Comparison Of Healthcare Agencies Free Sample


Public health refers to the science and art of averting diseases, extending life, and promoting health via the implementation of organized efforts and informed choices by the public, associations, public and private communities, and the individual persons (Institute of Medicine, 1988). The field is concerned with the general health of the society that is based on the population health study. The society in consideration ranges from a small group of people to a large populace of people who may occupy several continents in such cases as in the rise of a pandemic. In general, public health is categorized into three fields: Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Health Services; Environmental, Behavioral, Social, and Occupational Health form the significant public health subfields.

Public health is characterized by two distinct policies: it mainly entails preventative rather than curative measures of health and concerns itself with the population rather than with the individual level health issues (Orme et al., 2007). Public health is mainly focused on the prevention of diseases rather than treatment via the surveillance of health-threatening cases and encouragement of healthy manners. Furthermore, the prevention of a disease may be vital to its treatment such as in cases of infectious diseases that spread rapidly. Various activities are undertaken by health care organizations such as vaccinations, hand washing campaigns, and the circulation of condoms.

The major objective of public health is the promotion of healthy lives by preventing and treating diseases. Within the framework of the United Nations’ World Health Organization, health is defined as “a state of absolute physical, mental and social wellness and not simply the deficiency of sickness or ill-health (World Health Organization, 2010). This is a comprehensive definition and the United States endeavors to promote the health of its citizens by the World Health Organization Standards. To achieve this, various public health institutions have been established at different levels: the county, state, and public health resources.

State Public Health Agency: Arkansas Department of Health

The origin of the Arkansas Department of Health can be documented from 1832 when the initial city board of health was established. The board in Arkansas had been established by Little Rock’s urban committee. The Arkansas Department of Health had persistently suffered from the problem of disease and disability prevention. The number of people who succumbed to yellow fever in Mississippi valley in 1878 was relatively low compared to the preceding periods; however, despite the reduced deaths from the pandemic, it acted as a catalyst to the creation of the initial official state of the health board in 1881. However, the board collapsed due to a lack of funds. When the Legislature shifted from the conventional State House to the present capitol building, a lasting state board of health was established during the first session that took place in 1913. The board was comprised of seven appointed members all of who were physicians and they occupied the vacated facility that was located on Markham Street (Arkansas Department of Health, 2010). Ever since the board has been the overall body in the state that is charged with the responsibility of supervising all the public health activities in the state.

The board has undertaken various tasks after its formation. Immediately after its inception, the board focused its resources on smallpox eradication. This resulted in the government implementing measures for the establishment of programs that aimed at improving sanitation standards at homes and in schools; furthermore, measures were implemented to eradicate malaria by eradicating mosquitoes. In 1918, Arkansas became the first state that made it compulsory for all children of school-going age to be vaccinated for smallpox. During the First World War, thousands of Arkansas citizens were unable to join the Army since they were infected with venereal diseases; the board initiated spirited education campaigns against venereal diseases. With assistance from the private sector and the federal government, the board initiated water inspection and mandated sanitary requirements that led to the elimination of Typhoid fever. After World War II, the board concentrated its efforts and resources in the creation and adoption of modern technology to improve the efficiency of its operations Furthermore, the board has developed anti-poverty programs that are targeted at the needs of the poor and new social networks that have shaped the direction of public health and increased the public health coverage (Arkansas Department of Health, 2010).

National Public Health Agency: United States Public Health Service:

The historical origin of Public Health Service can be followed from the enactment of the 1978 Act; the Act was passed to ensure that ailing and injured commercial seamen received appropriate care and attention. The earliest marine hospitals were located along the East Coast and Boston was the location for the first such facility. The restructuring that was conducted in 1870 resulted in the creation of a locally managed Marine Hospital Service; the head office of the hospital was located in Washington. The Public Health Commissioned Corps was created by a regulation that was enacted in 1889; it was solely comprised of physicians. However, in the 20th century, it developed to integrate other health professionals such as dentists, nursing physicians, pharmacists, scientists, and health care professionals.

