. The policies will help the police agencies understand the needs to be changed for better success and also inform on increased sustainability and maximization of the effects of technology utilization.

References

Goodison, S. E., Davis, R. C., & Jackson, B. A. (2015). Digital evidence and the US criminal justice system. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif.

Koper, C. S., Lum, C., Willis, J. J., Woods, D. J., & Hibdon, J. (2015, December). Realizing the potential of technology in policing: A multi-site study of the social, organizational, and behavioral aspects of implementing policing technologies. In Report to the National Institute of Justice, US Department of Justice. Fairfax, VA: Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason University and Police Executive Research Forum.

Sherman, L. W., & Eck, J. E. (2002). Policing for crime prevention. In L. W. Sherman, D. P. Farrington, B. C. Welsh, & D. L. MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (pp. 295–329). New York, NY: Routledge

Mazerolle, L., Rogan, D., Frank, J., Famega, C., & Eck, J. E. (2002). Managing citizen calls to the police: the impact of Baltimore’s 3‐1‐1 call system. Criminology & public policy2(1), 97-124.

Lum, C. (2010). Gadgets for gathering evidence are not evidence of better policing: Technology and the mythology of progress in American law enforcement. http://www.scienceprogress.org/2010/02/police-technology/

Roman, J., Reid, S., Reid, J., Chalfin, A., Adams, W., & Knight, C. (2016). The DNA field experiment: Cost-effectiveness analysis of the use of DNA in the investigation of high-volume crimes.

Strom, K. (2017). Research on the impact of technology on policing strategy in the 21st century, final report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.

Koper, C. S., Lum, C., & Willis, J. J. (2014). Optimizing the use of technology in policing: Results and implications from a multi-site study of the social, organizational, and behavioral aspects of implementing police technologies. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice8(2), 212-221.

Jacobson, N. (2022). How technology is changing law enforcement. https://www.openfox.com/how-technology-is-changing-law-enforcement/

Brey, P. (2017). Theorizing technology and its role in crime and law enforcement. In The Routledge Handbook of Technology, Crime and Justice (pp. 17–34). Routledge.

Snow, R. L. (2007). Technology and law enforcement: From gumshoe to gamma rays. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Current Issues In Portuguese Performing Art Free Essay

Executive Summary

Portugal is one of the best-performing countries in the field of theater and performing art. The country has a great record of tremendous growth over the last few decades. The element of cultural diversity in the nation is one of the biggest influencers of enhanced production. Its rich culture is a consequence of influences like Germanic, Celtic, Jewish, Moorish, Phoenician, Visigoth, and Viking cultural backgrounds (Gritzner & Phillips, 2007). Portugal is uniquely different from the other Western European nations. Despite the country being super religious, the population is more centered on relationships and the people. This element plays a central role in the huge level of success and growth of Portuguese performing art.

Moreover, the Portuguese government and the political environment of the country also play a huge role the facilitating the establishment of a robust perming art industry with a level of international competitiveness. In this case, the Portuguese government is bound by its constitutional provision to mandatory fund and promote theater and performing art. The funding program for the professional artistic structure started back in 1996 and it has been operational since then. However, studies show that the share of the funding has been declining for the past few years. For instance, Garcia et al. (2018) report a significant cutoff of about 40% of the national government funding for general performing art production in 2011. This was a huge blow to the industry that was rapidly growing in productivity and profitability. The current budget for artistic structure relates to about 0.2% of the national budget and this is still huge for the industry.

The availability of trade countless unions in Portugal gives the country and performing artists a significant mileage in promoting the success of the industry. The country has several trade unions. For instance, the Sindicato dos Trabalhhadores de Esphhetacullos, do Audiovisual e dos Muscicos (CENA-STE) trade union (Santos, 2012). This is considered the largest trade union in the nation whose objective is to protect the legal rights of the artists in the music, film, dance, and audiovisual production process. The union was established to not only protect the rights of the workers in the sector but also to facilitate better training and training programs for the members.

Comparatively, performing artists in Portugal face several challenges. The first challenge is the limited funding program. The lack of adequate funding sources makes most potential artists significantly struggle in releasing and promoting their work. The other challenge is low-performing wages. Studies show that performing artists are one of the least-paid individuals in Europe (Welch, 2017). This happens more to unrecognized artists. Another challenge is the high insecurity rate of professionals. Most Portuguese performing artists lack stable job security that can guarantee them a great life and future, especially during the pre-pro stage.

