Concepts Of Counterintelligence, And Intelligence Collection Methods Use In A Post 9/11 World Essay Example

Abstract

In this analysis, we will evaluate the concepts of counterintelligence and intelligence collection methods adopted by the US government since 9/11. Some of these methods include Human Intelligence (HUMINT), Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), and Opensource Intelligence (OSINT). HUMINT involves using human contact to gather information, while SIGINT uses communication, electronic and foreign instrumentation. MASINT, on the other hand, is the use of science and technical intelligence to gather quantitative and qualitative data, while OSINT involves collecting data from the general public. These methods are evaluated in detail in this analysis.

Introduction

Counterintelligence practices make an essential part of the government security processes. Counterintelligence mainly involves using different techniques and activities to minimize the efforts of foreign actors toward intelligence collection about security. Counterintelligence mainly aims to protect a nation’s security by identifying and neutralizing threats by providing services and infrastructure for such processes (Prunckun, 2019). In the United States, the Department of homeland security (DHS) has a counterintelligence program to detect, deter, and disrupt foreign intelligence threats to the country. The department has some resources that identify, exploit and sabotage the efforts of international organizations such as governments, international terrorist organizations, and foreign intelligence entities. The 9/11 attacks indicated many flaws and inefficiencies in American intelligence architecture. The government failed to use data and apply information to predict the possibilities of an attack and threat to American security. As a result, several intelligence collection methods have since been adopted and used by the DHS to protect the nation and deter any form of aggression (Olson, 2021). In this analysis, therefore, an evaluation of four methods of intelligence collection will be evaluated, as well as an evaluation of how they are used in the post-9/11 world.

Human Intelligence (HUMINT)

Human intelligence involves gathering intelligence information through the use of human contact. It is one of the leading traditional strategies for gathering intelligence. After the attacks in America on September 11, 2001, it was noted that the earlier HUMINT strategies adopted by the USA had failed in helping them create an environment where the nation needed to be made aware of the impending attacks. HUMINT often involves low-tech strategies of personal interaction and spies on the physical ground of the areas where the intelligence is being gathered (Thomas, 2019). Intelligence collection involves close operations and functions in the communities to ensure effectiveness through HUMINT. HUMINT methods are complex and require precision, with humans being used as fundamental ways of coaxing information. This is used as the most useful source of information. This strategy effectively gets access to terror information that is beyond the reach of satellite and photographic equipment (Thomas, 2019). Humans in close contact with terrorist operatives can get visual evidence from the terrorist training camps and understand the networks widely through their training activities and speeches from their leaders. This strategy is used to get concrete clues on the group’s plans and strategies through contact with the person involved in the operations.

After the 9/11 attacks, the government developed essential strategies for strengthening its HUMINT strategies and ensuring its operations would succeed in the long term. First, the USA came up with rules which sought to prohibit hiring agents with records of human rights violations. Also, the government prohibited the posing of agents as priests and journalists and required the recruitment processes to divulge the recruits’ identities to the agency headquarters. The CIA came up with a detention and interrogation program which involved the capture and interrogation of suspected terrorists through the use of enhanced interrogation techniques (Yankov, 2019). These were crucial in allowing the government to obtain essential and valuable information about terror activities.

On the other hand, the government further upgraded their use of human sources on the ground where terror groups were active. They recruited more and deployed more agent informants to these countries who could obtain information about terror plans and activities. HUMINT strategies were also boosted using electronic surveillance and other forms of intelligence gathering, such as satellite imagery and signal intelligence, which further boosted the gathering of threats by potential terrorists. The government revealed a vast counter-terror archipelago where more than 1271 government entities were deployed, as well as 1931 private companies which were focused on counterterrorism efforts (Taneski & Petrovski, 2020). The war on terrorism adopted by the government aimed at increasing the number of people with top-secret security clearances and creating offices and facilities to accommodate them. This was to ensure that more information and strategies for dealing with terror activities were achieved.

Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)

This category of intelligence gathering involves the use of communication, electronic and foreign instrumentation. The government intercepts and analyzes electronic signals such as emails, phone calls and text messages, and any form of data transformation and uses it to its advantage. This mainly allows the government to learn about the threats, actions, capabilities and intentions of a nation’s adversaries (Iftimie & Wilson, 2020). This strategy helps the government identify some strategies and course of action for implementing and creating solutions to different problems. One of the departments in the USA that have been assigned the role of managing Signals Intelligence is the National Security Agency which uses advanced technologies and tools to intercept and analyze different signals to extract intelligence information. This information details the communication, the senders, and the message’s recipients (Iftimie & Wilson, 2020). Also, an essential part of the interception is understanding the content of the message. This provides significant leeway for ensuring national security and guarding the country against terrorist activity.