Furthermore, the organization’s scope of activities started to expand beyond the care for commercial seamen as the 20th century came to a close. The organization commenced the control of infectious diseases. In the beginning, the states were mandated by the constitution to undertake quarantines; nevertheless, the adoption of the National Quarantine Act of 1878 placed the obligation on the Marine Hospice Service and the National Board of Health; unfortunately, the National Board of Health collapsed creating a monopoly in the implementation of the Act. Over the following decades, the Marine Hospice Service speedily took the quarantine function away from the state bodies.

As immigrants increasingly entered the United States in the late 19th century, it became necessary for the government to implement more stringent measures for scrutinizing immigrants for any form of the disease. Thus, the government shifted the inspection and processing of immigrants away from the state governments to the national level. The responsibility of conducting a medical inspection on the immigrants was handed over to the Marine Hospice Service. The officials of the statutory institution played a significant task in their responsibilities to avert any form of disease penetrating the United States. Due to the expansion of the Service’s activities, its name changed to the Public Health Service in 1912. The body continued to expand its provision of public health services as the nation progressed into the 20th century. The body expanded its operations to include: the control of the spread of contagious diseases, carrying out of crucial biomedical research, regulation of food and drugs supply, and the provision of health care to the underprivileged groups among other critical activities (Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).


In conclusion, the above discussion portrays the distinction between public and community health. Public health is primarily concerned with the health of the nation in general. The United States Public Health Service is charged with the responsibility of preserving the health of the entire populace of the United States. On the other hand, community health is concerned with the health of the members of a certain community. The Arkansas Department of Health is concerned with the health of the members of the Arkansas city.


Arkansas Department of Health. (2010). About the Arkansas Department of Health. Web.

Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). About HHS. Web.

Institute of Medicine. (1988). The Future of Public Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Orme, J., Powell, J., Taylor, P. & Grey, M. (2007). Public Health for the 21st Century. (2nd ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.

World Health Organization. (2010). Reproductive health. Web.

Drug Abuse In Homeless Community

Homelessness is one of the most critical issues aroused in the United States of America. The number of homeless people is continuously increasing, creating a severe threat to a country’s general well-being. Mosites et al. claim that The year 2017 became a turning point in the USA’s history because the number of persons experiencing homelessness (PEH) was over 550,000 (1). According to Eiseman (14), intense psychological pressure is the critical cause of drug addiction. Thus, being under an unstable emotional state because of not having shelter, people start using drugs that play a detrimental role in homeless people’s lives. The problem of substance abuse disorders in the homeless community can be solved. To that end, the US Government must provide mental and medical support to homeless drug addicts.

The issues of drug addiction and homelessness are intimately connected. Drug-taking behavior is usually provoked by various intra- and extra- forces (Eiseman et al. 5). The examples of intra forces would be emotional instability and psychological disorders, while problems in a family or workplace are examples of extra forces (Eiseman et al. 5). The loss of shelter is one of the critical factors that lead to substance use disorders. Generally, two theories explain the linkage of drug addiction and homelessness. They are developing drug-taking behavior due to the loss of shelter and the loss of the house due to substance use disorders progress.

According to the first theory, the drug-taking behavior develops as a result of the loss of accommodation. Being incapable of resisting the obstacles caused by the loss of housing, people start taking drugs, hoping to release their sufferings. However, instead of the feeling of relief, drug takers become highly vulnerable to mental and physical diseases. Moreover, Zwarenshtein offers a practical explanation of drug-taking while being homeless. The author claims that “Stimulants, for example, may help people to stay awake at night when it is most unsafe to be unaware of one’s surroundings” (par. 23). Besides, certain kinds of drugs provide short-term comfort and reduce coldness (Zwarenshtein par. 23). Hence, there is an impressive number of cases when drug-taking behavior becomes a cause of accommodation loss.

In the second theory, substance disorder abuse is viewed as a reason for the loss of shelter. Being involved in the complex net of drugs, people become incapable of taking control of their lifestyles, fund management, relationships with family members, and friends. Psychotropic substances have numerous adverse ramifications on people’s quality of life. Zwarenshtein explains that the drug-taking may lead to instances of being kicked off the house by parents or a spouse or being fired from the job (par. 24). Receiving a lousy recommendation from the employer, the drug takers are incapable of earning money for living and eventually become homeless. Therefore, substance disorder abuse may become a primary reason for the loss of shelter.