Portugal is one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. This is also reflected in its theater and performing art industry. In these cases, the most streamed podcast from film, music, and dancing in the country is Spotify (Morris, 2015). The podcast has gained a significant level of popularity because of its exciting features in music and film streaming programs. Other popular streaming sites are Google podcasts and Apple podcasts. The platforms are significantly used because they offer a wide range of entertaining programs like music, dance, film, dramas, and many others. With that being said, the popularity and preference of podcasts are changing in real-time. As such, we are more likely to witness the emergence of a new channel with more exciting programs than Spotify, Google Podcasts, and Apple podcasts.

Introduction

Portugal has one of the best theater and performing industries in the world today. The rapid development of the sector has for the longest time been a consequence of the country’s super-diverse cultural background and significant government effort in the sector. Performing art involves the production processes like music, theatre, dance, and drama that are primarily done for an audience. It is different from visual art which focuses on the use of paint, canvas, and other materials to develop static or physical objects. Essentially, performing art is done for cultural expression in most nations and Portugal is not exceptional. They include several cultural practices that reflect human activities, beliefs, and practices.

Portugal is a country built from an extremely diverse culture like the Germanic, Celtic, Jewish, Moorish, Phoenician, Visigoth, and Vikings and these are the source of its rich cultural heritage (Gritzner & Phillips, 2007). That seems to be the greatest point of influence on the country’s dynamic industry. Government support in terms of funding is another huge factor in the Portuguese successful performing art industry. In this case, funding performing art is a constitutional provision in the country and that gives so many people a reason to engage in the production process. This paper aims to investigate the situation of performing art in Portugal. The major interest of the research is the factors promoting the establishment of the industry in Portugal, the problems facing performing artists, and to investigate of the most streamed channels in the country.

Research question

The study will be guided by the following research question. The question includes; what is the current situation of performing art in Portugal? The answer to the question will be attained through an intensive literature review that will focus mainly on the factors promoting performing art in Portugal, problems facing the performing artists, and the most streamed podcast in the country.

Purpose statement

This paper, therefore, aims to investigate the situation of performing art in Portugal. The main focus will be on the factors promoting the establishment of the industry in Portugal, the problems facing performing artists, and investigate the most streamed channels in the country.

Problem statement and the motivation of the research

Studies show that performing art is one of the biggest players in the Portuguese economy. In essence, it is among the biggest industries thus making it have a huge influence on the national development matters. The industry plays several important roles in the well-being of the nation. One of the biggest roles that can never be underestimated is the creation of job opportunities. It offers job opportunities to a significant number of Portuguese. This includes actors, musicians, technicians, dancers, and many other professionals. The fact that most careers are on the line makes the research more important.

The contribution of the industry in the tourism sector is also a great inspiration to the study. The high level of cultural diversity in Portugal is one of its strengths. Visitors from all parts of the world visit Portugal to witness its cultural diversity through performing art. This makes it an important part of the country’s income-generating activity. The revenue is generated from tickets, merchandise, and other activities. Furthermore, performing art provides a great opportunity in the education sector. Through the industry, students get a chance to experience professional training and educational programs in theatre, drama, music, and other genre of performing art.

Moreover, the impact of Covid-19 was huge in nearly all sectors across the world. With that being said, the Portuguese performing art was one of the most affected industries in the world. For instance, the government imposed measures to restrict the operation of the industry in a bid to curb the effects of the deadly virus (Santos & Castanho, 2022). With about the years after the pandemic, it seems to be the right time to examine the situation of the industry in order to ascertain whether or not is back to its normal operations. Additionally, the study intends to examine the influence of trade unions in promoting the functionality of the industry. Portugal has numerous trade unions that advocate for the rights of the workers. As such, we focus on examining the role of the unions in facilitating government funding programs and promoting a conducive working environment for performing artists.

The cut of the government funding for the industry is also a call for the study. Despite funding of the performing art industry is a constitutional right in Portugal. Studies show cutting of the fund is one of the biggest challenges facing the industry. Garcia et al. (2018) report a significant cutoff of about 40% of the national government funding in 2011. The current statistics show that the government funding for theatre and performing art stands at about 0.2%. This is a huge factor that needs to be investigated in a bid to protect the current and future performance of the theatre and performing art industry in Portugal.

Theoretical framework

Numerous theories can help analyze the situation of performing art in Portugal. The most common theories to use are the dramatic theories. Examples of dramatic theories include the Marxist, Freudian, and Aristotelian theories. Each one of the theories has a unique perspective on the definition and functionality of theatre and performing art. According to the Aristotelian theory, theatre is a way to emulate reality and learn about nature (Vichnar & Armand, 2017). Freudian theory on the other hand views theatre as a way to release suppressed desires and emotions. On the other hand, the Marxist theory about performing art views it as a way to replicate and comment on economic and social aspects of life.

