Diabetic individuals and their loved ones face biopsychosocial difficulties due to diabetes mellitus. Activities aimed at achieving metabolic control and preventing future diabetic complications are significantly impacted by psychological and social challenges that affect people with Type 2 diabetes. This paper evaluates a plan to achieve high-quality outcomes for a patient. The concept map contains information on the patient, different nursing diagnoses, appropriate treatments, and intended outcomes. The narrative validates the evidence used in the concept map and provides additional evidence to support the recommended nursing care treatments.
Concept Map 1
Value and Relevance of Evidence
A nursing diagnosis is a formative assessment concerning a person, family, or community’s experiences with current or anticipated health problems and life experiences that may be associated with nursing practice. As an ICU nurse in the practices, there is a patient Mrs. Smith, a 52-year-old female with a history of Type II Diabetes Mellitus who is hospitalized with elevated glucose levels and Acute Renal Failure. In the diagnosis, she shows other complications, including swelling legs, blurred vision, and exhaustion.
Nursing diagnoses promote independence, for example, Mrs. Smith needs comfort since she is also managing the disease independently and making her meals because her daughter, who can help, has kids and works that Mrs. Smith does not entirely depend on her. Also, Mrs. Smith gets treatments based on medical directives, for instance, medication administration. Her nursing diagnoses are created using data gathered during the nursing evaluation, like her details on having blurred visions and swollen legs.
The goal of evidence-based diabetes care is to assemble data from applied clinical research on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a broad range of diabetes-related health conditions. Various sources helped to create value and reliable information in the concept map of Mrs. Smith’s health diagnosis, treatments, and desired outcomes. The resources provided information on improving the patient’s health by lowering blood glucose levels to enhance the quality of life. Also, evidence-based resources with information on diabetes patients’ instructions are required to assist the patient in disease management. The reliance on evidence-based resources is that diabetic patients need knowledge of the disease and management to maintain blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.
In nursing education, concept maps have been demonstrated to encourage clinical thinking and critical reasoning. By illustrating how theoretical information may be immediately applied to primary care with patients and their families, they have also been linked to programs and interventions in connecting theory and practice. To help attain the intended results, interprofessional tactics can be implemented in the concept map. Interprofessional teams might work together to deliver patient guidance and self-management that can enhance patient outcomes.
There is conscious linking and distinguishing concepts, and knowledge domains, in a hierarchical system while creating concept maps. Thus, the outcome is combined knowledge from prior experience and recently learned the information on patient guidance and self-management that can enhance patient outcomes. Furthermore, to give patients the best care possible, practitioners must gather and combine various data with their prior knowledge.
Collaboration and team-based care are crucial components of contemporary health care and knowledge integration. The most efficient way to utilize the skill sets of healthcare professionals is through physician-led team-based care. Also, the value and necessity of teamwork in a healthcare setting and the significance of information integration for clinical reasoning are vital in patient guidance and self-management, which can enhance patient outcomes.
Diabetes type 2 Mellitus is a medical disorder associated with various complications. Recognizing and addressing specific difficulties can aid in developing type 2 diabetes treatment by reducing symptoms. By summarizing related information, concept mapping aids in the organization of comorbidity information. As a result, a concept map is a valuable tool for finding the most effective nursing actions to obtain the most significant potential care outcomes.
Scott, M. (2021). Critical care nursing: Diagnosis and management, 3rd EDN. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 16(5), 330. https://doi.org/10.1054/iccn.2000.1497
Taghavi Larijani, T., & Saatchi, B. (2019). Training of nanda‐i nursing diagnoses (NDS), Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), in psychiatric wards: A randomized controlled trial. Nursing Open, 6(2), 612–619. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.244
Whittemore, R. (2020). A multicomponent intervention improved diabetes care in primary care practices. Evidence-Based Nursing, 12(3), 89–89. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebn.12.3.89
Consequentialism Theories Within Business Conflicts Of Interest Sample Essay
Ethics in business guides what should be done and what should not be done. The application of ethical theories is vital in deciding on the actions to take to solve problems and promote business success. According to the Concise Encyclopedia of Business Ethics (2022), ethical theories try to give a clear account of our obligations. The theories do not state specific examples but tell us what we need to do. This paper focuses on consequentialism theory and its application in business.
