Complex Impact Of Populism On Democracy In Europe Essay Sample For College


Populism is a political philosophy that sets the “common people” against a “corrupt elite” and promotes the idea that political power should come from the people. A charismatic leader who represents the “people’s will” bypasses institutional checks and balances is typical. Populism’s effects on democracy have been hotly debated in recent years. Populism may mobilize those who feel disenfranchised or disregarded by elites, promoting democratic involvement and regeneration. Others contend that populism undermines democratic norms and institutions, dividing society and possibly enabling authoritarianism.

In the European setting, this question becomes more difficult. Europe’s varied political terrain, history of social-democratic principles, and current left- and right-wing populist movements offer a fascinating context for the debate. Populist parties like Syriza in Greece and Fidesz in Hungary have emerged in response to economic crises, migratory changes, and EU authority doubts. Thus, this essay examines whether populism is “good” or “bad” for democracy in Europe through Benjamin Moffitt’s three components of populism: “The Performer,” “The Stage I: The Media,” and “The Stage II: Crisis.” This paper explores populism’s complex effects on democratic processes, pushing beyond basic dichotomies to a more nuanced view of populism in modern European politics.

Defining the Three Components of the Populist Political Style

“The Performer,” “The Stage I: The Media,” and “The Stage II: Crisis” are the three main components of populism, according to Benjamin Moffitt. These elements form the populist narrative, which underpins populist movements worldwide (Moffitt, 2016). We may better comprehend populism and democracy by researching both. “The Performer” refers to the movement’s populist leader. Unlike traditional politicians, these leaders are charismatic and accessible, claiming to represent the “common people.” They skilfully depict themselves as the cure to a system corrupted by elites detached from common folks’ sufferings and reality. The populist narrative revolves around this divide between “the people” and “the elite.” Using simple words and symbols that resonate with their fans, the Performer uses their unique ability to connect with them. The Performer’s direct relationship with the audience may mobilize large numbers for their cause.

‘The Stage I: The Media’ investigates media platforms’ role in promoting populist narratives. Populist performers utilize conventional and digital media to connect with audiences, spread their views, and influence public opinion(Moffitt, 2016). They emphasize the us-versus-them split in simple, emotionally attractive language to strengthen their base. Social media has become a powerful instrument for populist leaders to reach more people, build an echo chamber, and react quickly to events, especially in the digital era. They use any criticism or unfavorable coverage as proof of the elite’s plot against them and the “common people” as part of their media strategy.

Stage II: Crisis shows how catastrophes drive populist movements. Populist leaders use economic, political, and social disasters to demonstrate elite incompetence or malice (Moffitt, 2016). The public’s unhappiness and terror are fueled by the corrupt system’s inevitable catastrophes. By doing so, the populist leader establishes their position as the much-needed alternative who will save the people from the catastrophe. The charismatic Performer, the media as their Stage, and the Crisis work together in populist politics. Each component feeds and strengthens the others in an integrated system. In Europe’s varied and complicated socio-political context, understanding this trio is essential to understanding populism and its consequences on democracy.

How Populism Can Be “Good” for Democracy: An Analysis of the Three Components

Populism’s effects on democracy are complex, so it’s important to evaluate the positives. Moffitt (2016)’s three components of populism—Performer, Media, and Crisis—can clarify how populism may be “good” for democracy.

The Performer

In populist politics, the Performer may rally disadvantaged communities. Populist leaders typically appeal to marginalized communities (Judis, 2016). Populist performers may assist underprivileged communities, and the political process becomes more inclusive and representative by providing a voice to these people. The growth of leftist populist groups like Podemos in Spain and Syriza in Greece has provided a voice to the economically disadvantaged struck hardest by the European economic crisis.

Second, the Performer may help dismantle old political systems. At its core, populism disrupts the existing quo. In certain situations, this may lead to the dismantling of inefficient, sluggish, or corrupt political institutions (Moffitt, 2016). The Performer can catalyze change to create more democratic and responsive political arrangements.


In populism, the media may help democracy. Encouraging public participation is vital. Populist performers use media strategies that are emotionally resonant, simple, and engaging. This may boost political engagement and strengthen democracy (Moffitt, 2016).