The proponents of Aristotle’s theory of performing assert that drama is an art that serves the function of emotional release by infuriating the audience into feeling vulnerable and fearful and helping them feel more stable emotionally. Ideally, Aristotle is known as the first person to associate theatrical representation and mimesis, an idea that views reality as real. (Vichnar & Armand, 2017). As Plato reports, Aristotle argued that artists don’t imitate the outside appearance of the work but it is an expression of entelechy.

Other theories that can be used to examine performing art are semiotics and psychoanalysis theories. Semiotic theory offers a structure for understanding how humans utilize signs to explain the world around them (Paterson, 2023). The important aspect of the theory is that it distinguishes several elements of performance. The psychoanalysis theory suggests that performing art is generally a byproduct of primary processes that happen within the mind.

Methodology

To perfectly understand the current situation of performing art in Portugal, we will conduct a SWOT analysis of the industry in the country. A SWOT analysis involves a systematic review of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the industry.

Strengths

The industry in Portugal has several strengths. For one, the rich cultural heritage is one of the biggest strengths and advantages of the industry. The performing art of Portugal has a unique style that makes it such a huge center of attraction in the global market. According to Birmingham (2018), Portugal has a long successful history of theatre, music, dance, and drama. For instance, during the summer, the country has numerous local festivals where people celebrate their diverse culture through cultural events like dances, music concerts, and theatre festivals. The history has continuously been forwarded from generation to generation and this explains the tremendous success of performing arts in the region.

Another straight appears in the country’s huge investment in promoting performing art. Portugal is one of the most dedicated countries to enhancing its cultural diversity through performing art. Apart from the huge funding the industry receives from the government to facilitate its production process, the country also enjoys the advantage of a robust educational sector that is pro-performing art (Daniel, 2019). In other words, the numerous colleges and higher levels of learning provide education and training in the field and this helps in producing highly qualified musicians, dancers, and actors. The advantage part of this is that it ensures there is a continuous supply of human resources and there is a diverse and exciting performance to promote the sector.

The availability of a huge pool of talents in performing arts is also a great strength to the country. Portugal is globally known as a major producer of great performers and musicians (Assaf et al., 2017). This is a significant boost to the company’s production process and maintains its relevance in the competitive market. Moreover, the economic significance of performing art in the country is also a factor that makes the industry even more prosperous. The high revenue generation from the sector is a huge factor in the continuous government involvement in its productivity.

Weaknesses

Despite the country’s huge success in theatre and performing art, it also has several weaknesses in its structure and functionality. Studies show that the biggest weakness in Portuguese performing art is the funding mechanism (Fontainha & Lazzaro, 2019). The industry is one the largest in Portugal but that isn’t reflected in the financial support it receives from the national government. The fact that the industry is less funded makes it increasingly difficult for artists to achieve their optimum potential in terms of corporate growth and productivity. Moreover, lack of funding also makes it hard for organizations running the sector to effectively run.

Another weakness is inadequate international exposure of qualified performers and artists. Despite the huge growth in the company’s productivity in the local market, studies show the industry is doing less to connect its artists to the international market. The insufficient international connection of the artists is one of the biggest setbacks in the sector (Veloso & Borges (2020). However, the fact that Portuguese performing art is primarily centered on the performance of local content can also be a reason why most artists receive less international recognition and exposure. For the desired growth to be witnessed in the Portuguese theatre and performing industry, the sector needs to start going international in its content production.

Less government support is another weakness facing the growth of the industry. Even though funding of the sector is a provision in the constitution, the government has recently shown less concern in facilitating the activities of the sector. This is evident in the recent cut of budgetary support. In this case, the sector witnessed a cut of about 40% and this was a huge setback to the productivity and profitability of the industry (Garcia et al., 2018). Inadequate collaboration between the government and the key stakeholders makes the process of performance to be slower and inconsistent. Moreover, the lack of sufficient infrastructural development to support the performance activities is another weakness of the Portuguese performing art industry.

Opportunities

The theatre and performing art industry of Portugal is exposed to several opportunities for growth and development. The first opportunity is the increasing demand for performing art in the global market (Alexandri et al., 2019). The international market for performing art encompasses a huge range of activities like dance, theater, opera, music, and many more. Portugal is among the leading companies in Europe in the production of entertainment products. With records showing the market for performing arts products to be exploding, this is a huge opportunity for Portugal to exploit in a bid to enhance its profitability and productivity. Furthermore, the increasing popularity of live performances and the rising need for unique and reliable experiences also means there is a great future for the performing art industry in the international market.

