Concentrated Brine Discharge Effect To Seawater On The Aquatic Environment Free Sample

The world is largely made up of water, and fundamentally marine water makes the seas/oceans a large habitat for animals and plants. Based upon this discovery, it is paramount to ensure the protection of marine and all other saline water bodies. Currently, the world is facing a problem with the quality and quantity of water. Destruction of the remaining resource could prove fatal for future generations. Brine is concentrated salt, which is an affluent of most production processes. It is usually discharged in large water bodies, something that may cause negative effects and sometimes, positive effects to the environment (Zumerchik & Laurence, 2010, p. 17).

An increase in demand for usable, freshwater is a driving factor for the desalination of water. Once water is desalinated, it is promptly sent for consumption, and the salt obtained from it is then discharged to the sea. This is a common source of concentrated brine. The size and growth of life in the aquatic environment are highly affected by the rate in percentage of the water’s salinity. Animals such as shellfish benefit when the salinity of the water is at high levels due to the impact it has on their shells. Salt acts as a building block, strengthens the shells, and increases the length of most shellfish (Prud’homme, 2011, p. 22). There are also other organisms most of the euryhaline species that are known to tolerate and to adapt to highly saline areas. Most sharks and crabs fall in this category. The increased salt concentration is also important in maintaining equilibrium between water and air, thus, reducing high rates of evaporation, as well as creating a spatial distribution of plants and organisms in the water. High salinity is also partially beneficial as it acts as a balm for common ailments in the organism’s body (Ray & Jain, 2011, p. 33)

There are also some detrimental effects caused by salinity. In stenohaline animals, which are high salt intolerant, it may cause death in extreme cases leading to a drop in the number of aquatic animals. It has been reported that salinity led to the extinction of some species, as well as widespread damage to aquatic plants. This is due to poor salt regulation and control by plants known as osmoregulation (Patin, 1999, p. 45). The salinity effect will also vary depending on the distance of discharge or rather the distance from point of discharge. This is because concentration is diluted as one gets farther from the effluent or discharge source. Survival of the larval stage of animals and their life expectancy is another bone of contention. Most scientists argue that younger individuals are disadvantaged when it comes to growth and development. High salinity means fingerlings and eggs or larval stages die pre-maturely. Mobile and seasonal fishes may also have altered routes as they avoid the saline areas. This will lead to invasion of other organisms’ niches and an increased rate of predation (Neff, 2002, p. 35).

In conclusion, the major or primal impact of brine discharge is the mortality of organisms and plants. This can be reduced by diluting water before releasing it to streams and seas. It is also preventable by advocating for other methods of obtaining water for consumption, like recycling wastewater rather than desalination. As a fact, distributing water evenly across a stretch of water body rather than a point source could be beneficial in diluting the effect of salt on water. Overemphasis on the cure will lead to an omission in procuring a preventable measure. It is better to avoid these effects rather than treat them.

Reference List

Neff, J. (2002). Bioaccumulation in marine organisms: effect of contaminants from oil well produced water. Amsterdam, London Elsevier Publishers.

Patin, S. (1999). Environmental impact of the offshore oil and gas industry East Northport. New York: Eco Monitor Publishers.

Prud’homme, A. (2011). The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century Brooklyn. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishers.

Ray, C., & Jain, R. (2011). Drinking Water Treatment: Focusing on Appropriate Technology and Sustainability. Dordrecht: Springer.

Zumerchik, J., & Laurence, S. (2010). Seas and waterways of the world: an encyclopedia of history, uses, and issues, Vol. 2 Santa Barbara, Calif.: Danver Publisher.

“Jar With Figures And Faces” Moche Culture

It is not always easy for a person of the 21st century to understand the meaning of artworks that come from foreign cultures and nations. According to Trever (2019), the Moche civilization was one of the representatives, the works of which “appear to modern eyes as a grotesque curiosity” (23). Along with the famous Hearst bottle, many objects of art deserve attention and recognition. In this paper, formal analysis and a visual description of a jar with figures and faces will be used to comprehend some concepts of Moche culture, its symbolism, and interest in natural forms.

At this moment, the Museo Larco (located in Pueblo Libre District of Lima, Peru) is the place where the collection of Moche portrait vessels was gathered by its founder Rafael Larco Herrera. A distinctive feature of this collection and one of the jars chosen for analysis is pareidolia, a tendency to perceive inanimate objects in a specific way, as Trever (2019) says, to see images in organics. The ancient citizens of Peru considered potatoes as a crucial crop as it was able to grow at heights. Therefore, many sculptures during the period between 200 and 850 CE were made in the form of a potato as a symbol of richness and prosperity.

