Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, And Compassion Satisfaction Among Oncology Nurses Essay Example


Although the needs of nurses are often overlooked in a hospital setting, staff members may face serious health issues due to an inadequate schedule, workplace pressure, and similar factors increasing stress. Thus, tools for handling the problem and reducing the pressure under which nurses are forced to work is required. In their article “Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Oncology Nurses in the United States and Canada,” Wu, Singh-Carlson, Odell, Reynolds, and Su (2016) shed light on the problem of empathy among nurses suffering from work pressure.

Research Question

The authors of the study set the goal of exploring the phenomenon of compassion fatigue among nurses. Moreover, Wu et al. (2016) state that they attempt at locating the connection between compassion, workplace satisfaction, empathy, and the levels of fatigue among nurses. Therefore, the research question can be formulated in the following way: “What are the connections between compassion fatigue, workplace burnouts, and work satisfaction levels among oncology nurses in the Canadian Association of Nursing Oncology?” By answering the specified question, the authors of the research attempt at not only exploring the nature of the phenomenon but also create the setting in which nurses will not be subjected to the same amount of pressure and thus, will be capable of delivering improved services.

Research Design

Since the question that the authors of the research seek to ask is primarily aimed at determining the relationships between the selected variables and possibly quantifying them rather than exploring their nature, Wu et al. (2016) have chosen the quantitative method. However, since an additional insight into the phenomenon is required, the quantitative method chosen for the study is descriptive and non-experimental. Thus, a detailed analysis of the problem can be conducted, and the links between the external factors affecting nurses and the development of compassion fatigue can be located.


For their study, Wu et al. (2016) use the approach based on convenience sampling. Implying that the research participants gathered in a sample are located in the close proximity to the researchers, convenience sampling may have led to the creation of certain research biases. For example, the choice of the participants that were located in the same area may have led to the misrepresentation of the target population. Particularly, the levels of diversity within the specified sample are likely to be questionable at best. Nevertheless, the use of the convenience sampling strategy allows studying the problem fast and saving a significant amount of resources, which is essential for the study that seeks to address the needs of nurses suffering from emotional issues. 486 participants were selected from the United States, while Canada was represented by 63 nurses.

Data Collection

The process of gathering the required information involved using a modification of the Abendroth Demographic Questionnaire (ADQ). After the responses to the questions from the identified tool had been submitted, the authors performed a statistical analysis of the information with the help of the ProQOL scale, which is similar to a Likert-type tool. Thus, the answers to the questionnaire were quantified successfully to locate a tendency observed in the oncologic nursing setting. The ADQ tool has a long history of being applied to conduct nursing research and quantifying the results (Mangoulia, Koukia, Alevizopoulos, Fildissis, & Katostaras, 2015). Therefore, it served its purpose perfectly by allowing to measure the degree to which respondents experienced compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction, as well as the extent to which they felt being burnt out.


Although the results of the study can be regarded as credible, there were several limitations that may have affected the outcomes of the analysis slightly. For instance, the selected approach toward sampling has led to the selection of a rather small number of participants. As a result, it could be argued that the target demographic has not received the required representation, and that the research results lack credibility. In addition, as Wu et al. (2016) admit, the study did not include a sufficient number of male participants. Consequently, the outcomes of the analysis may require further adjustments when applied to meet the needs of male patients. Nevertheless, the located limitations did not become the hindrances that would make the outcomes of the study illegitimate. Despite minor issues in the representation of the target population, the study has provided a profound assessment of the subject matter and proven the existence of the link between the variables under analysis.


The research results indicate that there is an evident link between compassion fatigue, workplace burnout, and compassion satisfaction. When being put under significant strain, nurses are incapable of developing an emotional connection with their patients. As a result, the quality of care deteriorates, leading to poor patient outcomes. In addition, nurses also tend to develop health issues, particularly, mental health concerns associated with depression and stress.


An analysis of compassion fatigue and the relevant issues in nurses operating in the oncology department was conducted by Wu et al. (2016). The study has shown that there is a direct link between the well-being of nurses and the degree to which they engage emotionally with patients’ needs. Thus, the article provides a platform for the further research that will allow reducing the levels of strain under which nurses are put in the identified setting.


Mangoulia, P., Koukia, E., Alevizopoulos, G., Fildissis, G., & Katostaras, T. (2015). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among psychiatric nurses in Greece. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 29(5), 333-338. Web.

