Communication is an instrumental tool which facilitates effective interaction among individuals. Although it is vital in improving interpersonal relationships, most people take it for granted and fail to enhance their communication skills. It can be either verbal or nonverbal, and the type used to exchange information or ideas is influenced by various factors, including the parties involved as well as the environment. Verbal communication involves the conveyance of a message using oral or written words. Conversely, nonverbal communication uses body language to send a particular message. While verbal and nonverbal communications involve transferring and receiving information and are not connected to the brain, they are significantly different in such features as structure, miscommunication, continuousness, and distance and time.
Verbal communication develops differently in various cultures and is structured while nonverbal communication is not. Verbal communication is regulated by grammar rules to ensure that the conveyed message is clear (Wahyuni 80). This aspect of specific pattern of communication is vital since it guarantees a similar understanding of a particular message among the individuals using the same language. Conversely, nonverbal communication lacks a definite array of conveying a message. It has no guiding rules, and one can interpret the sent information according to their wish. Nevertheless, nonverbal communication has an instrumental role in supporting verbal communication to enhance meaning of sent information.
The chances of miscommunication in verbal communications are significantly lower than in nonverbal communication. Notably, every word used in verbal communication has a specific meaning, minimizing the possibility of being misinterpreted. The intended message significance is preserved even when words are translated into other languages. Conversely, there are numerous facial expressions which people can make using muscles in their faces. The lexes depend on how someone responds to a particular stimulus. Additionally, there are types of nonverbal communications whose meaning varies from one culture to another (Wahyuni 82). For instance, avoiding direct eye contact when speaking to an older person is a sign of respect in some cultures, but it can be interpreted as a person being shy. Therefore, the likelihoods of misinterpreting nonverbal communication are high, mainly when cultural background differs.
The chances of miscommunication depending on situations and places are also lower in verbal communication than in nonverbal communication. Whereas one receives immediate feedback when using verbal communication, it is impossible in nonverbal communication because it takes some time to show the emotions (Wahyuni 82). Indeed, an individual has to process the meaning of a message conveyed verbally before responding nonverbally. The tone of verbal communication minimizes the possibility of miscommunication in different situations, even when someone is playacting. However, miscommunication can be inevitable in various places, such as Asia and the United States because of varying cultures. Nevertheless, misunderstanding of nonverbal communication does not occur in all situations. Thus, verbal communication is easily influenced by social as well as cultural factors.
Distance is insignificant in verbal communication, and it takes a short period of time to convey a message, contrary to nonverbal communication. People use different means of sending information such as phone calls, letters, and chats to transmit messages. The distance does not matter even though one has to choose the medium wisely to guarantee effective communication. However, long-distance inhibits nonverbal communication, requiring individuals’ face-to-face interaction to show and receive a particular message. Additionally, it is time consuming compared to verbal communication. One can take time to receive and interpret nonverbal messages before giving appropriate feedback. Therefore, verbal communication is faster, efficient, and convenient regardless of location of involved parties.
Contrary to nonverbal communication, verbal communication has limited continuousness because it is easier for someone to interrupt. It has a starting point when one initiates communication and stops when it is terminated or interrupted. Different factors such as sound and visible movements can interrupt verbal communication. On the other hand, nonverbal communication continues without inference once it is initiated. Nonverbal cues are evident even when individuals have stopped talking. For instance, people smile or laugh after they comment on something good. Therefore, nonverbal communication can endure external elements that interfere with transmission of information.
Despite the differences between nonverbal and verbal communication, their role and usage consistency are similar. Both forms of communication involve sending and receiving messages, regardless of the medium used to transmit information. In most cases, individuals use verbal and nonverbal communication in parallel to guarantee the useful meaning of the anticipated outcomes (Bhat and Kingsley 39). Nonverbal communication has various functions such as reinforcement, regulation, accentuation, and substitution. Moreover, both verbal and nonverbal communication are not inherent because they are learned. People learn how to pronounce words, write well-structured sentences, and use their faces and other parts of the body to convey a meaningful message. Further, they have no direct connection to the brain of individuals. Undeniably, the brain only receives, processes and interprets messages, and generates appropriate feedback. Thus, verbal and nonverbal communications complement each other to enhance the meaning of conveyed messages.
In conclusion, verbal and nonverbal communication differ in structure, miscommunication, continuousness, and distance and time. Verbal communication is regulated by grammar rules, has minimum miscommunication possibilities, is not inhibited by distance, takes a short time, and is quickly interrupted, contrary to nonverbal communication. However, common features associated with verbal and nonverbal communication are that they are not inherent or directly connected to individual’s brain and involve transferring and receiving of information. Additionally, they are used in parallel in most cases, with nonverbal playing the role of reinforcement or accentuation of particular message.