Political transparency may also be promoted by the media. As populist performers utilize the media to define themselves against the “corrupt elite,” they typically emphasize corruption, lack of accountability, and the divide between established political leaders and the population. This may increase democratic integrity by pressuring political institutions to function more publicly and responsibly (March & Keith, 2016).


Finally, populist Performers may use crisis conditions to benefit democracy. Crisis-driven political change is the first step. Crises may spur structural adjustments that fix systemic problems and strengthen democracy (Moffitt, 2016).

Crisis-related public action is another possibility. A catastrophe may energize the people. As populist Performers frequently do, a catastrophe may energize the people to demand change and hold the government responsible. This active participation in politics may strengthen democracy (Akkerman, de Lange & Rooduijn, 2016).

In conclusion, populism poses many threats to democracy, but it may also enhance it. Populism may improve democratic processes by mobilizing disenfranchised people, disrupting obsolete political systems, increasing public participation and openness, and facilitating political change and public action in times of crisis.

How Populism Can Be “Bad” for Democracy: An Analysis of the Three Components

Populism’s complex relationship with democracy may harm democracy. Moffitt (2016)’s three components of populism—The Performer, The Media, and Crisis—provide a useful perspective for this inquiry.

The Performer

The Performer in populist politics may be autocratic. A charismatic leader who professes to represent the “voice of the people” is frequently at the core of populism. This simplistic concept of “the people” frequently ignores society’s pluralism and diversity, consolidating power in the leader’s hands (Moffitt, 2016). This concentration of power threatens democratic checks and balances and might lead to despotism, which goes against democratic power distribution and rule of law.

Populist performers may also sway popular opinion. They often use emotionally charged storylines to unite the population against imagined foes (Judis, 2016). This method can galvanize public action, but it may also be manipulated. This story may be used by performers to push personal political objectives that may not benefit the public.


Populism’s connection with the media may potentially threaten democracy. Populist performers use simple, compelling tales that might propagate disinformation (Moffitt, 2016). Political facts may be oversimplified, creating false tales. This disinformation may skew public knowledge of important topics, harming democratic governance’s informed decision-making.

The media may also exacerbate social differences. Populist performers often cast “the people” against “adversaries,” including political elites, immigrants, and other marginalized groups (Akkerman et al., 2016). This confrontational framing may deepen social divisions, increase antagonism, and cause social conflict.


Finally, populist Performers frequently use crisis events as double-edged swords. They may cause panic and political changes. Populist performers might portray crises as existential dangers from “corrupt elites” or “dangerous others,” instilling fear and anxiety in the populace (Moffitt, 2016). This fear might be used to justify limiting civil freedoms or overthrowing democratic institutions in the name of “protecting the people.”

Additionally, emergencies may be used for political benefit. Populist performers typically blame political elite failings for crises and promote themselves as the only remedy (March & Keith, 2016). This technique enables them to capitalize on public fear and anger, frequently consolidating their control and eroding democratic norms and institutions.

Populism may promote democracy, but it also carries significant hazards. These include Performer’s possible authoritarian inclinations, manipulating public emotion, distributing disinformation via the media, creating social divides, inciting fear and panic during crises, and using crises for personal political benefit. To defend and promote democracy, these risks must be recognized.

The Impact of Populism on Democracy in the European Context

Populism has grown throughout Europe, especially during the Great Recession. We must evaluate its pros and downsides to comprehend its influence on democracy. The growth of populism in Europe is distinct due to economic, social, and political aspects.

Positive Aspects

Democracy has benefited from Europe’s populism. Benefits include underrepresented voices rising. Politics has frequently ignored specific groups. These disenfranchised voices have been amplified by populist parties’ appeal to “ordinary people.” March & Keith (2016) show how populist movements throughout Europe have recruited marginalized communities. Disillusioned with the “elite” and socioeconomically poor, these groups may vent their displeasure and demand change via populist movements, making democratic discourse more inclusive.

Additionally, populist movements have increased political involvement. They’ve highlighted economic disparity, globalization’s harmful effects, and immigration. According to Akkerman et al. (2016), populist parties’ capacity to raise these problems has sparked public discussion and forced mainstream parties to reevaluate their positions. This has led to a more active populace and a more responsive political establishment, which are essential for democracy.