After the 9/11 attacks, this is one of the major areas that the USA improved in their intelligence collection strategies. The government was dedicated to ensuring no future terror attacks in the country. The government strengthened National Security by providing them with more resources. As a result, the NSA came up with the warrantless wiretapping program. This was an important strategy that involved monitoring and interception of electronic communication (Kamiński, 2019). This involved access to emails, phone calls and messages without any court warrant. At the same time, the government came used with a strategy involving internet traffic and satellite imagery for gathering intelligence about the possibilities of terror attacks. The US also put some effort into working with different allies to share intelligence and ensure a better response to threats. One of the main problems identified by the government that resulted in the 9/11 attacks was that the government had failed to monitor the electronic communications of the terrorists (Kamiński, 2019). Therefore, the government was prepared to ensure that future terrorist attacks could not take place and that they would disrupt any operations of terror organizations. It is, however, essential to note that these strategies resulted in some controversies, but they were equally successful in preventing any terrorist activity.

Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT)

This method of intelligence collection mainly involves using science and technical intelligence information obtained from quantitative and qualitative data analysis. MASINT consists of some subcategories: acoustic intelligence, chemical and biological intelligence, nuclear intelligence and radar intelligence. MASINT often involves analyzing data obtained through sensing instruments to identify features associated with the source, the sender or the emitter, thus identifying them (Kamiński, 2019). MASINT helps detect, classify and describe the signatures of the target sources. This is useful in tracking and classifying targets identified through the intelligence process. MASINT complements other intelligence methods by further examining the signals obtained from other methods and determining the depth of the data within the signals. MASINT in the USA is controlled by the Defense Intelligence Agency, which collects information through military components and analyzes the data for security purposes (Kamiński, 2019). As a technological strategy, MASINT was used by the government to gather information to reduce future attacks.

To improve its intelligence collection, the government employed MASINT to monitor its air traffic strategically. The government works hand in hand with various organizations so that air transport planes are equipped with sensors that detect any anomalous patterns in plane activities and any form of activity within the USA’s airspace (Carlini, 2019). This process involves the evaluation of the flight paths to determine the unusual flight paths and the presence of unauthorized aircraft. This was mainly because the 9/11 attacks were mainly carried out through air transport attacks. MASINT was identified as strategic and the most effective way of ensuring that the government gains valuable intelligence. This information is then used by law enforcement and security agencies, allowing them to ensure a quick and more effective response to any attack within the US airspace.

Further, the US government uses MASINT to monitor its communication networks (Carlini, 2019). This involves using different sensors for detecting and analyzing different communication patterns and using the information for important government intelligence purposes. MASINT is used hand in hand with other methods to enable intelligence agencies to improve their efforts of identifying potential threats and tracking any form of a terror attack.

Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT)

This strategy in intelligence collection derives data and information from the general public. It is a precious source of information, especially for security professionals allowing them to focus their efforts on various areas of interest. This data collection process is often collected and disseminated on time for different audiences, and it is used to address specific intelligence requirements. It goes beyond the information available through the internet search engines and web pages but further engages in in-depth data evaluation and analysis (Ungureanu, 2021). Government security professionals access the vast quantity of information available and apply it to make security-related decisions. They use strategies such as hacking to identify different weaknesses of networks so that they can be dealt with before threat actors exploit them.

The government security actors and other agencies prioritized the collection and analysis of open-source data in their efforts to ensure counterterrorism. They came up with different initiatives and government agencies that were aimed at improving OSINT. For instance, in 2005, the president established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) (Chaudhary & Bansal, 2022). This position was tasked with coordinating and integrating intelligence across the government. During the same year, the CIA open-source center was created to provide a centralized collection location, analysis and dissemination of information for security purposes. Further, some data collection methods were adopted, including social media, news article tracking and the analysis of publicly available data (Kamiński, 2019). On the other hand, the government 2006 created a National Open-Source Enterprise (NOSE) whose role was to carry out analysis and dissemination of data to support the government’s security operations.