Section 1: Overview of Consequentialism Theory
Definitions of the Theory
According to Pirie-Gifiths (2021), consequentialism theory is a theory that argues that an action is considered wrong or bad based on its outcome (p. 1). Actions that come with benefits as the results are good, while actions that have negative consequences are wrong. Consequentialism is an attractive theory because it guides on what should be considered ethical and what should be regarded as unethical. It is easy to apply consequentialism theory in situations where the outcome can be predicted.
Contributors to the Development of Consequentialism Theory
One of the contributors to the development of this theory is Jeremy Bentham (Pirie-Giffiths, 2021). Bentham came up with the utilitarianism approach, which explained that the morality of an action should be judged by its ability to make people happy. The most ethical steps are those that bring happiness and pleasure.
Another contributor to this theory is John Stuart Mill. According to Pirie-Griffiths (2021), John argued that we should consider an action ethical if it brings lasting happiness. Actions that do not bring lasting happiness should therefore be avoided. His theory stresses doing a cost-benefit analysis before taking action.
Historical Foundation of this Theory
Consequentialism theory has been around for a long time. According to the Seven Pillars Institute (2018), the term consequentialism was first coined by philosopher Elizabeth Anscombe in the essay “Modern Moral Philosophy.” In the 18th and 19th centuries, different philosophers came up with ideas that shaped the consequential theory we have today. Some of the famous theorists that helped in building the theory are Stuart Mill and Bentham Jeremy (Pirie-Griffiths, 2021). The societal element that made theorists develop a consequential approach is the motivation to help humans identify what is ethical and what is not.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Incorporating Consequentialism theory into decision-making
One of the advantages of consequentialism theory is that it focuses on the overall good. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2003), consequentialism explains that an action is morally correct based on its chances of leading to positive consequences. Another advantage is that it enables humans to be careful before making decisions so that they can only arrive at beneficial conclusions in the long run. The theory also provides a clear framework that people can apply when making decisions; what humans have to think of before making decisions is whether the decision will be beneficial or will cause harm.
The theory also has disadvantages; one of the disadvantages is that it cannot be applied in a complex situation where it is difficult to predict outcomes. Another disadvantage is that it can result in actions that cause harm since people understand happiness differently. For instance, when the theory suggests that what brings long-term joy is ethical, some people may apply the theory to kill their enemies so that they can become happy.
Using my GVV-based values and purpose profile
This theory would align with my decision-making because I prefer making decisions that bring long-term benefits to an organization. When faced with ethical dilemmas, I always go back to my values and choose what I believe is the best step to take. I believe in doing a cost-benefit analysis of decisions to identify the best decision that can be made to give good results to the people involved.
Section 2: Analysis of a current business situation or event
Business and Societal Ramification of Conflict of Interest
The business selected for this analysis is Pfizer. The conflict of interest identified is collusion with the National Institute of Health (NIH) to give faked studies about the efficacy of the Covid-19 vaccine and to hide information about the vaccine’s side effects so that the vaccine can be taken by many members of the public (Joseph, 2023). According to Wallstreetmojo (2022), conflict of interest is where a person’s or organization’s interests compromise professional duties and interests. The activities that can be termed conflict of interest are usually illegal. Troy (2022) posit that conflict of interest occurs when an entity becomes unreliable because professional interests clash with selfish interests (p. 1).
Summary of Selected Business
The company name is Pfizer, and it belongs to the pharmaceutical industry. The Company’s values include excellence and courage; it strives to achieve excellence through innovation (Pfizer, 2023). Other values include equity and joy. Pfizer is a public company since members of the public own some of its shares. Pfizer is an international company worth $ 227.98 billion. In terms of size, it is a large company that supplies pharmaceutical products to different countries worldwide. Pfizer’s mission is to become the most valued pharmaceutical Company. The Company’s vision is to be innovative and bring therapies that improve patients’ lives.