Negative Aspects

Populism’s emergence in Europe threatens democracy despite these benefits. Mudde (2022) analyzes the far-right menace in the US from a European viewpoint. Europe’s far-right populist parties have long exploited divisive language to widen societal divisions. They typically see society as split between the “pure people” and a “corrupt elite” and view immigration and minorities as threats to national identity. Divisive politics may cause social strife, which weakens social cohesiveness and democracy.

Democratic values and institutions may be at risk. Populist parties in Europe have typically been dictatorial, according to Valentim (2016). They believe checks and balances are imposed by the “elite” and concentrate power in one leader. It challenges the rule of law and democratic institutions. Finally, populism’s growth in Europe has conflicting effects on democracy. On the plus side, it has empowered disadvantaged voices and increased political involvement. However, it deepens social differences and erodes democratic norms and institutions. This complicated terrain needs a comprehensive grasp of populism’s pros and cons.


Populism’s influence on democracy in Europe was studied in this investigation. We learned about populism’s pros and cons by examining Moffitt (2016)’s three components: The Performer, The Media, and Crisis.

On the plus side, populism has elevated disadvantaged voices, making democracy more inclusive. It has also raised public awareness of political concerns ignored by conventional politicians. These characteristics have reinvigorated democracy and driven existing political parties to address these problems.

However, populism has downsides. Divisive language and public opinion manipulation may exacerbate social differences and erode social cohesiveness. Democracy is also threatened by populist leaders’ ascendancy and the weakening of democratic norms and institutions.

Personal Judgment of Whether Populism is “Good” Or “Bad” For Democracy in Europe

According to the views offered, populism’s influence on democracy in Europe is complicated and multidimensional. Populism may revitalize democracy by amplifying neglected voices and increasing public involvement, but it can also undermine democratic norms and concentrate power in populist leaders. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the topic of whether populism is “good” or “bad” for democracy with caution. The impacts of populism depend on context and populist techniques. Therefore, it’s not a binary choice.

Reflection on the future of populism in the European context

Populism’s future in Europe is unclear. March and Keith (2016) indicate that populism’s trajectory depends on several aspects, including mainstream parties’ capacity to address populist concerns. Counter-narratives and democratic institutions will also shape populism’s future.

As populist groups change and adapt, democratic nations must participate in critical discussion, enhance democratic institutions, and address the root causes of populism. Economic disparity, social disintegration, and political disengagement must be addressed. By doing so, democracies may limit populism’s harmful effects and create a more inclusive, responsive, and resilient democratic system.

In conclusion, populism in Europe offers democracy both advantages and disadvantages. It may empower underrepresented voices and increase public involvement, but it can also divide, erode democratic norms, and concentrate power. Maintaining democracy in Europe requires balancing populism’s pros and cons.


Akkerman, T., de Lange, S. L., & Rooduijn, M. (Eds.). (2016). Radical right-wing populist parties in Western Europe: Into the Mainstream? Routledge.

Judis, J. B. (2016). The populist explosion: How the great recession transformed American and European politics (p. 16). New York: Columbia Global Reports.

March, L., & Keith, D. (Eds.). (2016). Europe’s radical left: From marginality to the mainstream? Rowman & Littlefield.

Moffitt, B. (2016). The global rise of populism: Performance, political style, and representation. Stanford University Press.

Mudde, C. (2022). The far-right threat in the United States: A European perspective. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science699(1), 101-115.

Valentim, V. (2016). European Populism in the Shadow of the Great Recession [Hanspeter Kriesi e Takis S. Pappas, 2015, Colchester, ECPR Press]. European Populism in the Shadow of the Great Recession [Hanspeter Kriesi e Takis S. Pappas, 2015, Colchester, ECPR Press], (81), 223-227.

Practical Theology: The Wonder Of God University Essay Example


The study of God, or theology, transcends mere theory and requires application in real-world contexts. For believers to act per their faith, they must have a firm grasp of biblical theology. It is crucial to investigate what excellent theological practices are and how doctrines are developed from them. In the first two weeks of the systematic theology course, we delved into theology formulation, the attributes of God, and their relevance to personal discipleship. This thought journal reflects my engagement with these topics, demonstrating the depth of thinking, clarity of expression, and personal interaction with the subject matter. The journal entries include critical analysis, book or film reviews, and other creative forms of expression. While not mandatory for all entries, I have tried to support at least three thought journals with scriptural passages and other texts from a conservative evangelical perspective.