Another opportunity is an increase in infrastructural development in Portugal to support the growth of the industry. Despite studies showing the country is characterized by less infrastructural development in the sector, the government is extremely dedicated is establishing a robust system that supports the productivity of the sector. Ideally, the Portuguese Directorate-General for the Arts also known as DGARTES is currently accepting proposals from initiatives supporting diversity and inclusion (Gomes & Martinho, 2011). The Portuguese government has made funding available through partnership support initiatives to promote cultural diversity. In this case, theatre and performing art being the major agents of cultural diversity, it is exposed to a huge opportunity of accessing financial support.

The increasing number of talents and professionals in the field is also a great opportunity. The Portuguese education sector has invested hugely in incorporating theater and performing art into its curriculum. The government recognizes and appreciates the significance of performing art in enhancing creativity and social development skills in students (Miranda Sarmento & Renneboog, 2017). In response, numerous universities and schools have taken it upon themselves to invest in the establishment of programs that instill students with the needed skills and competence in the sector. Moreover, the government in partnership with cultural organizations has also shown concern for the development of the field by providing financial support and initiating scholarship programs. The result has been an increase in the supply of talented performers and artists and this is huge for the industry.

The culturally diverse nature of Portugal gives it an edge in the industry. The preservation of cultural norms and traditions demands a culturally diverse system. In this case, Portugal is a nation developed from an extremely diverse cultures. For instance, the Germanic, Celtic, Jewish, Moorish, Phoenician, Visigoth, and Viking cultures explain the source of its rich cultural heritage (Gritzner & Phillips, 2007). That seems to be the greatest point of influence on the country’s dynamic industry. Visitors from all over the world are visiting Portugal to witness its unique nature of cultural diversity and the best way to witness that is through theater and performing art. Most of the performance are basically stories of the culture, beliefs, norms, and practices of the country and attracts so much attention from the fans.

Threats

The biggest threat to Portuguese art is competition from other parts of the world. The industry is one of the most rapidly growing sectors in the world today. With the drastic advancement in the rate of globalization, accessibility of digital content related to performing art has significantly increased and this is a huge threat to the Portuguese performing art sector (Bernardi & Busani, 2022). Like never before, audiences can now access performances from different parts of the globe from their phone and other digital devices. Additionally, other countries in Europe and other parts of the world have invested heavily in the sector to facilitate the production of world-class performances and events and this is a huge threat to the competitiveness of Portugal in the global market.

Secondly, the industry faces the threat of government support. The 40% cut in budget allocation for theater and performing art in the country speaks a lot about how the sector is valued. It shows that the government is less prepared in providing the required level of support to facilitate the establishment of the industry (Garcia et al., 2018). Another threat is inadequate infrastructure to promote the growth of the industry. So much is needed in terms of production to promote the competitive advantage of the industry in the global dimension. With the increasing level of technological advancement, the Portuguese performing art sector needs to advance its infrastructural capacity to maintain its relevance in the marketplace (Magano & Cunha, 2020). Lack of international exposure is also a big threat to the sector. The increasing level of globalization has significantly changed how businesses operate today. As such, the fact that Portugal’s industry is less exposed to the global market makes it a big threat to the sector’s growth and progression.

Literature Review

Origin of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority in Portugal

Though small in regional terms, Portugal is a nation with a significant level of internal diversity with regard to its population density, cultural traditions, identities, and socio-economic dynamics. As Haenni Hoti (2017) reports, the biggest divides appear in the urban coastal area, which is demographically, economically, and socially more vibrant and with enhanced infrastructure and services. The urban coastal area is further divided into the cosmopolitan zones of Lisbon and Oporto which primarily control most of the administrative and economic activities.

Ideally, these divides are reported to be the main cause of migratory movements in the region. The country’s ethnic minorities, though not of the same portion as some of the other European nations like Germany, France, the UK, and Portugal have nonetheless grown in current years as a consequence of the rise in the rate of immigration from numerous nations of origin (Fassmann & Münz, 1994). The recent official record of registered foreigners contributes to about 2% of the country’s resident population.

Before the mid-1960s, the population of foreigners in Portugal was comparatively low. However, the decolonization period in 1974 witnessed thousands of African-born immigrants coming entering the country (Fassmann & Münz, 1994). A greater significance of immigration took shape in the mid-80s with the entrance of huge numbers of immigrants from African nations where the formal language is Portuguese (PALOP). There was also a great entrance from other regions like America, Asia, and other parts of Europe.