Why I selected the Company
I have selected Pfizer because it is one of the companies at the forefront in helping fight the Covid-19 pandemic. Pfizer has manufactured Covid-19 vaccines currently used by different countries to stop the spread of the virus. I am interested in whether Pfizer has been ethical throughout the vaccine development and distribution process.
Overview of the Conflict of Interest
The conflict of interest is in the collusion with NIH to successfully supply vaccines to the public (Joseph, 2023). Pfizer is accused of having colluded with NIH to hide information that would discourage some people from using its vaccines. The conflict of interest raises a legal concern because some people have experienced side effects of Covid-19, but Pfizer did not come clear on the possible side effects of their vaccine. The possible cause of this conflict of interest is for the Company to make a lot of money in supplying vaccines.
Section 3: Personal Application
Using the theory
I would use this theory when creating the Company’s action plan. I will use the theory because it will help me identify the right action to take. The advantages I would derive include making ethical decisions and coming up with decisions that bring long-term happiness. The disadvantages are that I can find myself in an ethical dilemma or make a decision that may bring losses to the Company.
Values and Purpose Profile
My values include integrity and acting in utmost good faith. A personal purpose statement is a roadmap (Kristenson, 2022), which I need to follow to keep my values alive. My purpose profile, therefore, states “I am dedicated to acting in integrity and utmost good faith to promote happiness”.
How I would integrate my Values and Purpose into the action plan
I would use the values to identify the decisions that promote integrity. I would also apply the values in identifying actions that can promote people’s well-being. I will revise possible actions to identify those in line with acting in utmost good faith.
In conclusion, consequentialism theory has been in existence for a long time. It encourages taking actions that lead to happiness. The theory was developed by theorists who were motivated to help people make ethical decisions. The theory has advantages and disadvantages that have to be considered before it is applied in making decisions.
Concise Encyclopedia of Business Ethics. (2022). Ethical Theory: Overview. https://conciseencyclopedia.org/entries/ethical-theory/
Joseph, M. (2023). Conflicts of Interest: Pfizer’s Secret Collusion with the NIH. Big Pharma Endangers Public Health. https://www.globalresearch.ca/conflicts-interest-pfizer-secret-collusion-nih/5812823
Kristenson, S. (2022). 37 Personal purpose statement examples and ideas. Happier Human. https://www.happierhuman.com/personal-purpose-statements/
Pfizer. (2023). Our Values and Culture. https://www.pfizer.com/sites/default/files/investors/financial_reports/annual_reports/2019/our-purpose/our-values-and-culture/index.html
Pirie-Griffiths, O. (2021). Ethics explainer: Consequentialism. The Ethics Centre. https://ethics.org.au/ethics-explainer-consequentialism/#:~:text=Consequentialismisatheorythat,ofthistheoryisutilitarianism.
Seven Pillars Institute. (2018). Applying Utilitarianism: Are Insider Trading and the Bailout of GM Ethical? https://sevenpillarsinstitute.org/ethics-101/applying-utilitarianism-are-insider-trading-and-the-bailout-of-gm-ethical/
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2003). Consequentialism. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
Troy, S. (2022). Conflict of Interest Explained: Types and Examples.Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-of-interest.asp
Wallstreetmojo. (2022, September 22). Conflict of Interest. https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/conflict-of-interest/
Analyzing The TogetherBC – BCs Poverty Reduction Strategy Sample Paper
The problem or need the policy is intended to address
The policy intends to deal with several problems. The policy’s primary goal is the elimination of CPP early retirement. Those who qualify for welfare between the ages of 60 to 64 are compelled to begin receiving their Canada Pension Plan benefits early. As proposed in Budget 2019, this policy will do away with the need to delay retirement to avoid financial fines (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). The Access Times is another target of the strategy. The current administration started instituting a five-week research work requirement for welfare eligibility in 2012. The proposed legislation would shorten the job-search period from four to three weeks to ease the financial burden on people during a difficult time. Increases in Earning Exemptions are another consequence of the program. Government earnings exemptions for those receiving disability and income support were enhanced by $2,400 annually and $200 monthly, respectively, in October 2017. Income support recipients can now earn at least $600 per month, while those with children can earn up to $600 monthly without reducing their payments (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). The policy would also update the concept of “spouse” to reflect contemporary norms.