Week 1: The Nature and Significance of Theology

Week 1 of the course provided a comprehensive introduction to theology, expanding my understanding of its various aspects and significance. The teachings of Erickson guided my exploration of five key aspects of theology: biblical theology, systematic theology, general culture and learning, contemporary theology, and practical theology. This exploration went beyond a narrow focus on the study of God and encompassed a broader perspective on theology’s role in our lives. One of the key takeaways from Week 1 was the recognition of biblical theology as an essential component of theological study. While biblical theology can refer to a specific movement that emerged in the 1960s, it also encompasses the theological content found throughout the Old and New Testaments. This understanding highlights the timeless nature of the teachings in the Bible and the importance of grounding our theology in its unchanging truths. Passages such as Malachi 3:6, Hebrews 13:8, and Psalm 55:19 emphasize the consistency and immutability of God’s character, reinforcing the stability of biblical teachings.

Another significant aspect of theology explored in Week 1 is historical theology, which examines the development of theological thought and doctrines throughout church history. This branch of theology allows us to study how theologians of different eras interpreted and applied biblical principles in their respective cultural contexts. By gaining insights into historical theology, we can understand the various interpretations and expressions of theology throughout time, enriching our understanding and application of biblical teachings. It also reminds us that while the timeless principles of the Bible remain unchanged, their application may vary in different cultural and historical settings.

Reflecting on my journey before taking this course, I realized I had already engaged in biblical theology without fully recognizing it. I had instinctively turned to the Bible as the ultimate source of authority and reference to verify teachings and ideas. Recognizing Scripture as the foundation of our faith is essential, as it provides God’s unchanging truth and revelation. However, the cultural and social dynamics in which these biblical principles are applied require an understanding of historical theology.

Studying the perspectives and interpretations of theologians throughout history enables us to bridge the gap between biblical teachings and contemporary application. Considering the historical development of doctrines and how theologians wrestled with cultural challenges, we can present a more comprehensive and well-rounded understanding of biblical principles to modern audiences. This holistic approach to systematic theology aligns with the wisdom expressed in Ecclesiastes 1:8-10, which reminds us that while circumstances and challenges may change, the underlying principles of life remain constant. Furthermore, recognizing the interplay between theology and culture was another valuable insight gained in Week 1. Theology is not isolated from the larger contexts of culture and learning. It influences and is influenced by numerous parts of civilization, such as philosophy, art, science, and social institutions. Understanding this dynamic interaction allows us to grasp theology’s complex nature and relevance to our lives.

Finally, Week 1 introduced the concept of practical theology, which emphasizes applying theological principles in practical contexts. Practical theology recognizes that theology should not exist solely as an abstract intellectual exercise but should be lived out daily. This statement encourages us to contemplate how theological perspectives influence our ethical reasoning, mold our attributes, direct our conduct, and affect our connections with the divine and fellow human beings. The discipline of practical theology aims to facilitate the integration of theoretical knowledge and practical application, thereby empowering theology to effect positive change in our personal lives and the broader society.

Week 2: The Process of Doing Theology and Contextualization

During Week 2, the focus of the course shifted to the process of theology and the vital role of contextualization in theological study. Erickson outlined ten steps in forming theology, providing a framework for approaching theological topics systematically and comprehensively. These steps ensure that theological study remains grounded in biblical truth and effectively communicated within diverse cultural contexts. The first step in the process of theology formation involves collecting relevant biblical passages that pertain to the specific doctrine or topic under examination. This step highlights the central importance of Scripture as the primary source of theological insight and understanding. By immersing ourselves in the biblical text, we establish a foundation for theological exploration.

Once the relevant biblical passages have been gathered, the second step entails synthesizing these materials and seeking to discern the true meaning of their teachings. This involves carefully analyzing and interpreting the biblical text, considering historical context, literary genre, and original languages. Through this process, we strive to uncover the intended message of the Scriptures and the theological principles they communicate. The third step emphasizes the significance of historical perspectives in theological study. By examining how a particular topic has been treated throughout the ages, we gain insights into the development and evolution of theological thought. This historical awareness enables us to appreciate the diverse interpretations and applications of theological concepts and to learn from the wisdom and experiences of theologians who have come before us.