The largest ethnic minorities in the country are of African origin, predominantly from the PALOP nations. Most of the African immigrants are from Cape Verde, Angola, and Guinea-Bissau. The increase in the number of emigrants in Portugal explains the extensive nature of cultural diversity in the country (Fassmann & Münz, 1994). For instance, with Africa being one of the major groups of immigrants, a significant amount of African culture is reflected in Portuguese theatre and performing art. An excellent example is Afro-Portuguese music and dance.

Public Policies for Theatre and Cinema in Portugal

A summary of the country’s public policies for theatre and cinema is offered, with regard to the legislation and major guidelines concerning the support of theatre distribution, production, and exhibition. Though exhibition cannot be detached from the other two parts, production has most of the time been the main focus of national public policies thus leaving exhibition and distribution more reliant on market forces, and as Crane (2014) and Park (2015) report, this has resulted to the continued dominance of the United States productions all over the world (Crane, 2014; Park, 2015). USA domination is also the consequence of an effective distribution system that other nations struggle to contest with.

On the aspect of production, numerous competitors have emerged in Europe, India, and Japan, while key media companies have been founded both in Japan and Europe. However, America still noticeably dominates the so-called 29 “economics of films” (Scott, 2004). Notwithstanding America’s liberal economy, its public policies are antagonistically oriented towards the formation of foreign trade treaties that guarantee US cinema will succeed in foreign markets (Crane, 2014). In other nations, public policies are still incompetent to resist American dominance and Portugal is not an exception. It is a small republic that is with a lesser market size of about 10 million residents where theatre and film products from America represented about 71,4% of the market in 2018 in a measurement done in terms of the number of admissions. The 5 core Portuguese exhibitors attribute to almost the entire market, with approximately 94% of the market size, as valued by admissions of the exhibitor, and the four major Portuguese distributors attribute to about 96% of the market share on the basis of the admissions by the distributor.

The country’s system for funds application is based on the constitution of different external adjudicators for each contest, after their approval by SECA (O’Mahony, 2012). Though there is no clear definition of cultural standards, culture is always one of the vital features when applications are examined. Support may be awarded for the production, creation, exhibition, distribution, diffusion, and promotion of cinematographic projects but they must be a manifestation of national identity, while also supporting the language, encouraging universal co-productions, and boosting cooperation between Portuguese-speaking nations (Crane, 2014). Nonetheless, the Theatre Support Scheme is an exemption because it infers some cultural requirements like the original writing must be in Portuguese, the process must happen essentially in Portugal and among other requirements.

Current Issues in Portuguese Performing Art

Portugal is one of the best-performing countries in the field of theater and performing art. The country has recorded tremendous growth over the last few decades. According to Lawson et al. (2019), the sector has been experiencing tremendous growth in the past few years due to the arrival of an exclusively new generation of independent artists in major programming responsibilities. The study also reports the emergence of a new generation of companies that promotes the production of performing art events. Silva (2017) relates the tremendous growth of the industry in Portugal to the emergence of new political players. Youth auditoriums and events and street arts are achieving added visibility and accessibility through the promotion of arts education.

The element of cultural diversity in Portugal is one of the biggest influencers of enhanced productivity in the field. As Garcia et al. (2018) report, Portugal’s rich culture is a product of mixed cultures like Germanic, Celtic, Jewish, Moorish, Phoenician, Visigoth, and Viking cultural backgrounds. Mullen (2019) affirms that Portugal is a mixture of Mediterranean civilizations and Ancient Celtic residents. This is what separates it and makes it uniquely different from the rest of the Western European nations. Depending on your location in the country, like the North is characterized by a strong minority Germanic gene pool who are remnants of Suevi and to some extent Vikings. Moreover, Regardless of the country being super religious, the population is more centered on relationships and the people. This element plays a central role in the huge level of success and growth of Portuguese performing art.

A high rate of job insecurity is also a huge issue in the Portuguese performing industry. This is a factor that not only affects the theatre sector but the entire economy of the nation. Most Portuguese performing artists lack a firm job security that can guarantee them a great life and future, particularly during the post-pro stage. As Ferreira et al. (2019) report, the leading challenge to the growth of the Portuguese theatre industry is constraints on human capital. Unlike before when the financial crisis was treated as a major challenge to the sector, recent studies show that the high level of unemployment has resulted in a financial crisis in the region. According to Eurostat, about 22% of Portuguese jobs are considered temporary jobs. The value exceeds the general European Union value which stands at about 14.3% (Siebern-Thomas, 2005). The problem of unemployment and job insecurity in Portugal is also a factor in the low attendance rate in theatre halls.