Wu, S., Singh-Carlson, S., Odell, A., Reynolds, G., & Su, Y. (2016, July). Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses in the United States and Canada. Oncology Nursing Forum, 43(4), 161-169. Web.

Diabetes Issues In The United States And Florida

Diabetes is a serious issue both in the US and in Florida in particular. In the state, it is number six in the list of illnesses that cause death (“Proven Community Based Lifestyle Change Program,” n.d.). According to the program, 7.1% of the population in the state has the disease. Furthermore, more than a million people have pre-diabetes – a condition that leads to the development of the disease if no intervention is implemented (“Proven Community Based Lifestyle Change Program,” n.d.). Without it, 15% to 30% of those will develop type two diabetes in 5 years. That is why it is essential for those people to be aware of the issue. In Florida, several facilities offer help to patients with the issue and to those that have a risk of having diabetes. Those are the Florida Diabetes Prevention Program, The Diabetes Center in Miami, and the Diabetes Prevention Program in YMCA. Due to the nature of the disease, the focus of the presented programs is on prevention (weight loss and nutrition) and managing diabetes (lifestyle guidance).

The Florida Diabetes Prevention Program (FDPP) focuses on the lifestyle improvement aspect of the illness. In addition, by participating in the program, the risk of pre-diabetes becoming type two diabetes decreases by 50%. The program offers a test in the form of a questionnaire that allows a person to determine whether he or she is at risk of having pre-diabetes. The FDPP provides a one-year program, which includes weekly meetings for sixteen weeks and monthly meetings afterward. The focus is on weight loss (from 5% to 7% of the body mass), which is done with the assistance of trained professionals. It is based on the research of the National Institute of Health and is designed to improve the quality of life.

The program takes place at several locations across the state, which can be found on the website. To sign up, one must refer to the healthcare provider. People that are eligible for this program should be diagnosed with pre-diabetes by a nurse or a doctor, have a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or more, have fasting plasma glucose of 100-125 or hemoglobin A1c of 5.7-6.4. The cost varies from no fee to $500 per patient (“Proven Community Based Lifestyle Change Program,” n.d.). The Florida Diabetes Prevention Program provides an evidence-based agenda to lower the risk of type two diabetes.

Diabetes Center Miami is focused on providing help to individuals who have diabetes and want to manage it properly. It is a part of the American Diabetes Association Provider of Excellence. The center helps people by providing them with support and education from medical professionals. The outcome is proper disease management and improvement of life quality. The patients get adequate guidance in nutrition, knowledge about diabetes, and lifestyle advices that can improve their lives. Additionally, an important aspect is support from healthcare professionals. The plan that the center offers is tailored to each case. The fees for participation can vary. To be eligible one must be diagnosed with diabetes and to sign up, a person should call to make an appointment or leave contact information on the website (Diabetes Center Miami, n.d.). The center offers professional help to individuals with the disease, which is essential in improving their quality of life.

The Diabetes Prevention Program at the YMCA is an education and lifestyle management program for those who are at risk of developing the disease. To be eligible, one must be at least 18 years old, and have a BMI of 25 or more (or BMI of 22 or more for Asian individuals), and be at risk of developing diabetes. It is a sixteen-week program, which offers nutrition and exercising guide from professionals (“YMCA Diabetes Prevention Program,” n.d.). The goal is to help individuals with a pre-diabetes state to lose weight and manage their eating habits. The fee for the program vary and should be requested individually. In addition, a membership to the YMCA is included in the cost for the program (“YMCA Diabetes Prevention Program,” n.d.). The Diabetes Prevention Program at the YMCA is a critical educational facility for individuals at risk of having diabetes as it offers support and guidance to them and helps them lower the chances of developing the disease.

Vulnerable populations seeking these services can encounter several issues. Most of them will be associated with the costs and accessibility. Firstly, the presented programs may or may not be covered by insurance. Some individuals may avoid signing up because of fears associated with prices. Then, these programs are focused on helping adults, leaving children without proper assistance. Finally, they do not offer other languages, for example, for Spanish-speaking individuals that can be a challenge to those for whom English is not native. The advantages are that prevention of the disease by exercising and proper nutrition is less expensive than fees associated with medical expenses for those who have diabetes (“Proven Community Based Lifestyle Change Program,” n.d.).