A visual description of the Moche artwork should be out of the ordinary imagination. As it is seen, the author of the jar was fascinated by the role of the potato in civilization. The material of the chosen vessel is ceramic, and its height is 26.5 cm. At first sight, it seems that a person looks at a tuber of a wrong form, with its “lumps, rents, and swells” being chaotically underlined (Trever 2019). In several seconds, it becomes evident that there is a face on the figure. The mouth and eyes are wide open, and two big nostrils prove that it is a man. With time, it becomes possible to observe more faces of bother genders on the same jar. Several people are involved in some activities, which proves the desire of the Moche people to move and develop. Still, there is one male leader who observes and shares an opinion with his mouth open. The location of the heads could tell about the positions people took during their lives.

Certain attention should be paid to the use of colors. On the one hand, there are several scratches around the figure that remind human hands or animal claws. The author did not use additional colors for these elements but tried to underline the role of nature in the human body. However, the ceramic vessel was performed in several tones of the same color, and most changes are on the images of human heads. There is no specific division between figures, which tells about the necessity to remember the Moche people’s unity.

In general, the idea of Moche vessels remains to be poorly investigated and understood by today’s society. Although the attention to botanical forms and the necessity to introduce human actions create some preternatural images, it is possible to realize that Moche culture deserves attention and respect either in society or in art. The jar with figures and faces is not simple, and Moche vessels tell the history of the nation through a variety of positions, looks, and sizes.


Trever, Lisa. 2019. “A Moche Riddle in Clay: Object Knowledge and Art Work in Ancient Peru.” The Art Bulletin 101 (4): 18-38.

Popular Culture Via The Lens Of Marxism, Postmodernism, And Psychoanalysis

The comparison of different concepts

Popular culture tends to reflect social-cultural, economic, and political changes in a way that might seem shallow at first, yet appears to contain hidden layers of ingenuity when examined closer. “The Night of the Living Dead” is eerily similar to “’V’ for Vendetta” in its themes when viewed through the lens of Marxism. For instance, the monsters portrayed in “The Night of the Living Dead” may be seen as the Marxist representation of the ultimate development of Capitalism, with people being turned into mindless zombies due to the force of consumerism. In a similar vein, “’V’ for Vendetta” addresses the Marxist notion of the Capitalist society being mummified, although this time, metaphorically, and the masked vigilante represents its saving grace.

In turn, the Postmodern interpretation of the movies in question allows for a shift in the analysis paradigm. Viewing both movies from the Postmodern stance, one will discover that both address the idea of the internal conflict versus the external one, namely, the suffocating regime restricting one’s freedom and the constraints of one’s personal beliefs (Walsh, 2018). Likewise, using the lens of psychoanalysis, one will find a range of similarities between the two movies. However, the psychoanalytical perspective will also help to see the differences between the movies. For instance, while in “The Night of the Living Dead,” the use of psychoanalysis allows disclosing the dissipation of the traditional nuclear family in American society, “’V’ for Vendetta” conceals an underlying message of the conflict between the perception of self as “Id,” “ego,” and “superego.”

However, the movies also have evident differences between them when viewing them from the three perspectives above. Namely, the Postmodern approach challenges different notions in each movie, juxtaposing societal norms and family values (Deamer, 2016). The Marxist perspective is also represented differently, with zombies being a more obvious metaphor. Finally, the Freudian idea of the conflict between the three components of the mind is explored more clearly in “’V’ for vendetta,” whereas “The Night of the Living Dead” only touches upon a fragment of the theory.

“Dissent” in popular culture products

Although the idea of dissent has always been a popular theme in mainstream fiction, allowing it to target young and rebellious readers without making any actual effort of providing a coherent statement, the opportunities of addressing the specified notion in a meaningful way have always been limited. Due to the need to conform to the established ideas and standards so that mainstream diction could receive the support needed for publishing and the related expenses, the emergence of mainstream literature that could offer a dissenting opinion is highly unlikely (Storey, 2018). Therefore, it appears that mainstream fiction is doomed to an existence devoid of an unadulterated revolutionary spirit.

The probability of fiction developing a radical idea decreases with the rise in its popularity among mainstream audiences. As long as a specific kind of fiction remains insular and niche, it can, and, most likely, will produce ideas that can be considered as challenging, radical, or even inappropriate by general audiences’ standards (Storey, 2018). However, as soon as a particular type of fiction gains mainstream popularity, the willingness to maintain the stream of profits constant will eventually defeat any dissenting thoughts that could be present in the said piece of fiction.

However, with the recent opportunities for self-publishing and the increasingly large influence of social media as the vehicle for change, the opportunities for introducing radical ideas into mainstream fiction have been expanded. Since modern audiences can have a say in what they would like to see in their books, as well as protest against the attempts of authorities to dominate the mainstream discourse, the possibility for change in mainstream literature and, particularly, fiction, has increased. Therefore, the likelihood of dissent in mainstream media has increased slightly over the past few decades.


Deamer, D. (2016). Deleuze’s cinema books: Three introductions to the taxonomy of images. Edinburgh University Press.

Storey, J. (2018). Cultural theory and popular culture: An introduction. Routledge.

Walsh, R. (Ed.). (2018). T&T Clark companion to the Bible and film. Bloomsbury Publishing.

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