Role of the Government in the Industry

Decades of studies show that the current success of Portuguese performing art is a product of several factors. According to Silva (2017), the Portuguese government and the political environment of the country play a key role the facilitating the establishment of a robust performing art industry with a level of international competitiveness. The study reports that the government has initiated several measures to promote the production of performing art. One of the biggest initiatives reported is the sustainable funding framework. Balsas (2022) affirm that Portugal is resilient in offering financial support to cultural organizations, events, and festival in a bid to enhance its cultural diversity.

Ivanov (2019) asserts that another big role the government has played to support performing art in Portugal is offering tax incentives. The study reports that its government is dedicated to providing tax incentives to individuals and individuals who invest in the industry. This is in a bid to motivate the private sector into investing in the industry to support its growth. The Portuguese government is using its education sector to enhance the theatre industry and make it better and more competitive in the global market. It has enacted measures to facilitate performing arts in universities and schools; giving the talented student a lifetime chance to develop new skills and competence in the study area. As Najimaldeen (2017) reports, the availability of equipped performing art schools and universities is the main reason the country is making significant strides toward being the best in the world.

Additionally, the Portuguese government is also creating partnerships with cultural organizations to make its theater industry better. Emmendoerfer (2019) states that the main role of the partnership is to ease the production process and support the development of new channels of performance in the international sector. Studies show that the Portuguese theatre is slowly getting international recognition and all this is due to the effort of the national government. Bourgeois (2019) reports government efforts like participating in international festive competitions, encouraging collaborations with international artists, and offering translated content to the audience.

A supportive private sector makes the Portuguese performing art even more successful. Silva (2017) states that the private sector is the major sponsor of the industry. They offer sponsorship of cultural festive events, concerts, and traditional dancing. Apart from financial support, the sector also plays a big role in marketing cultural programs. Through donations to performing art companies, the private sector also promotes easy operations of the companies. Further, the development of infrastructure by the private sector is a key element of the sector’s current success. Most of the theatre rooms are a major step in establishing a robust industry and creating the opportunity for growth.

The Portuguese government is bound by its constitutional provision to mandatory fund and promote theater and performing art. The funding program for the professional artistic structure started back in 1996 and it has been operational since then. However, studies show that the share of the funding has been declining for the past few years. For instance, Garcia et al. (2018) report a significant cutoff of about 40% of the national government funding for general performing art production in 2011. This was a huge blow to the industry that was rapidly growing in productivity and profitability. The current budget for artistic structure relates to about 0.2% of the national budget and this is still huge for the industry. Ideally, 0.2% of the State Budget, the funds for culture are still insufficient for the vivacity and broad horizons of its creative and cultural programs.

The availability of countless trade unions in Portugal gives the country and performing artists significant mileage in promoting the success of the industry. The country has several trade unions. For example, the Sindicato dos Trabalhhadores de Esphhetacullos, do Audiovisual e dos Muscicos (CENA-STE) trade union. CENA-STE is the largest trade union in Portugal whose objective is to safeguard the legal rights of the artists in the music, film, dance, and audiovisual production process (Santos, 2012). The union was established to not only protect the rights of the workers in the sector but also to facilitate better training and training programs for the members.

Challenges Facing the Portuguese theatre industry

Despite the numerous advantages of the industry, several challenges are related to it. It is hard to talk about the challenges facing the Portuguese performing art without mentioning how the sector was impacted by the covid-19 virus. The industry was one of the most affected in the entire world. According to Tavares et al. (2021), the industry was among the first ones to close its doors in response to the virus. The study reports that the sector suffered immensely from the mitigation of the disease. At the onset, most cultural functions had to be postponed and some were canceled. The situation in the Portuguese market became even worst with the continuous of emergence variants.

Tavares et al. (2021) state that the biggest effect of the virus on the performing art was a capacity reduction of the major venues and temporary closure as a result of lockdown measures. A large number of workers lost their jobs thus resulting in a huge economic crisis. According to Davis & Phillips (2020), theatre and performing art were affected more than any other creative art industry. This is because social interaction and presence are an integral part of the theatre and performing industry. The other sectors like movies, games, and music were less affected because of their robust digital presence. Despite the huge effects on the Portuguese theatre industry, the country was among the first in Europe and in the world to develop counteract measures to curb the effects of the virus.