The fourth step recognizes the importance of considering other cultural perspectives in theology formation. Different cultures have distinct worldviews, values, and practices that influence how theological concepts are understood and expressed. By engaging with diverse cultural perspectives, we broaden our understanding of theology and avoid the pitfalls of ethnocentrism or cultural bias. This step reminds us that theology is not limited to a particular cultural context but has the potential to transcend cultural boundaries.

The fifth step involves extracting the core of the doctrine under study. It requires distilling the essential teachings from the biblical passages, historical perspectives, and cultural insights that have been examined. This process helps us identify the foundational principles that underpin a theological concept and provides clarity amidst the wealth of information and perspectives encountered in the earlier steps. In the sixth step, extrabiblical sources may be consulted to enhance our understanding of the doctrine. While Scripture remains the ultimate authority, other sources such as theological writings, philosophical discourse, scientific findings, and social analysis can provide valuable insights and perspectives that enrich our theological understanding. These sources can help us engage in meaningful dialogue with the world around us and apply theological principles to contemporary issues.

Once the essence of the doctrine has been determined, the seventh step involves developing a method of presenting the doctrine that is relevant and accessible to contemporary audiences. This step recognizes the need to bridge the gap between historical and cultural contexts and the present day. It challenges theologians to communicate theological truths in ways that resonate with the current generation, considering their unique language, experiences, and challenges. The eighth step focuses on allocating the doctrine under study to the appropriate theological topic based on the theologian’s central motif. This step involves categorizing the theological concept within a broader framework encompassing various theological themes. By placing the doctrine within a systematic structure, we can better understand its interconnections with other theological concepts and appreciate the coherence of the overall theological framework.

The ninth phase, contextualization, is crucial to the theological process. It acknowledges that the cultural and social context in which biblical teachings are given affects how they should be understood and applied. As followers of Christ, we must be aware of the diverse cultural lenses through which people perceive theological concepts. For instance, when addressing the topic of prayer, the theological understanding and practices in a Western individualistic culture will differ from those in an Eastern communal culture. Contextualization allows us to communicate the unchanging truths of the Bible in relevant and meaningful ways to specific cultural contexts, fostering effective communication and understanding.

Finally, the tenth step encourages ongoing reflection and refinement of theological study. Theology is a dynamic and continuous process that requires humility, openness, and a willingness to learn. As we engage in theological inquiry, we should constantly evaluate and refine our understanding, incorporating new insights, addressing critiques, and deepening our relationship with God and His Word.

Applying these ten steps to my theological study, I would begin by collecting relevant biblical passages on the specific topic of exploration. For instance, passages like Ephesians 2:8-9 and Titus 2:11-14 would be essential to study the doctrine of grace. I would then delve into commentaries, systematic theologies, and historical theological works to better understand how theologians have approached the doctrine of grace throughout history. Additionally, I consult sources that analyze cultural perspectives on grace to identify how this doctrine is understood and expressed in different contexts. Through this process, I would extract the core teachings of grace, enhance my understanding with relevant extrabiblical sources, and develop a method of presenting the doctrine that resonates with contemporary audiences. I also consider the cultural context I am communicating, recognizing the diverse cultural perspectives and seeking to ensure that the theological message is contextualized appropriately.

Week 3: God’s Authority and Scripture’s Inerrancy

We delved into the serious issues of God’s authority and the inerrancy of Scripture in Week 3 of the course. These ideas pushed me to think about the relevance of surrendering to God’s authority and how it affects personal discipleship. Recognizing God’s authority entails admitting His supremacy as the ultimate source of truth and wisdom. He can control our lives; our faith should be grounded in His Word. Psalm 33:6 declares that the Lord’s Word created the heavens and the earth, emphasizing His power over all creation.

Understanding the inerrancy of Scripture is critical in understanding God’s Word’s dependability and reliability. The Scriptures are God’s inspired Word, not simply human writings expressing subjective thoughts or viewpoints. In 2 Timothy 3:16, the apostle Paul asserts that God inspires every verse of Scripture and has meaning for us. The Bible instructs, chastises, corrects, and teaches us how to live righteously. This verse emphasizes Scripture’s divine authorship and significance in shaping and guiding our lives.