Conclusion

This analysis shows that the US government went into full force to fight terrorism after the 9/11 attack. The attack acted as a turning point for the US efforts towards fighting criminal activity. The government agencies identified their weaknesses and failures regarding security protection and the fight against terror. As a result, the government empowered their existing strategies and adopted new and more intensive intelligence collection methods. One of the ways was by improving their HUMINT strategies which involved increasing the security agents and training them for their roles as intelligence collectors. For SIGINT, the government adopted more sophisticated technologies and strategies for wiretapping and data collection. MASINT strategies, on the other hand, were improved through monitoring air traffic and evaluating the likelihood of malicious activity in the American air. The OSINT strategies were the government’s priority, which saw the creation of different agencies and departments involved in intelligence collection. Through these strategies, the government successfully ensured all-around protection of the country from outside aggression.

References

Carlini, J. (2019). Adapting and Adopting Measurement and Signature Intelligence for Modern Military Operations. American Intelligence Journal36(2), 11-17.

Chaudhary, M., & Bansal, D. (2022). Open source intelligence extraction for terrorism‐related information: A review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery12(5), e1473.

Iftimie, I. A., & Wilson, R. L. (2020, March). The Use of Signals Intelligence in Offensive Cyberspace Operations: An Anticipatory Ethical Analysis. In International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (pp. 262-XVIII). Islamabad, Pakistan: Academic Conferences International Limited.

Kamiński, M. A. (2019). Intelligence sources in the process of information collection by the US intelligence community. Security Dimensions. International and National Studies, (32), 82-105.

Olson, J. M. (2021). To catch a spy: The art of counterintelligence. Georgetown University Press.

Prunckun, H. (2019). Counterintelligence theory and practice. Rowman & Littlefield.

Taneski, N., & Petrovski, A. (2020). The role of intelligence from human sources in the fight against terrorism. Knowledge-International Journal, Scientific Papers41(5), 923-929.

Thomas, J. E. (2019). Human Source Intelligence. In The Military Intelligence Community (pp. 55-70). Routledge.

Ungureanu, G. T. (2021). OPEN-SOURCE INTELLIGENCE (OSINT). THE WAY AHEAD. Journal of Defense Resources Management (JoDRM)12(1), 177-200.

Yankov, Y. (2019). Human intelligence in different operations. Science. Business. Society.4(2), 77-79.

Conflict Arising From Shared Living Space For Young Adults: Complex Social Dynamics Of Non-Kin Household Relationships Sample Assignment

With the growing housing difficulties in the Western world, shared housing among young adults has been on the rise. This is in response to financial constraints that lead to a combination of resources and the need for a socio-economic contract that entails splitting house chores and living costs. Peer co-habitation is a social way of life that most students in college from late teens to early thirties undergo once in their lifetime. The relationships usually grow into strong social bonds involving trust and mutual support. However, within the close domestic confines, there are higher chances for conflict to arise due to disagreements or incompatible interests that people from different backgrounds have. Consequently, no institutionalized principles guide the sharers, and such uncertainty may also lead to conflict. The social benefits derived from this household are economically pragmatic, where electricity bills, rent, cleaning products, and Wi-Fi are shared. The kitchen, lounge, and bathroom are communal, and the bedrooms may be private. In this discussion, the conflict that arises from sharing households are outlined, and more insight is provided on managing and resolving them whenever they arise. Social dynamics of these non-kin relationships are perceived differently, where a balance exists between acceptable and objectionable behavior across multiple spheres.

Firstly, conflict arises from doing household chores, and research shows it is the primary source of conflict (Mause). This type of conflict originates from unequal allocations of domestic chores in traditional households or family settings. Hierarchical gender roles are irrelevant in shared households among young adults. A housemate who lazes is subject to complaints; in the worst-case scenario, they can be evicted. For instance, freeloaders taking advantage of their housemates by failing to take responsibility for doing house chores such as cleaning communal areas or cooking when they share food contribute to conflict. The challenge of attempting to get housemates to cooperate in house chores can be demoralizing and, to a considerable extent, unsuccessful. Housemates who agree and make plans for doing house chores create an atmosphere of comradery, unity, and social consensus.

Secondly, conflict may originate from different cleanliness, tidiness, and hygiene standards. A rift is inevitable between a clean and tidy housemate and the slovenly. The socially overarching notion of what is considered a norm is important (Put and Pasteels). Housemates are expected to be reasonably clean and tidy, but those who are too demanding in meticulousness and perfection are a potential source of tension. This is because virtual perfection is unrealistic, and such unrealistic expectations are subject to unattainable conditions. People may have a different idea of what cleanliness means. In such instances, a housemate might have some questionable cleanliness standards, like forgetting to put away a teacup or leaving dirty dishes in the sink overnight. Easy-going housemates will understand and are less likely to feel angry because they learn to be accommodative and maybe practice nonviolent communication techniques to prevent the reoccurrence of such behavior. However, minor violations can be contagious as much as unrealistic expectations lead to disagreement (Sousa and Kelling).