Regardless of the circumstances that lead the addict to homelessness, drugs have adverse effects on the majority of life aspects. Firstly, the homeless drug takers have numerous psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe anxiety, etc. (Eiseman 42). Since mental health plays a crucial role in people’s general well-being, drug addicts are incapable of living a fulfilled life. Secondly, substance disorder abuse negatively influences the socio-cultural aspect of life. According to Zwarenshtein, drugs cause “the weakening of people’s social and institutional connections such as belonging to a church, having a network of friends, or having work and business relationships” (par. 18). Thus, the drug-taking behavior has an impressive number of negative consequences on the vulnerable group – homeless addicts. It has a disruptive effect on human beings’ physical and mental health and negatively influences the social and cultural aspects of life.

Since the issue of drug abuse has numerous adverse effects, the solution to the problem should be implemented immediately. Rather than finding out why psychotropic substances use causes homelessness or why homelessness leads to drug addiction, the question should be examined from a broader perspective. The elimination of factors that cause substance use disorder and homelessness is a useful method of dealing with drug abuse in the homeless community. The primary cause of the problem is “politics that hurt people’s ability to afford daily needs, secure steady employment, afford rent, be part of a stable rather than transient community, and enter rental housing market” (Zwarenshtein par. 47). Therefore, the issue of drug addiction among homeless people should be solved from the roots – the government’s lack of assistance. By preventing the new cases of homelessness and substance use disorders and helping people on the streets, the government can solve the problem effectively and in a short time frame.

Firstly, the federal authorities should stabilize the current political situation and minimize the risks of home loss. Being predisposed to numerous financial difficulties, sometimes people are incapable of covering all their expenses. As a result, they get into an intricate net of business operations that lead to money debts. The worldwide crisis caused by COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most suitable examples of political instability within a country. Experiencing financial problems and suffering from psychological pressure caused by the threat of being infected, people became extremely vulnerable. As a result, the number of drug addicts increased during the spring of 2020 (Bukszpan par. 23). Therefore, the government’s primary aim is to ensure the financial stability of every citizen. It can be reached by opening new opportunities for employment, expanding the range of people to receive subsidies, increasing the unemployment benefits, maternity benefits, disability benefits, pensions, etc. Improving living conditions in the country will help reduce the number of people suffering from drug addiction and decrease homelessness rates. Thus, the stabilization of the country’s political situation is a powerful tool for preventing massive substance disorder abuse among the homeless.

Secondly, the government should focus on providing psychological and mental support to the current homeless drug addicts on the streets. People who have lost their homes and use psychotropic substances are incredibly vulnerable to physical and mental diseases. Consequently, they seek help from specialists to improve their health conditions. The primary duty of the government is to provide support to people who need it. Hence, the launching of new campaigns and the establishment of organizations that would monitor homeless drug addicts’ mental and physical health is crucial in solving the problem.

A bright example of the organization helping people deal with drug addiction was established during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. According to Bukszpan, Google, Facebook, and Twitter have cooperated to partner with the non-profit Center for Safe Internet Pharmacies (CSIP) (par. 1). As a result of this partnership, an online platform Tech Together was launched to help people with substance use disorders during the worldwide Coronavirus pandemic (Bukszpan par.1). The principal aim of Tech Together is to provide psychological support to the drug addicts and spread awareness among the population through hashtags, likes, comments, and reposts in social media. As a result of launching this online platform, “between early March and late April 2020, had seen a 393% increase in treatment seekers” (Bukszpan par. 23). Hence, the organizations assisting drug addicts are a useful tool for overcoming the problem.