Diabetes Center Miami. (n.d.). Welcome to Diabetes Center Miami. Web.

Proven Community Based Lifestyle Change Program. (n.d.). Web.

YMCA Diabetes Prevention Program. (n.d.). Web.

Change Management In Healthcare: Using The Principles Of Transformational Leadership


Managing change in a nursing environment is a challenging task due to the lack of the values, philosophy, and guidelines that allow nurses to improve their performance. In addition, the lack of motivation is evident in the specified context. However, the introduction of the principles of Transformational Leadership (TL) is expected to alter the current situation. Because of the focus on all stakeholders involved, as well as the promotion of engagement and enthusiasm, TL is believed to produce impressive results. Particularly, a drop in workplace burnouts, a rise in the levels of staff motivation, and a general improvement of service quality is expected.


What makes the realm of healthcare special is the necessity to upgrade the quality of provided services on a regular basis. Continuous enhancement of efficiency is crucial in a nursing environment since it increases the probability of a positive outcome. Therefore, the adoption of a leadership technique that could lead to the gradual transformation of nurses and the promotion of knowledge and skills acquisition among them is vital. It is assumed that the principles of the Transformational Leadership (TL) approach will help improve the quality of medical services and the conditions in which nurses work.

In addition, to encourage change in the nursing context, one will also have to deploy innovative technology, particularly, tools for communication and patient monitoring. The specified step will also require the use of TL since nurses will need to acquire skills for managing the specified devices. Thus, the threat of medical errors will be reduced since a range of procedures will become automated (Boamah, Laschinger, Wong, & Clarke, 2018). Moreover, TL will help manage some of the organizational issues that may emerge during the alterations in the workplace environment. For instance, some staff members may be unwilling to reconsider their workplace behavior and accept new knowledge. Since the transfer to the philosophy of the continuous improvement as the foundation for providing high-quality services will demand an impressive effort, some employees are likely to refuse to make it. Consequently, the problems associated with the promotion of a new corporate philosophy will need to be acknowledged and addressed.

Theoretical Framework

In order to introduce change to the target environment, one will need to select Rogers’ Change Theory (RCT), which is a modification of Lewin’s Change Theory (LCT). While the latter provides a seemingly sufficient platform for promoting change with its three stages of freezing, moving, and unfreezing, RCT offers a more elaborate framework. RCT incorporates five stages, which include awareness, interest, evaluation, implementation and adoption (Mohammadi, ‎ Poursaberi, & Salahshoor, 2018). The suggested tool allows exploring change and locating the methods of institutionalizing it.

Literature Review

In order to explore the effects of TL on the quality of nursing care, the number of positive patient outcomes, and the quality of nurses’ life one will need to adopt the theoretical framework that will help to consider the observed factors. To attain the required results one will have to use Neuman’s Systems Model as the foundation for promoting change. The selected framework will allow addressing patients’ unique needs and focus on the active promotion of innovative ideas.

Studies indicate that there is a strong need in introducing new tools for improving the quality of care. For example, a paper by Top, Akdere, and Tarcan (2015) explains that the use of TL strategies will allow building the levels of workplace commitment high. Consequently, nurses will treat their responsibilities with greater care and concern. Furthermore, the significance of TL for healthcare workers also needs to be explored in depth. For example, the application of TL will contribute to a rapid rise in the quality of nurses’ lives, as recent research suggests (Top et al., 2015). Therefore, the active promotion of the proposed framework for managing nursing issues is essential. Therefore, the effects of TL will need to be measured based on different aspects of nursing, including organizational issues, structural levels of a hospital’s functioning, promotion of innovations, and meeting the needs of providers and patients.

Furthermore, the use of innovative approaches and especially the adoption of the electronic Health records (EHR) system will help to keep patients’ data safe. The identified detail is particularly important in the era of IT innovations and the increase in the number and intensity of cyberattacks (Lavin, Harper, & Barr, 2015). Because of the threat to which patients’ personal data is subjected, the use of TL as a tool for enhancing their security must be studied.


Over the past several years, numerous technologies for improving the quality of care have appeared. For instance, the opportunity for keeping health records of all patients within the confinements of a single system should be mentioned as an important achievement (Bates et al., 2014). The Electronic Health records (EHR) system has allowed reducing the number of medical errors and meting patient-specific needs without omitting crucial information. The application of the specified strategy, however, is fraught with problems due to the lack of connectivity between healthcare facilities across the state.