According to Clark et al. (A), income levels can be problematic, leading to conflict. It makes students and professionals incompatible as flat-mates given the working party’s power imbalance and higher income discretionary. Students may be subject to miserliness, one of the financial issues that cause conflict between housemates. Frugality is vital because of the scarcity of resources, but miserliness is unacceptable and leads to conflict. Freeloaders taking advantage of others by failing to share costs also contribute to conflict. The housemate, considered a freeloader, uses others’ personal effects and eats their food, making others feel used and manipulated. Students may feel stress when others take advantage of them because they are susceptible to the depletion of resources. Money tends to be less collectively used, but it is significant in shared housing. Communal obligations must be met collectively, and unwillingness to participate can lead to relationship breakdowns. Violating norms in a shared household affects cohesion, such as failing to honor timing to make rent, electricity, and cleaning effects payments (Clark et al.) (B). Other sources of conflict include loud music, infringing on other housemates’ privacy, bringing strangers to spend time in the shared housing, and stealing from the housemates.

Whenever conflict arises, the parties must seek ways to resolve their issues amicably to avoid escalation. Research agrees that communication and collaborating are the best mean of managing and resolving conflict, but some scholars prefer avoiding conflict. The collaborating style of conflict management focuses on finding a suitable solution to the conflict (Balancio). Having an honest discussion with the housemates ensures all the parties at stake are heard. The technique involved listening carefully, looking for alternative resolutions, maintaining a relationship, and creating a nonviolent environment where peers could have open discussions. The advantages of this technique are that everyone’s opinion is considered, and all parties in conflict have an equal chance to negotiate for a satiable solution and maintain the relationship or build one. Housemates can discuss and openly air their issues during dinner and adopt a negotiation technique that is not confrontational.

Avoidance discourse can take two ways; (1) avoiding potential problems by being considerate, tolerant, and sensitive. It entails knowing the right time to be cautious, avoiding interactions, or avoiding adversarial arguments. Awareness of factors that may annoy others or cause conflict is particularly important in this scenario. One minor annoyance factor can be a major source of irritation to another; in that case, a conflict starts. Using avoidance as a technique, housemates desist from vexatious acts but develop intense domesticity. Secondly, conflict avoidance encapsulates glossing over problems by circumvention of the main issue (Clark, Tuffin, and Bowker). This is for housemates who find confrontation very stressful, and to keep their peace, they avoid dealing with the conflict issue. In the extreme, it would lead to the housemate moving out or letting things slide to dissipate tension with time. Avoidance is not the best of techniques because parties to the conflict do not deal with issues head-on, and conflict may escalate in some instances, leading to rivalry or disgust. This method of conflict resolution is effective when someone is leaving, and they are less likely to collaborate in a confrontation.

In conclusion, sharing housing among young adults, especially students, is becoming popular in the Western world. Housing unaffordability has led young adults to make a pragmatic economic decision to share a residence. In close relationships/domestic confines, conflicts occur more often, and the parties involved must devise amicable ways to manage them. Firstly, young adults should recognize different sources of conflict. Primary source of conflict encapsulates doing house chores, where conflict intensifies when a loafing housemate doesn’t want to collaborate in doing housework. Secondly, conflict arises from different cleanliness, hygiene, and tidiness standards. A slovenly housemate will have trouble living with a neat person. Financial issues and different income levels also contribute to conflict. Students and professionals are relatively incompatible because of the financial discretion of the latter. Likewise, freeloading and miserliness are potential sources of conflict. Conflict should be resolved as soon it emerges, and some of the most prominent techniques discussed include; collaboration, where the housemates communicate openly to solve their differences nonviolently to maintain the relationship, or; Avoidance discourse, where the housemate avoids conflict by either being considerate or moving out.

Work Cited

Balancio, D. Managing Conflict. Cognella, Inc. 1st ed. (2018)

Clark, Vicky, Keith Tuffin, and Natilene Bowker. “Managing Conflict in Shared Housing for Young Adults.” New Zealand Journal of Psychology (Online) 49.1 (2020): 4-13.

Clark, Vicky, et al. “Shared housing among young adults: Avoiding complications in domestic relationships.” Journal of youth studies 20.9 (2017): 1191-1207.

Clark, Vicky, et al. “Housemate desirability and understanding the social dynamics of shared living.” Qualitative Psychology 5.1 (2018): 26.