Although Tech Together is designed to deal with drug addiction during the pandemic, the organization’s concept is exceptionally successful. According to Bukszpan (par. 23), the number of drug addicts received help increase by 393% during the spring of 2020. This impressive statistic proves the effectiveness of the organization. Therefore, the government has to encourage the establishment of similar associations that would focus on dealing with homelessness alongside drug addiction. Since Tech Together was developed to help people during social distancing and lockdown, it offers help through messengers, social media, and online communication. In the case of substance use disorders and homelessness, the support should be provided to the vulnerable group directly on the streets. Thus, the groups of medical workers and psychologists have to interact with homeless drug addicts directly and provide them with medical and psychological support. By leaving the concept of Tech Together but changing the operation principles, the government can launch a new powerful organization what would significantly contribute to the solving of homeless drug addicts issue.

Drug addiction and homelessness are two overlapping problems. Therefore, the solution to the issue should be involved, with all the causes of substance use disorders and homelessness being taken into consideration. The negotiation of the homelessness and drug addiction rates is the primary responsibility of the government. Consequently, the country authorities should deal with the problem in two steps. The first step is to stabilizing the inner political situation to prevent new cases of home loss and drug addiction. The second step is the assistance of the current homeless drug addicts on the streets by establishing the organizations focused on psychological and medical support. The adverse ramifications of substance use disorders accompanied by homelessness should not be underestimated. Thus, the government should put maximum effort into resolving the problem.

Works Cited

Bukszpan, Daniel. “Google, Facebook, Twitter Team Up to Support Addiction Recovery During Pandemic.CNBC, 2020, Web.

Eiseman, Seymour et al. Drug abuse: Foundation for a psychosocial approach. Routledge, 2019.

Mosites, Emily, et al. “Risk for Invasive Streptococcal Infections among Adults Experiencing Homelessness, Anchorage, Alaska, USA.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 10, 2019.

Zwarenshtein, Carlyn. “The Mischaracterized Relationship Between Drug Use and Homelessness.” Filter, 2020, Web.

Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects Of Diet And Exercise


Among a variety of health problems that challenge humans, cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death. People of different ages and both genders are frequently diagnosed with myocardial infarction, stroke, or ischemic heart disease. In addition to individual characteristics, there are many risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or cholesterol. Due to the inability to manage comorbidities or the consequences of family history, people may follow additional recommendations like avoidance of a sedentary lifestyle. The effects of diet and exercise on cardiovascular disease vary, depending on the frequency of interventions and the quality of food. Healthy dietary habits provoke a decrease in the cholesterol level and the control of blood pressure. Physical exercises support the work of muscles and the reduction of obesity-related problems. Both interventions are discussed in recent studies and by professional organizations. The evaluation of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, along with nutritional and physical intervention, will be developed in this project. Being effective as separate practices for human health, diet and physical activities have to be combined to help people achieve positive health outcomes, stabilize the work of the heart, and predict mortality.


Many factors, such as the age of a person, the chosen lifestyle, and family history, contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, some health conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes increase the prevalence of this group of diseases among the population. People who neglect the importance of physical exercise and support unhealthy habits (eating, smoking, or alcohol abuse) address their therapists for medical help and health checkups regularly (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). According to the ADA’s Medical Knowledge Team (2018), cardiovascular disease is usually a broad term that is used to describe a variety of conditions that influence the work of the heart, including heart attack and stroke. In this research paper, the effects of diet and exercises on the progress of cardiovascular disease will be analyzed. To better understand the connection between dietary habits, physical exercises, and cardiovascular problems, the following aspects have to be discussed:

  1. Cardiovascular diseases as a leading cause of death in the United States
  2. Risk factors that provoke cardiovascular disease
  3. Importance of dietary interventions for cardiac patients
  4. The role of exercise training on cardiovascular disease management
  5. Combined dietary and exercise interventions in cardiovascular events

Cardiovascular Diseases as a Leading Cause of Death in the United States

Angina, heart failure, stroke, infarction, and carditis are diseases with one similar characteristic that is the existence of problems or dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels. These conditions are usually introduced as a part of the same group of illnesses, known as cardiovascular disease (Cannie et al., 2019). It is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, leading to about 18 million deaths in 2015 (Ruan et al., 2018). Regarding the current statistics and examinations, it is expected to observe the rise in numbers by 2020, with about 22 million people dying from cardiovascular disease annually (Ruan et al., 2018). The analysis of this condition focuses on the identification of associated factors such as age (older adults with damaged arteries and weakened muscles) or gender (women after menopause and men at any age).