As a Christian, I try to live under God’s authority and the inerrant Word He has provided. This necessitates a humble and submissive stance, in which I freely submit to His mandates and line my thoughts, attitudes, and actions with His revealed truth. It entails admitting that God’s Word has ultimate authority and wisdom, far exceeding human comprehension or intelligence. As a result, I must seek His direction and wisdom via thorough Bible study and meditation.

This week’s reflection served as a timely reminder of the necessity of engaging with God’s Word daily and enabling it to influence my life. God’s authority and the inerrancy of Scripture are essential realities that define our entire worldview and inform our everyday walk with God. I may handle life’s complexity with confidence and discernment by accepting God’s authority and relying on inerrant Scriptures. Furthermore, grasping God’s authority and the inerrancy of Scripture has far-reaching ramifications for the Church and the world. In a society rife with relativism and subjective truth claims, acknowledging God’s authority is a firm foundation for moral and ethical values. It provides a framework for evaluating society’s norms and practices to ensure they are under God’s revealed truth.

Furthermore, Scripture’s inerrancy is a solid guide for theological knowledge and doctrinal clarity throughout the Church. While embracing the authority of God and the inerrancy of Scripture is essential, it is also crucial to approach these concepts with humility, recognizing that our understanding is limited and fallible. We should engage in respectful dialogue and study, seeking to deepen our comprehension of God’s Word while remaining open to correction and refinement. Through this humble pursuit of truth, we grow in our knowledge and love for God, continually aligning our lives with His authority and the truth in Scripture.

Week 4: The Trinity Doctrine and its Implications for Individual Discipleship

We studied the complex topic of the Trinity and its role in individual discipleship during Week 4 of the course. The Trinity theology asserts that God is one Being who exists eternally in three separate persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. This idea tests our limited comprehension and reveals God’s relational nature and His invitation to participate in that divine connection. Our comprehension of the Trinity profoundly impacts our discipleship. It reminds us that our faith is an invitation to a relationship with the Triune God, not merely a set of concepts. The Trinity shows that God is transcendent and immanent.

He is personally involved in every element of our lives rather than being distant or aloof. His thoughts and ways are more significant than ours yet simultaneously go beyond our limited comprehension. This knowledge increases our respect and awe for God, encouraging us to give Him our complete worship and confidence. Additionally, the relational aspect of the Trinity influences how we perceive our obligation to relate to others. We are obligated to live in the same perfect unity and love that the three members of the Trinity share as the body of Christ. Our goal is to pursue loving and unselfish relationships with other believers, and the love and unity of the Trinity serve as our inspiration and model for doing so. This harmony inside the body of Christ is a potent witness to the outside world, illuminating the triune nature of our Triune God.

Furthermore, the Trinity belief helps us comprehend how God works for our salvation. The redemption scheme has different roles for each member of the Trinity. Salvation is begun and planned by the Father, is carried out by the Son via His incarnation, life, death, and resurrection, and is applied to our lives by the Holy Spirit, who gives us the ability to live as changed followers of Christ. This comprehensive understanding of salvation exhorts us to accept God’s grace, react in faith, and allow the Holy Spirit to conform us to the likeness of Christ continually.

The acceptance of the Trinity theology necessitates the veneration of the Triune God, the cultivation of love among individuals, and active involvement in the divine mission of redeeming the world. The instructor instructs us to acknowledge and embrace our association with the divine Trinity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and allow it to influence our cognition, conduct, and ethical principles. The practice involves promoting submission to the Father, emulating the selflessness of the Son, and relying on the Holy Spirit. Practically speaking, this entails developing a lifestyle of worship and prayer in which we recognize the majesty and greatness of our Triune God. It entails upholding the mandate to love our neighbors as ourselves, pursuing rapprochement, harmony, and selfless service within the body of Christ.

It involves actively participating in God’s ministry of atonement and redemption, spreading the good news of salvation, and reflecting God’s kingdom ideals in our relationships and areas of influence. Knowing Trinity’s interconnectedness inspires us to study Scripture and follow the Holy Spirit to understand God better. It encourages us to embrace the Trinity’s mystique and enhance our faith and trust in God. Our relationship with God grows more alive and personal as we grasp the Trinity, allowing us to encounter His love, grace, and transforming power.