Challenges Artists Face in the Portuguese Theatre Industry

The first challenge is the influence of technological advancement. The rapid technological advancement has resulted in huge changes in the theatre and performing industry. According to Morris (2015), digitalization is the major driver of theater content demand in the contemporary world. This is a huge challenge especially to the traditional artists as it has significantly advanced the level of operations in the sector. Despite technological advancement enhancing the production of theatre arts, the negative part of it is that it has increased the level of competition in the industry. The traditional artists in Portugal have been negatively affected as compared to their counterparts in the competitive dimension.

Secondly, the artists face the challenge of financial support. Regardless of the huge government efforts to support and promote performing art, studies show that the efforts are still inadequate to facilitate the artists (Garcia et al., 2018). The lack of adequate funding sources makes most potential artists significantly struggle in releasing and promoting their work. Ideally, most artists in Portugal find it hard to get sponsors who can facilitate their production processes thus making them easily get discouraged on their talents and abilities.

The other challenge is low-performing wages. Studies show that performing artists are one of the least-paid individuals in Europe. This happens more to unrecognized artists. According to Throsby (2014), artists in Europe get paid up to nearly 37% of their nation’s salary when they perform on stage. Prata (2017) reports that the majority of performing artists live below the poverty line due to poor salaries and accessible opportunities in Portugal. Regional socioeconomic imbalance is also a huge factor facing artists. When considered in the aspect of rural sustainability, rural areas offer the artists a huge operational problem. Social economic and demographic differences pose hard restrictions on the manner resources are distributed and this hinders the infrastructural development process.

Additionally, the high job insecurity rate of the professions is also a factor affecting the artists. Most Portuguese performing artists lack stable job security that can guarantee them a great life and future, especially during the post-pro stage. As Veloso & Borges (2020) report, the main challenge to the growth of the Portuguese theatre industry is constraints on human capital. Unlike before when the financial crisis was considered the major challenge to the sector, recent studies show that the high level of unemployment has resulted in a financial crisis in the region. According to Eurostat, about 22% of Portuguese jobs are considered temporary jobs (Prata, 2017). The value exceeds the general European Union value which stands at about 14.3%. The problem of unemployment and job insecurity in Portugal is also a factor in the low attendance rate in theatre halls.

Technology and Innovation in the Portuguese performing art industry

Portugal is one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. This is also reflected in its theater and performing art industry. In these cases, the most streamed podcast from film, music, and dancing in the country is Spotify (Morris, 2015). The podcast has gained a significant level of popularity because of its exciting features in music and film streaming programs. Other popular streaming sites are Google podcasts and Apple podcasts. The platforms are significantly used because they offer a wide range of entertaining programs like music, dance, film, dramas, and many others. With that being said, the popularity and preference of podcasts are changing in real-time. As such, we are more likely to witness the emergence of a new channel with more exciting programs than Spotify, Google Podcasts, and Apple podcasts.

Technological advancement and innovations also impact how cultural products are used and channeled, with the design of the film being one of the aspects that strongly impacts the behavior and practices of its audiences (Aveyard, 2016). We have already cited some huge revolutions regarding traditional theatrical turnout as well as the vital role of exhibition concerning cultural diversity and accessibility, emphasizing the linking of economic and cultural scopes in the theater industry, well-illustrated by the concern of governments, particularly in the European Union. In essence, technological changes cannot be detached from broader cultural alterations that influence social relations within the performing art industry.

The introduction of the DVD and VCR, and recently, streaming sites resulted in the replacement of theatrical attendance for home and individual film viewing through various portable digital instruments. Customers are more engaged with media, particularly the younger generations, often resulting in the production of cultural media products in a bid to express a high level of creativity in content creation. The use of the internet, particularly social media sites, affects taste formation, and intensifies the significance of word of mouth and popularity designs (Aveyard, 2016). Similarly, distribution channels are changing very fast. Apart from mainstream formats, several autonomous filmmakers are now retailing directly to broadcasters, reproducing their products in DVD designs or availing them directly on the internet.

Though competition is robust, it becomes easier to target huge and specific audiences and enhance visibility, which frequently results in faster and unanticipated successes, even minus a theatrical premiere (Tzioumakis, 2012). In parallel, other concerns arise, explicitly copyright and piracy which shield illegal copies and supply rights (Aveyard, 2016). Under these complex situations, understanding theatre needs and demand is vital, both for the culture and for the performing industry.