There are many types of cardiovascular diseases that are caused by an unbalanced lifestyle and bad habits. For example, myocardial infarction or a heart attack is a condition when blood and oxygen cannot reach the heart muscle because of a blocked coronary artery (Saleh & Ambrose, 2018). Patients usually report on such symptoms as sharp chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness. Blood tests, a physical examination, and an electrocardiogram are the main diagnostic methods to check the condition and identify the level of the blockage and protein rating (Cannie et al., 2019). Patients get access to several pharmacological and operative treatment plans to remove the blocked vessel and promote oxygen transportation.

An ischemic stroke or simply stroke is another form of cardiovascular disease, the distinctive feature of which is that it occurs not in the heart but in the brain, affecting the work of blood vessels. The prevalence of stroke is discussed in terms of age and gender (more common in men aged between 70-79 years) (Ruan et al., 2018). The symptoms of this condition are usually sudden and short, so it is necessary for people in risk groups to be aware of the major signs and address for help as soon as possible. There is a FAST campaign for healthcare employees and populations to pay attention to the condition of face (dropping), arm (weakness), speech (difficult speaking), and time (call an ambulance soon) (Hickey et al., 2018). Other symptoms to consider include headache, soreness, vision problems, and confusion. In addition to the already mentioned tests, computer tomography scans are helpful to observe the brain and define damaged areas.

Risk Factors That Provoke Cardiovascular Disease

In addition to age and gender factors, family history, and unhealthy habits, cardiovascular disease may be provoked by such health conditions as high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal blood cholesterol levels. They are known as the major risk factors that provoke cardiovascular diseases. When the pressure of the blood is elevated and poorly controlled, it influences the work of the heart and the brain. As a silent killer, blood pressure must be reduced (if it is more than 115/75 mmHg) by means of antihypertensive drugs and therapies (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019; Stewart et al., 2017). In addition, regular measurements and lifestyle changes are recommended to manage risks and predict cardiovascular disease.

Diabetes is a common chronic condition among people of different ages around the globe. It is characterized by high glucose levels in the blood, which results in the artery walls being damaged and fatty deposits being gathered in the arteries to provoke cardiovascular disease (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Diabetic patients use insulin to control glucose and discover new sources of energy. The reduction of sugar in the blood is connected with the possibility of reducing the number of cardiovascular-related deaths (Stewart et al., 2017). However, if older adults are diagnosed with diabetes, they are at risk of having heart complications often.

Finally, the evaluation of the level of cholesterol is important in measuring the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol is a substance that is made by the liver, but its amount is usually not enough, and people have to take special food to maintain its healthy level (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). If extra cholesterol is observed, it may promote the creation of additional walls and boundaries in the arteries and challenge the heart, the brain, and kidneys. In the majority of cases, people do not have any symptoms during this condition, and the only chance to learn the levels is to take tests and check it up.

Importance of Dietary Interventions for Cardiac Patients

To maintain a healthy lifestyle, people are expected to stick to a balanced diet and their obesity-related problems. According to Stewart et al. (2017), diet is an intervention that plays a crucial role in predicting cardiovascular disease risks, but not much evidence is available about direct guidelines for people. For example, in the United States, there is the American Heart Association (AHA) that aims at developing various methods to promote healthy eating. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) contain recommendations on how to use low-sugar products, including vegetables, fruits, and grains (Stewart et al., 2017). Diets that are high in saturated fats and cholesterol are also preferable to assist in stabilizing blood pressure (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). When patients have cardiovascular problems, their care plans are usually based on sugarless and saltiness diets.