Mause, Karsten. “The Tragedy of the Commune: Learning from worst-case scenarios.” The Journal of Socio-Economics 37.1 (2008): 308-327.

Put, Bart, and Inge Pasteels. “Motivational barriers to shared housing: The importance of meanings of “home” in the diffusion of housing innovations.” Housing, Theory, and Society 39.3 (2022): 257-274.

Sousa, William H., and George L. Kelling. “Of “broken windows,” criminology, and criminal justice.” Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives (2006): 77-97.

Criminology And Forensic Psychology Sample Essay

Victimology studies crime victims, their rights, services, and the criminal justice system. It addresses criminal victims’ psychological, social, and legal issues. Offender-centered and victim-centered attitudes dominate victimology. Victim-centered perspectives highlight victim needs and assistance. It examines how the crime affected victims, their rights and needs, their access to justice, their need for reparations, and the relevance of victim-centred criminal justice (Yılmaz, 2021). The offender-centered perspective stresses offender accountability, rehabilitation, and harsher sanctions.

I cannot entirely agree with the assertion that the Waynes made themselves more susceptible by running through a dangerous alley while wearing fine clothes. This worldview is built on the problematic notion of blaming the victim, explored in the academic field of victimology. The idea that the victim is to blame for the crime, even when the perpetrator is, is implied by the term “victim blaming.” This attitude has been connected to juries blaming the victim, which can result in harsher punishments for perpetrators and less concern for victims’ rights (Yilmaz, 2021). This disregards the reality that victims of crime might come from any socioeconomic level and can be located anywhere in the world.

Forensic assessment is a legal, psychological evaluation. It gives the court legal advice. Forensic examination usually involves clinical interviews, psychiatric evaluations, and record reviews (Ozkan et al., 2018). The evaluation’s primary goal is to objectively judge a legal issue like the capacity to stand trial or violence risk. Therapy assessment identifies and addresses mental health needs. Its main goal is to assess mental health and offer treatment. Therapeutic evaluation usually involves clinical interviews, psychological evaluations, and record reviews. The assessment’s primary goal is to understand the patient’s mental health and suggest treatments. Forensic and therapeutic assessment requires numerous data sources and psychological testing. Parties’ goals, ambitions, and connections differ. The therapeutic assessment aims to understand the patient’s mental health and offer treatment, while forensic evaluation gives the court a legal opinion. Therapeutic evaluation is with the patient, while forensic evaluation is with the court.

Joe Chill’s forensic evaluation may include clinician interviews, assessment tools, family or friend interviews, developmental history, criminal record, possible substance misuse history, and treatment suggestions. The clinical interview would assess Joe Chill’s mental condition and legal comprehension. The assessment instruments would determine Joe Chill’s risk of violence, ability to stand trial, and other legal matters. Interviews with Joe Chill’s relatives and friends would reveal his criminal history and other relevant facts (IResearchNet, 2018). A developmental history is needed to evaluate Joe Chill’s mental health and other facts. Joe Chill’s criminal record and other relevant facts will be assessed. Substance abuse disorders may be assessed using a possible history of substance abuse (Ozkan, 2018). The assessment results would determine treatment.

Bruce Wayne’s therapeutic evaluation may include clinical interviews, assessment instruments, developmental history, family and friend interviews, and therapy suggestions. The clinical interview would assess Bruce Wayne’s mental health and possible psychological trauma. The tools would assess Bruce Wayne’s mental health and trauma symptoms (Case et al., 2021). A developmental history would assess Bruce Wayne’s mental health and other factors. Interviews with Bruce Wayne’s family and friends would reveal his past, criminal history, and other information. Assessment results will guide therapy recommendations. Individual, group, family, and medication management may be included.

References

Case, S., Manlow, D., Johnson, P., Williams, K., & Smith, R. (2021). The Oxford Textbook on Criminology. In Google Books. Oxford University Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=NbwyEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Victimology.+In+The+Oxford+handbook+of+criminology&ots=YcTXdVtxzy&sig=uXaCXhGKJReTv4wxAbgSd1A0GyU

Forensic Assessment (Forensic Psychology) – iResearchNet. (2018, October 1). Retrieved from Criminal Justice website: http://criminal-justice.iresearchnet.com/forensic-psychology/forensic-assessment/

Ozkan, E., Belhan, S., Yaran, M., & Zarif, M. (2018). Occupational Therapy in Forensic Settings. In www.intechopen.com. IntechOpen. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/62493

Yılmaz, T. (2021). Victimology from clinical psychology perspective: psychological assessment of victims and professionals working with victims. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01433-z