To be more equitable and consistent with other benefit programs, the government is revising the definition of spouse. With the new rule, couples must be together for a full year instead of the previous minimum of three months to qualify as a married pair and receive lower benefit rates. The policy’s overarching goal is to facilitate relocation. The government would adopt a new top-up for pet destruction deposits and abolish the restriction on the amount of residential penalty fees people on support can obtain. The policy would facilitate more equitable assistance for the homeless. To ensure that those without a stable address have access to the same benefits, general supplements, and earned income deductions as other income support clients, the government is doing away with the “transient” category. The policy would guarantee higher asset limits. Income support eligibility limits assets to $2,000 for individuals and $4,000 for couples (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). To help those on government assistance save and accumulate wealth, the government has proposed raising these thresholds to $5,000 and $10,000, respectively. People would be able to keep their cars under the new arrangement. In the past, anyone whose primary car valued more than $10,000 had to surrender it before receiving government aid. People’s primary automobiles, regardless of value, would be retained beginning in the summer of 2019.
The policy also seeks to enhance Crisis Supplements. Disabled and low-income people are generally unprepared for a sudden financial crisis. Hence, the policy would expand upon these modifications by allowing individuals to receive up to their monthly family support amount in aid for unanticipated shelter costs (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). The policy would facilitate the growth of crisis aid. Those receiving hardship grants have greater access to specialized care facilities, including substance abuse treatment programs. People need to be able to address their health needs, and increasing access to such supports will do just that to heal and find stability.
Description of the Policy
Collective effort may improve people’s lives, and this is acknowledged in TogetherBC, British Columbia’s first poverty reduction policy. It recognizes the dedication of British Columbians who have been pushing for government action on a problem that can be solved for years. According to 2016 StatsCanada data, there were 557,000 poor persons in British Columbia, including 99,000 children (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). It will take time to reduce these numbers by lifting people out of poverty. Work is required. Nonetheless, it is possible. Thousands of British Columbians from all corners of the province were consulted extensively to inform this strategy. They heard out their worries and suggestions. Together, the participants developed a plan to make the province more inclusive, equitable, and prosperous. TogetherBC is a stepping stone in achieving the goals established by the Strategy to Reduce Poverty Act of 2018, which include lowering the poverty rate in British Columbia by 25% by 2024 and by 50% among children by the same year (Morales, 2020).
These are lofty objectives that will only be accomplished via concerted efforts to work together at the governmental, community, and individual levels, including with those whose voices have indeed been neglected for far too long. This dedication is already in place, which is wonderful news, and construction has commenced. This plan integrates policies and programs from several levels of government and the public sphere to combat poverty. All of the government’s levels, First Nations, corporations, community organizations, and individuals must work together to find a solution to this complex problem.
As part of the plan, the previous administration’s inequitable and counterproductive social assistance policies will be revised. It consists of the two increases in aid rates as well as enhancements to essential services. Low wages, inadequate worker protections, and high costs and limited access to training and education are just some of the obstacles that are overcome. Discrimination, stigma, and other unjust barriers are major targets of TogetherBC’s efforts (Morales, 2020). Restoring the British Columbia Human Rights Commission, giving effect to the Nations Indigenous Peoples Declaration Rights , and using Gender Based Analysis Plus in policymaking are all examples of the policy objectives.
The population the policy is intended to affect and how it is intended to help reduce the problem or meet the need
Reconciliation with Indigenous communities in British Columbia is a top priority for the provincial administration. Public servants in British Columbia (BC) are in a prime position to improve ties between the province and its Indigenous population. As part of its efforts to foster mutually beneficial partnerships with Indigenous peoples, the British Columbia government released a set of ten draft principles in May 2018 to serve as a road map for provincial government employees.
Every government employee can use these guiding principles as a reference while their department works to implement the United Nations Declaration regarding the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Calls to Action of the Reconciliation and Truth Commission of Canada. In many ways, the policy is meant to aid Aboriginal communities.