More attention should be paid to salt and its impact on people’s tastes and health. In the majority of cases, people cannot stop using salt to add taste to their food. Millions of people around the globe take salt-water baths to improve the skin’s condition. The point is that salt consists of a number of elements, and one of them is sodium. The consumption of salty products must be minimized because sodium is associated with water retention, which, in its turn, provokes high blood pressure and heart failure risks (Bowen et al., 2018). Allowed limits of sodium are between <1500-2400 mg/day to achieve a blood pressure-lowering effect (Bowen et al., 2018). However, complete removal of salt from a daily ration is never recommended because the presence of this element in the organism has its positive outcomes.

Nowadays, people get access to a variety of diets that meet their preferences and physiological changes and depend on geographical locations. For example, Mediterranean diets focus on the diversity of fruits, vegetables, grains, fish, and dairy and reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke (Lanier et al., 2016). Swedish diet that is characterized by a low intake of fat and sugar contributes to managing the risks of ischemic heart disease (Lanier et al., 2016). In many developing and developed countries, people follow the principles of the DASH diet because the results of cohort studies prove the connection between dietary changes and cardiovascular outcomes (Lanier et al., 2016). Patients who have coronary artery disease should include the DASH diet to their treatment plan and focus on the consumption of nuts, low-fat dairy products, and whole grains. In the world, there are many dietary interventions that depend on the quality of food and its accessibility in regions. Even if a person is not diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, physicians discuss the worth of specific diets to predict strokes and other heart-related complications.

Talking about dietary interventions, one should admit the importance of switching products and substances in the system. For example, saturated fats should be replaced with polyunsaturated fats (Stewart et al., 2017). Proteins are helpful in stabilizing the functions of the heart, and it is necessary to balance meat, fish, and vegetables that are rich in protein. The addition of the food that is rich in fiber is also considered as a healthy diet for people who are at risk of having heart problems (Bowen et al., 2018). These diets are effective for patients who try to manage their diabetes complications. Alcohol is not dangerous if normal limits are followed (one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men) (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Still, if a person has already diagnosed with heart disease, many doctors share the same thought – a total avoidance of alcohol.

The Role of Exercise Training on Cardiovascular Disease Management

The improvement of lifestyle modifications is an obligatory step in promoting a positive impact of health outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease. Although mortality and morbidity ratings due to physical exercises are minimal, the benefits of these initiatives cannot be ignored (Stewart et al., 2017). Guidelines and recommendations for society are usually developed by professional organizations and communities, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is one of them. In other words, people are not obliged to participate in exercises and physical training. Still, NICE continues offering different ways to promote health and reduce risks. The most common tasks include 150 minutes of moderately intensive aerobic activities or 75 minutes of dynamic activities per week (Stewart et al., 2017). Muscle strengthening is another activity that should occur once or twice per week (Stewart et al., 2017). However, people who are at risk of having heart problems should consult their therapists if the offered modification is appropriate for their specific health conditions.

The lack or absence of physical activities may result in the growth of heart disease and related physiological and health changes such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Following several simple exercises regularly helps burn calories and maintains a healthy weight, which results in decreasing obesity and cholesterol problems (“The many ways exercise helps your heart,” 2018). The promotion of positive physiological and mood changes is also observed because the arteries are able to dilate (“The many ways exercise helps your heart,” 2018). There is one fact that has to be understood by all people who want to use physical activities as a means to predict cardiovascular disease: one or two irregular interventions are hardly effective. To achieve positive results and feel changes, exercises must be regular and last more than one week or even month. In addition, it is better to stop smoking, which may become one of the most cost-effective interventions (Stewart et al., 2017). When all these recommendations and hints on how to protect the heart from damage are properly followed, people get an opportunity to reach the full effect of cardiovascular disease prevention.

Combined Dietary and Exercise Interventions in Cardiovascular Events

The control of health conditions that increase cardiovascular risks is possible plays a crucial role. Individuals who take care of their dietary habits and reduce the use of unhealthy food experience face fewer or no problems with blood pressure that is a major risk factor for heart disease (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). People who take physical exercises regularly also get an opportunity of reducing obesity-related problems, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels (Stewart et al., 2017). The combination of dietary and exercise interventions is frequently recommended by their therapists and cardiologist for older adult patients with heart disease (Ruan et al., 2018). Some people find it normal to reduce the intake of fat or salty products without a professional medical examination or exhaust themselves with regular exercise to achieve the desired weight. Such decisions may cause more harm than positive outcomes because not all bodies are ready for these physiological changes. Therefore, in all cases, professional recommendations and medical experts’ support have to be recognized.