Bhat, B. Vishnu, and Manoj Kumar Kingsley. “Effective Non-Verbal Communication.” Effective Medical Communication, edited by Subhash Chandra Parija and Balachandra V. Adkoli, Springer, 2020, pp. 39–47.
Wahyuni, Akhtim. “The Power of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Learning”. Proceedings of the 1St International Conference on Intellectuals’ Global Responsibility (ICIGR 2017), vol. 125, 2018, pp. 80-83. Web.
“The Nature Of Things: Biomimicry”: Article Analysis
Written texts, whether scientific or entertaining, short articles or books, mostly follow several linguistic criteria. Texts may differ in the style of writing, the primary purpose of the author, and the main purpose of the reader. Such standards are crucial for authors, as it makes the structure of the working process more manageable and gives a clear understanding of the purpose of the text.
- The nature of things: Biomimicry is a science-based article, which is built on research and straight facts. Unlike several other scientific research papers, this article is written in a descriptive style that various age groups can understand. The author begins the piece with a dictionary-based definition of the word “biomimicry”, in order to ease the understanding. The article contains four main sections that explain how natural camouflage has been implemented into people’s daily lives. The author provides different examples to give a public image of each point.
The author’s primary purpose is to briefly and clearly convey the main idea of natural and human camouflage to the reader. The author adds several eye-catching images for the purpose of a better delivery of the given examples. In the last paragraph of the article, the author poses rhetorical questions, attracting the reader’s attention. Such technique makes the reader pause and reflect.
From a reader’s perspective, the primary purpose of reading this article is to find intelligible, science-based information on camouflage use. Such text can be of interest to students and concerned people for educational purposes. The informal and detailed style of the text can also attract readers for entertainment purposes. As the text is divided into structural elements, it gives a thorough and engaging description of how camouflage was implemented into daily life.
In conclusion, written works can differ in various ways, including the purpose and style of the work, the author’s purpose, and the reader’s purpose. The provided article is a descriptive, scientific-based research paper. It gives the reader a full explanation of what camouflage is and how it developed. The reader’s interest can vary from educational purposes to entertainment, as the work is written in an understandable, non-formal manner.
Organizational Culture, Structure, And Leadership In The 21st Century
International as well as local companies of the 21st century have to change their missions, organizational culture, structure, power division, reward system, and leadership styles. These changes are unavoidable if the companies want to remain competitive in a global rapidly-changing market. As the world becomes more and more interconnected and interrelated, the business environment dictates new rules and creates new challenges for multinational corporations.
Environmental issues such as increasing pollution and global warming pose ethical dilemmas for leaders who have responsibility to maintain culturally tolerant working environments for employees all over the world and to ensure safe working conditions. Competitive and efficient organization of the 21st century promotes integrity, cooperation, teamwork, support, participative leadership, tolerance, informal organization structure, and performance-based reward system.
Vision and value statements define how people interact with each other as well as set the direction on how to treat customers and the internal community. According to the research, the top values in terms of popularity are professionalism, diligence, integrity, cooperation, and good humor; while the least popular personal values are competition and stability (Hyde & Williamson 2000). Vision, as the statement of what the organization would like to become, holds all employees proud and excited for being part of the company and, therefore, should reflect the personal values of employees. Effective vision strengthens an organization’s image from inside (employees) and outside (customers, suppliers).
Vision of the international company has to shape and provide direction of the company’s future. For example, international company of the 21st century might have the following value statement: “To provide all people with the access to quality and safe products despite of their income”. The mission statement might be the following: “To ensure integrity among employees and customers, to promote credibility of products and services, and to maintain flexibility of operations.”
The issue of organization culture is highly important for companies operating in the 21st century. Organizational culture is vital for successful organizational change and maximization of human capital potential. In addition, culture management has become a critical managerial competency. The right working culture is an essential condition for organizational success. Managers of international business units are responsible for development of the most effective culture even if the change is required. Ideal new multinational company has to reflect appreciation of integrity, collaboration, loyalty, diversity, tolerance, as well as include fundamental values and behavioral norms. In particular, discrimination and prejudice of any form are totally eliminated.
Unlike traditional strong organizational culture which stressed commitment, solidarity, identity, and sameness, new companies are oriented on responsiveness, cooperation, focus on performance, and diversity. As Kathryn Baker (2002) has noted, the mission hypothesis and participation hypothesis are more relevant to the new business environment.
For example, mission hypothesis is based on the idea that shared mission, purpose, direction, and strategy coordinate and direct employees towards collective goals; while participation hypothesis promotes the idea that involvement of all employees contributes to the sense of responsibility and, therefore, ensures loyalty and commitment. New company integrates organizational culture which promotes responsibility, is focused on loyalty, and establishes open informal cooperation and participative leadership. It means that organizational structure is decentralized.