Several interconnected aspects impact film final customers’ behaviors and preferences, necessitating multidisciplinary methods: customers’ social backgrounds and demographic features, the features of the cinema, and the conformation of the market, for instance, supply size, its approachability and diversity (concerning cinema and other cultural artistic products), marketing tools, and so forth, related in turn with the availability of public policies to inspire film attendance and art-house cinemas (Aveyard, 2016).

Conclusion and recommendations

In summary, Portuguese theatre and performing art are one of the most advance both in Europe and the world. Its culturally diverse nature gives it an edge in the industry in terms of its level of competitiveness. The preservation of cultural norms and traditions demands a culturally diverse system. As such, Portugal is a nation developed from extremely diverse cultures. For instance, the Germanic, Celtic, Jewish, Moorish, Phoenician, Visigoth, and Viking cultures explain the source of its rich cultural heritage. That seems to be the greatest point of influence on the country’s dynamic industry. Studies show that visitors from all over the world are visiting Portugal to witness its unique nature of cultural diversity and the best way to witness that is through theater and performing art. Most of the performance are basically stories of the culture, beliefs, norms, and practices of the country and attracts so much attention from the fans.

The intensive cultural diversity in the country is a product of the huge historical immigration witnessed during the pro-democracy period. Before the mid-1960s, the population of foreigners in Portugal was comparatively low. However, the decolonization period in 1974 witnessed thousands of African-born immigrants coming entering the country. A greater significance of immigration took shape in the mid-80s with the entrance of huge numbers of immigrants from African nations where the formal language is Portuguese (PALOP). There was also a great entrance from other regions like America, Asia, and other parts of Europe.

The role of the government in the sector is also a reason for its robust expansion. The Portuguese government and the political environment of the country play a key role the facilitating the establishment of a robust performing art industry with a level of international competitiveness. The study reports that the government has initiated several measures to promote the production of performing art. One of the biggest initiatives reported is the sustainable funding framework. Another big role the government has played to support performing art in Portugal is offering tax incentives. The study reports that its government is dedicated to providing tax incentives to individuals and individuals who invest in the industry. This is in a bid to motivate the private sector into investing in the industry to support its growth.

Additionally, the Portuguese government is also creating partnerships with cultural organizations to make its theater industry better. The main role of the partnership is to ease the production process and support the development of new channels of performance in the international sector. Studies show that the Portuguese theatre is slowly getting international recognition and all this is due to the effort of the national government. Government efforts like participating in international festive competitions, encouraging collaborations with international artists, and offering translated content to the audience.

Moreover, a supportive private sector makes the Portuguese performing art even more successful. They offer sponsorship of cultural festive events, concerts, and traditional dancing. Apart from financial support, the sector also plays a big role in marketing cultural programs. The Portuguese government is bound by its constitutional provision to mandatory fund and promote theater and performing art. The funding program for the professional artistic structure started back in 1996 and it has been operational since then.

There are several challenges facing Portuguese performing artists. The first challenge is the influence of technological advancement which has resulted in intense competition in the global market. Digitalization is the major driver of theater content demand in the contemporary world. Secondly, the artists face the challenge of financial support. Regardless of the huge government efforts to support and promote performing art, studies show that the efforts are still inadequate to facilitate the artists. Another big challenge is low-performing wages. Studies show that performing artists are one of the least-paid individuals in Europe. The artists in Europe get paid up to nearly 37% of their nation’s salary when they perform on stage. The majority of the performing artists live below the poverty line due to poor salaries and accessible opportunities in Portugal.

Moreover, the high job insecurity rate of the professions is also a factor affecting the artists. Most Portuguese performing artists lack stable job security that can guarantee them a great life and future, especially during the post-pro stage. The main challenge to the growth of the Portuguese theatre industry is constraints on human capital. According to Eurostat, about 22% of Portuguese jobs are considered temporary jobs. The value exceeds the general European Union value which stands at about 14.3%. The problem of unemployment and job insecurity in Portugal is also a factor in the low attendance rate in theatre halls.

Recommendations

Despite the huge success of the Portuguese performing industry, there is still a lot that can be done to make the sector better. For one, the industry needs to focus more on the international audience as opposed to the local ones. The international growth of theatre, film, and performing art has led to the establishment of a more robust market for products. In other words, Portugal is exposed to a more wide market if it can extend its production to the international dimension.

Additionally, the sector needs more government involvement in its production process. The 40% cut from the national budget was the most unfortunate thing to happen to the sector. Decades of studies show that the lack of stable government support is one of the major challenges facing the sector. Moreover, the government needs to involve the private sector more in the funding programs. The sector needs a lot of financial support to establish itself in the market and this cannot be done with the government’s effort alone.

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