Another important aspect to remember is that certain health improvements due to exercises and diets are observed with time. It means that any practice (either diet or exercise) should not be a one-day initiative (“The many ways exercise helps your heart,” 2018). People have to develop special plans and follow them regularly during at least a month. In other words, if a person sticks to a diet during 1-2 weeks only, no evident results and positive changes in regard to cardiovascular disease prevention could be observed. Several physical activities once or twice per year would be hardly effective, and the threat of cardiovascular disease exists. As soon as a physician discovers the risk of cardiovascular disease, additional tests should be taken to examine the condition of the patient. When no evident threats associated with lifestyle changes are approved, further dietary changes or physical activities may be added to a treatment plan. In general, cooperation with a healthcare expert, keeping a diet and exercises on track, and following recommendations have to be a long-time procedure, with regular improvements and changes as per personal health characteristics.

The idea to combine exercise and diet is successfully promoted if participants consider the basics of both initiatives. In the United States, physicians support behavioral counseling even for people without evident cardiovascular risk factors (Lanier et al., 2016). The analysis of individual factors in the promotion of adherence to physical and nutritional interventions is required. Only when a person is ready for change, receives appropriate social support, and uses community resources, the reduction of heart problems is possible (Lanier et al., 2016). A sedentary lifestyle (the lack of a healthy diet and physical activities) is dangerous for a human heart (Saleh & Ambrose, 2018). In addition, people cannot control the impact of risk factors and comorbidities on cardiovascular disease (Ruan et al., 2018). Therefore, instead of provoking new problems, exercises and diet cannot be ignored. The combination of these interventions is characterized by the reduction of blood pressure problems and weight growth, which are the major risks of cardiovascular disease.


Cardiovascular diseases may vary, depending on symptoms and individual factors. The choice of a diet and the desire to take physical exercises regularly improve health, contribute to a healthy lifestyle, and predict the growth of risk factors in older adults. However, significant changes in body weight and blood pressure are not enough to protect the population against cardiovascular diseases. Many health conditions provoke the heart’s damage or dysfunction of the brain. Therefore, attention to existing comorbidities and external factors, along with diet and exercise, is always required. In this research paper, the effects of exercise and diet on human hearts were discussed through the prism of the analysis of cardiovascular diseases, its types, and risk factors. In addition, the effectiveness of a combination of physical activities and nutritional recommendations was proved by evaluating their separate outcomes and their suitability.


The ADA’s Medical Knowledge Team. (2018). Cardiovascular disease risk factors. ADA.

Bowen, K. J., Sullivan, V. K., Kris-Etherton, P. M., & Petersen, K. S. (2018). Nutrition and cardiovascular disease – An update. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 20(2).

Cannie, D. E., Akhtar, M. M., & Elliott, P. (2019). Hidden in heart failure. European Cardiology Review, 14(2), 89-96.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Know your risk for heart disease. CDC.

Hickey, A., Mellon, L., Williams, D., Shelley, E., & Conroy, R. M. (2018). Does stroke health promotion increase awareness of appropriate behavioural response? Impact of the face, arm, speech and time (FAST) campaign on population knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs and emergency response. European Stroke Journal, 3(2), 117-125.

Lanier, J. B., Bury, D. C., & Richardson, S. W. (2016). Diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention. American Family Physician, 93(11), 919-924.

The many ways exercise helps your heart. (2018). Harvard Health Publishing.

Ruan, Y., Guo, Y., Zheng, Y., Huang, Z., Sun, S., Kowal, P., Shi, Y., & Wu, F. (2018). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: Results from SAGE Wave 1. BMC Public Health, 18(1).

Saleh, M., & Ambrose, J. A. (2018). Understanding myocardial infarction. F1000Research, 7.

Stewart, J., Manmathan, G., & Wilkinson, P. (2017). Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A review of contemporary guidance and literature. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease, 6.

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