Investment in Aboriginal Friendship Centres is the first option. Indigenous people in metropolitan areas often rely on Friendship Centres as social and service hubs. Friendship Centres serve as community hubs, connecting Indigenous people to resources including housing, jobs, schools, and child care. For far the government has failed to provide reliable funding for these vital groups. For the first time in the province’s history, Friendship Centres have stable, dedicated financing to sustain their essential, low-barrier and inclusive work. Second, there should be funding for indigenous housing. The government is investing $550 million to create 1,750 new houses for Indigenous communities through the Building BC program because it is aware that Indigenous families typically face particular obstacles in finding housing that fulfills their requirements (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). The third way is by utilizing the indigenous building fund. The initial batch of sponsored dwellings is spread across 26 municipalities. This is the first time a provincial government has made such a significant investment in on-reserve accommodation for Indigenous peoples.
It includes approximately 780 off-reserve residences and nearly to 370 on-reserve homes. Housing organizations serving First Nations or other Indigenous peoples may apply to the government for assistance to construct homes anywhere in the country, not just on reserves. Forth is Family-Based Childcare and Foster Care. Kids, especially Indigenous children, fare better when they maintain ties to their families and communities, as has long been recognized. For far , there has been an unfair disparity between the resources available to foster families and those available to relatives taking care of children, a disparity that does not take into consideration the financial demands of these families. The government would increase support rates for carers in the Comprehensive Family Program by up to 75% in recognition of the advantages of maintaining children connected to their families and their communities (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). Moreover, 15% more children would be adopted after their initial placement. These monetary adjustments are the government’s way of responding to Grand Chief Ed John’s suggestions and meeting its duties to the UN. Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action and the Declaration affirming the rights of Indigenous Peoples. Reducing the number of Indigenous youngsters placed in foster care and keeping them close in their families and communities can be achieved through increased assistance to extended family caregivers.
Historical context prompted the introduction of this policy document
The historical context behind the policy is the recognition of the increasing levels of poverty in the British Columbia and Canada. Due to globalization, many people have lost their jobs due to the implementation of technologies that replace human labour. Still, the urban areas have increased housing costs and therefore low income earners have a heavy burden of having their financial needs met (Petit & Tedds, 2020). Still, the increased discrimination rates among the indigenous communities increase the rates of poverty as there are no favourable employment opportunities for the people.
Economic assumptions that underlie this policy
This policy focuses on the government approach to help overcome or reduce poverty rates and encourage social inclusion. One assumption of the policy is that social and economic inequalities increase the rate of poverty in different regions. Therefore, to address the issue of poverty calls for collaborations between the government and community organizations to overcome the inequalities. The policy also assumes that providing affordable housing could help support the low income earners have better lives. Still, the policy assumes that when people have the adequate knowledge or education regarding the labour market they can easily succeed in different businesses.
Although the policy takes into account the challenges the vulnerable communities face, it has no clear perspective regarding intersectionality. Adopting the perspective of intersectionality would require the policy to focus on how factors such as discrimination and oppression increases the poverty rates among the indigenous communities (Hankivsky et al., 2014). This is because different people experience poverty in different ways. For instance, majority of indigenous women mostly suffer poverty since most organizations lack the willingness to employ them. They are considered a weaker gender. This in return increases poverty levels.
The extent to which the document succeeds in addressing the problem or need
The document has guaranteed a reasonable price. Unaffordability is closely related to poverty. When costs go up, people will feel financially deprived. When money is tight, families cannot put any aside for unexpected expenses. People’s lives can unravel quickly and severely after even minor failures. Affordability is the first step toward financial security for those in poverty. The elimination of tolls on all British Columbia bridges and a 50% reduction in Medical Services Plan fees are just two examples of the many measures already taken to make healthcare more affordable for families. The policy is also making progress toward more financial stability in British Columbia thanks to other initiatives, such as the Fair Wages Council and the Basic Income Study, as well as the development of new affordable housing and the addition of child care spaces.