To conduct the study and define the efficiency of TL, one will need to use the quantitative method. A survey that will help detail the effects of Tl on the efficiency of care, recovery rates, and the improvement in nurses’ quality of life will have to be designed. The survey will include ten Likert-scale questions inviting nurses and patients to define their levels of satisfaction. The pre- and post-intervention responses will be compared using Student t-test as the platform for the analysis. The survey will be distributed among patients and nurses form several local hospitals. Its further analysis will help see the algorithm in the implementation of the TL-based approach.

Data Analysis

A sample of 225 participants (106 patients and 119 nurses) was selected for the study. The questionnaire was sent to the target demographic via e-mail. After the participants had provided their responses to the survey questions, it became evident that there was a strong tendency in the improvement of care, a rise in the levels of patients’ and nurses’ motivation, and an overall improvement in the communication techniques used within the selected healthcare settings.

Furthermore, the outcomes of the analysis have shown that the active focus on communication during TL strategy implementation leads to massive improvements as the key algorithm to deploy. It is imperative to maintain the dialogue between nurses and managers, as well as patients and nurses, to ensure the effective management of the target populations’ needs. Finally, the importance of the consistent learning has been proven for both nurses and patients. The former need the active education to maintain the quality of services high and be able to address the needs of diverse audiences. Patients, in turn, require education to be capable of locating a health threat and seeking the support of professionals.

Applicability to Nursing

The general process of managing change will be aimed at not only introducing alterations to the existing approach toward managing stakeholders’ needs but also institutionalizing them. Put differently, the phenomenon of the consistent improvement and change as the integral part of the nursing process will have to be incorporated into the current set of values and standards of performance. For this purpose, the Six Sigma tool, particularly, the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) model will have to be deployed (McFadden, Lee, Gowen, & Sharp, 2014). Resistance to change will be handled by providing staff members with a role model that they can follow and offering them incentives along with a shift in values. Furthermore, the active use of IT tools for maintaining the communication between nurses and patients consistent, controlling changes in patients’ health status, and keeping their records in order will be needed.

The research has its limitations, the sample size being the key one Because of the use of a survey with a limited number of questions and a small number of participants as the key tool for gathering data, the research results may not be representative for the entirety of the target populations. Furthermore, one must test the plan experimentally in order to prove its viability and effectiveness in the environment of a nursing facility or a hospital. Therefore, a future study is needed as the means of proving the significance of TL in nursing.


Innovative health technology provides nurses and patients with extensive opportunities for a faster transfer of relevant information and a safer management of data. As a result, the quality of care improves significantly. However, what makes the suggested change especially meaningful for both patients and nurses is the use of TL. TL strategies help nurses to focus on the continuous improvement of the quality of services, whereas patients feel encouraged to educate themselves and learn more about health concerns, available resources, and the means of contacting healthcare services. Therefore, the proposed TL-based framework of the consistent improvement and IT use in the nursing setting must be seen as a necessity.


Bates, D. W., Saria, S., Ohno-Machado, L., Shah, A., & Escobar, G. (2014). Big data in health care: Using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients. Health Affairs, 33(7), 1123-1131. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0041

Boamah, S. A., Laschinger, H. K. S., Wong, C., & Clarke, S. (2018). Effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and patient safety outcomes. Nursing Outlook, 66(2), 180-189. doi:10.1016/j.outlook.2017.10.004

Lavin, M. A., Harper, E., & Barr, N. (2015). Health information technology, patient safety, and professional nursing care documentation in acute care settings. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 20(6), 1-6. doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol20No02PPT04

McFadden, K. L., Lee, J. Y., Gowen, C. R. I., & Sharp, B. M. (2014). Linking quality improvement practices to knowledge management capabilities. Quality Management Journal, 21(1), 42-58. doi:10.1080/10686967.2014.11918375

Mohammadi, M. M., Poursaberi, R., & Salahshoor, M. R. (2018). Evaluating the adoption of evidence-based practice using Rogers’s diffusion of innovation theory: A model testing study. Health Promotion Perspectives, 8(1), 25-32. doi:10.15171/hpp.2018.03

Top, M., Akdere, M., & Tarcan, M. (2015). Examining transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in Turkish hospitals: Public servants versus private sector employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(9), 1259-1282. doi:10.1080/09585192.2014.939987

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