Engaging with the concepts of theology formulation, the attributes of God, and their relevance to personal discipleship has deepened my understanding of theological practices. Doing theology, contextualizing it, submitting to God’s authority, and exploring the doctrine of the Trinity have expanded my perspective and challenged me to apply these principles daily. As I continue this course and further explore systematic theology, I anticipate gaining a more comprehensive understanding of biblical truth and its transformative power.


Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology, 3rd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013.

Bible, Holy. “New International Version: Biblica.” (2011).

Preparation For Negotiations And Distributive Bargaining Sample Paper

There was a value conflict between the staff and the management at the workplace. The management wanted the staff to work for six days a week. One of the employees was a Muslim, and the second employee was a Seventh-Day Adventist. Muslims have different prayers at different times, including the Subuh at dawn, Asr in the late afternoon, and Maghrib in the afternoon. Otherwise, Muslims dedicate their Fridays to prayers. The Seventh-day Adventists pray on Saturdays. The conflict between the management and these two employees emanated from the defiance of these employees to work on these days. Whereas the employees wanted to be freed on Friday and Saturday for Muslims and the Seventh Day Adventists, the management never wanted to grant them their request. Therefore, a value conflict erupted between these two groups in the workplace.

In addressing this conflict, the specific preparations included capturing the warring parties’ views and ideas, reviewing the workplace’s rules and policies, identifying the best practices across the world, and bringing the warring parties to the negotiating table. These specific preparations have been crucial in handling the changes, implementing the best steps and processes used in different companies, and identifying the problems and solving these conflicts (Backus et al., 2020). Handling the conflicts has been important in managing the key outcomes, and this has also been developing systems that can handle the problems (Park et al., 2019). Addressing the conflict should have included a neutral party that can be connected to solving the problems. Therefore, the problems identified in this conflict can better be mediated by a third and neutral party.

The main activities that should have been done to best prepare for the mediation include holding joint sessions between the two groups. Joint sessions remain critical in creating a good rapport and building connections between the warring groups (Park et al., 2019). Holding sessions also help in easing the tensions that can exist between these different parties. The sessions are also critical in creating a system that can connect the individuals, which has also been crucial in bargaining at the workplace. Therefore, proper preparation and planning would create a working environment for the bargaining and negotiation between the two parties at the workplace.

The bargaining process involved looking for an alternative to their working arrangement. The Muslim employee proposed that Friday be left for him to attend prayers, and the changes should be compensated based on different hours. Seventh-Day Adventist employees also made a similar proposal. According to the Seventh Day Adventist, Saturday should be his day of praying and should be let to rest. However, the manager refused to grant them their requests. The manager maintained that the two employees knew what they were signing for and that the company’s rules could not be bent to favour them. Bending the rules for these employees would not be acceptable and would also open a floodgate for other similar grievances necessitating the changes. From the two points, both these two employees and the management were right. Their arguments were accurate, and this also had an impact on understanding their actions and different activities.

The two sides, the employees and the management, did not get what they wanted. Two sides agreed to work for half a day on Friday and Saturday. The Muslim employee was to work for half a day on Friday, and the Seventh-Day Adventist also worked for half a day on Saturday. In negotiations, individuals attempt to reach a balance, and they also meet halfway. The two sides have worked on a compromise that can be crucial in building a system that is important and can be improved in the process. The negotiation did not resolve the question of time and when the half a day on Friday and Saturday would Start. Negotiations also should have addressed the problem of working for five days every week. Therefore, the negotiation would have an impact on developing systems and creating value systems.

One thing I recommend for resolving conflicts in the organization is developing caucuses. The caucuses would be important in creating important steps and developing the key outcome in managing the critical aspects of negotiation. Negotiations within the context of workplaces require critical steps that would remain important in connecting the warring parties. Recommendation of the caucus would be crucial in handling the problems and determining the changes among various individuals.


Backus, M., Blake, T., Pettus, J., & Tadelis, S. (2020). Communication and bargaining

Breakdown: An empirical analysis (No. w27984). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Park, J., Rahman, H. A., Suh, J., & Hussin, H. (2019). A study of the integrative bargaining model

With argumentation-based negotiation. Sustainability11(23), 6832.