The poverty rate in British Columbia is among the highest in the country despite the province having the lowest unemployment rate (Hankivsky et al., 2014). This policy provides people with opportunities to acquire knowledge and develop their abilities. The policy guarantees that all workers in British Columbia enjoy living wages and safe workplaces. It expands opportunities for all and helps those who are impoverished by removing the physical, social, financial, and institutional hurdles that prevent many individuals from succeeding.
The Province is collaborating with Indigenous communities to eliminate the systemic racism, discrimination, and displacement that Indigenous peoples have faced for generations and continue to face today. Social Inclusion was boosted as a result of the policy. Individuals in low-income brackets have expressed to a sense of social isolation. They have a more difficult time securing services, jobs, and housing due to prejudice and social stigma (Morales, 2020). Those with low earnings in British Columbia often feel uncomfortable and offended by the widespread expression of discriminatory sentiments against those in poverty. TogetherBC initiates the process of overcoming these mindsets and obstructions. It takes steps to accept our variety and establish areas where all are welcome, acknowledging our innate desire to become part of a community. Those who find themself in need of public services need to first feel welcomed and supported in a culture of inclusion.
Improving the policy
I would improve the policy in several ways. First coming up with a higher target on reducing poverty would cater for more vulnerable communities. Another way to improve the policy is by focusing on intersectionality and fairness for indigenous community. For instance the policy should come up better ways of addressing issues related to factors such as race, genger, sexual preferences and homophobia which all lead to increased poverty levels. For instance the disabled people should receive more consideration. Still, more investment on social programs could better the operations of the policy. When there are enough resources, people will have enough education on the causes of poverty and how to address such issues appropriately. For instance, most people get depression due to poverty and hence start to engage in illegal activities such as drug abuse. Establishing well functional counselling programs could help such people deal with their problems well and avoid mental health issues.
Implications for social work practice and for potential clients
According to Harding & Jayapal (2018), social workers fulfil a significant role in the fight against poverty and social injustices. Therefore, this policy can enlighten the social workers in their distinct responsibilities. For instance, to help vulnerable families have access to affordable housing, they can use the policy to fight for their rights or connect them to places where they can get support or the necessary help. As a result, the marginalized populations such as the disabled can have their voice heard through the social workers.
Experience with the social policy
I have experienced the policy in operation in various ways. Having been raised up among the indigenous community people, poverty has its roots among many families. Catering for basic wants remains a challenge to many people. Due to increased housing demands, most people end up spending their lives along the streets or other become engaged in criminal activities or drug abuse. However, since the implementation of this policy, struggling families now have become more stable and their lives have experienced a major shift. Still most people have less financial hick-ups. Still, through the policy people can have access to more education opportunities which enlightens them on poverty causes and various means to deal with their increased levels of poverty.
Local community groups that assist with this area of social policy
The common local communities that support the social policy is the BC Poverty Reduction Coalition (BRITISH COLUMBIA, 2021). The organization constitutes a group of organizations and people who fight for the implementation of policies that support the fight against poverty in British Columbia. The Vancouver Foundation offers support to community members through offering research services regarding poverty, grants, capacity building among various local organizations. Through the BC Federation of Labor, workers can have their wages advocated for and also improved work conditions. As a result, people have adequate and reliable sources of income which help cater for their needs and hence reducing the poverty levels in various regions.
BRITISH COLUMBIA. (2021). TogetherBC, British Columbia’s first-ever poverty reduction strategy. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/governments/about-the-bc-government/poverty-reduction-strategy
Hankivsky, Grace, Hunting, Giesbrecht, Fridkin, Rudrum, Ferlatter, & Clark ( 2014).
Harding, R. & Jayapal, D.(Eds) (2018). Canadian Social Policy for Social Workers. Oxford University Press: Don Mills, Ontario.
Morales, C. (2020). Public policy & political parties: a qualitative analysis of homelessness and poverty reduction frameworks in British Columbia (Doctoral dissertation).
Petit, G., & Tedds, L. M. (2020). Poverty in British Columbia: Income thresholds, trends, rates, and depths of poverty. Research Paper Commissioned by the Expert Panel on Basic Income, British Columbia.