Companies of the 21st century have decentralized organization and establish participative managerial practices. While formal communication is preserved as essential element of documentation and subordination, informal communication is promoted to motivate cooperation among employees and to ensure sharing of ideas. Hierarchical structure with bosses at the top and everyone else beneath them (Willax 2001) is not longer acceptable. Employees are not treated as impersonal human machines. Maximum control does not ensure the best use of talented and increasingly expensive human resources. Informal communication channels are established by the people who are involved in organizational processes at all levels. Flexibility gives employees an opportunity to determine their own channels of communication. Moreover, self-organization is encouraged and layers of management disappear.
Organizational structure is based on the pie-share model (Willax 2001) under which leaders and employees are encouraged to participate freely, to share ideas, suggestions, as well as criticism and responsibility. New companies create favorable environment promoting efficaciously mobilized groups of employees able to meet the set objectives and highly adaptable to changes. Reactions and actions are mostly spontaneous and employees are empowered to act as needed immediately to accomplish the mission. Liberalization of organization structure is inclined to experiment, innovation, ingenuity, and creativity.
New organizations streamline and simplify line-management and vertical structures and the roles of line managers are narrowed (Bryan & Joyce 2005). Teams consisting of representatives of several lines are created to discover opportunities and ensure dynamic management processes. Knowledge and talent marketplaces are developed to stimulate exchange of professional employees. The company becomes more reliant on performance measures rather than supervision to stimulate self-motivated and self-directed individuals. New organizational structure supports clarity of reporting relationships, responsibility and accountability of the line managers who ensure that short-term expectations are met. Multilayer tasks (development and launching of the new products or redesigning fundamental technology) are carried out by small groups of focused individuals who are granted freedom to innovate, discover something new, and try recent developments (Bryan & Joyce 2005).
New leadership philosophy is integrated: shared leadership, leadership in community, and leadership as relationship (Sandmann & Vandenberg 1995). Shared leadership is distributed and group-centered. Under participative leadership, every employee has an opportunity to participate in decision making process. Leadership in community puts community as the setting in which the leadership occurs.
The shift from competition towards cooperation is made. Companies are open to practice new ways of relations and promote sharing of such values as trust, tolerance, and commitment. Leadership as relationships is built upon the concept of partnership, participation, service, and empowerment. Thus, leadership of the new companies is holistic, centered in groups, with community being the driving force, and vision being the heart of leadership. New companies are evolving from individual-centered leadership approach to a collective-centered one focused on building productive and motivating relationships.
Successful leader is insightful, challenge-oriented, and decisive. He identifies business opportunities prior to competitors and analyzes informational in all possible directions. He is passionate about achieving the goal and is willing to attack competition and is devoted to continuous self-improvement (Tice 2007). New leaders are adaptable and are willing to help organization to develop capacity to adapt as well. They are self-aware and tackle the challenges within and outside of their organizations. Leader assumes responsibility for fulfillment of organizational goals and is ready to share decision making process with others.
New leaders promote purposefulness and have a strong vision of company’s direction. Leader is decisive and collaborative. He desires to reach consensus and make the best possible decision as well as creates organizational culture that fosters sharing of ideas. New leader encourages innovation and creativity. Finally, leaders of the 21st century are capable of setting a vision and developing execution plan to reach the desired results.
The leader understands that effective people management is the source of competitive advantage and works on integration of human management and business strategy. As the result, the traditional reward systems are replaced with the innovative ones. In particular, new reward systems are based on employees’ contribution (Chen & Hsieh, 2006), competency and performance. Skills, knowledge, and abilities determine the reward of every employee.
The pay is influenced by the competencies required to perform the duties successfully and to run the company. Rewarding for performance, productivity and accomplishment holds employees responsible for specific objectives. Reward system combines variable pay, recognition, celebration, and benefits as vital elements of total reward package. Effective reward tools include training opportunities, development opportunities, recognition vehicles, flexible schedules, and caring messages to employees (Chen & Hsieh, 2006).
Baker, K. (2002). Organizational Culture, Chapter 11. Web.
Chen, H.M. & Hsieh, Y.H. (2006). Key Trends of the Total Reward System in the 21st Century. Compensation Benefits Review, 38 (64).
Hyde, P. & Williamson, B. (2000). The Importance of Organizational Values. Focus on Change Management, 67, 9-13.
Lowell, B. & Joyce, C. (2005). The 21st-Century Organization. Big corporations must make sweeping organizational changes to get the best from their professionals. The McKinsey Quarterly. Web.
Sandmann, L. & Vandenberg, L. (1995). A Framework for 21st Century Leadership. Journal of Extension, 33 (6). Web.
Tice, C. (2007). Building the 21st Century Leader. Entrepreneur Magazine. Web.
Willax, P. (2001). “Fluid” is the world in the 21st century organizational structure. Business First of Louisville Journal.