Every profession has its own set rules and code of ethics, which all practitioners in that specific field must follow. These principles, rules and regulation originate from the corporate world to direct practices and actions by members of a specific profession. Accounting being one of the core elements of daily business operations has a set code of ethics that all accountants must adhere to, for them to remain registered as accountants. Of recent, globally, many nations are facing many financial scandals, which in many ways have tainted the image of accountants. In addition, this has left many wondering if really the accounting profession has principles that its members follow. Financial ethics primarily are there to guide individuals in this profession on practices that are ethical and acceptable not only among themselves but also, to investors and society members.
Accounting Ethics and their Relevance
It is not wrong for one to argue that, this profession self-regulates itself because the government does not define most of its ethics, but rather professional bodies do. Participation of the government in this profession is minimal because most governments have mandated accounting associations with the overall role of overseeing the implementation of correct accounting policies and principles. The state plays the role of ensuring all practitioners in this field have required licenses that satisfy set rules and standards.
Although individuals have different ideologies of what is right or wrong, accounting ethics define ethically and legally correct principles. In the U.S., the government has mandated the public company oversight board (PCAOB) to give rules that all accounting bodies registered with the government must follow. This board receives support from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and other auditing bodies, which fights to ensure all accountants’ practices fall within set rules and principles. This body achieves this through providing the curriculum that all accounting-teaching institutions must follow in order to ensure individuals acquire the required knowledge applicable in any accounting situation (Bierstaker, Howe & Seol, 2005, pp. 99-103). One main thing to note is that, not only do these rules determine the nature of accounting policies adopted by accounting firms, but also they provide guidelines, which all practitioners in the accounting field must follow.
Organizations and business firms entrust the overall role of financial management on accountants, hence main financial decisions in organizations depend on the financial statements produced by accountants. In this regard, if any slight alteration occurs in the financial documents, there is a likelihood of management problems, hence the need for all financial practitioners to be not only competent and objective, but also reliable, honest, and disciplined. Presently, accounting ethics have undergone many transformations, whereby there is a shift from emphasis on moral responsibility, to consideration of technical provisions depending on specific products or services offered (Velayutham, 2003, pp. 483-492).
In addition to accounting codes of ethics that different nations adopt, the international federation of accountants (IFAC) has specified guidelines that all accountants regardless of their country of jurisdiction must follow. IFAC is an international accounting body whose main aim is to ensure the public receives decent and standardized services from accountants (IFAC, 2009, Para.1). One main thing all accountants should remember is that, although their jurisdiction areas have accounting code of ethics that differ from IFAC’s, their application are almost the same, because they all emphasize accountability and competency.
Accounting ethics emphasize the importance of morally acceptable accounting practices that emphasize professionalism and proper practice within the accounting field. The ethics define principles, which all individuals and organizations must follow in making moral judgments on accounting problems. Independence, objectivity, and responsibility are main concepts of moral conduct, which at all times accountants should follow to avoid finding themselves in financial dilemmas resulting from either wrong application of the law or unethical behaviors. In addition, these ethics primarily centers on problems that most accountants face when dealing with cases of tax practice, auditing, and management services. This is because; any mistake made in this three sections of accounting affect the overall operation of any organization, which in many ways may affect the overall global economy.
In addition, due to fluctuations in the global economies, at all times accountants must remember that, their decisions on investments play the central role of ensuring economic sustainability of organizations or business units. Practitioners in this field can achieve this through correct application of accounting principles an ethics as directed by registered accounting bodies or organizations.
One big dilemma in this field is on methodologies of teaching accounting ethics. Although different individuals are born and brought up in different environments, it is necessary for one to attend some form of formal training, to ensure individuals embrace practices that respect human values. In addition, all accountants should make sure they are licensed and registered with accounting bodies in their respective nations or internationally.
In conclusion, all accountants at all times should ensure accountancy practices they adopt give public interests the main consideration. Accounting ethics primarily define the conceptual framework under which all accountants should follow. In this regard, it is important for all accountants to use the stipulated fundamental principles to ensure their practices fall within set limits ethically and legally.
Bierstaker, J. L., Howe, M. A., & Seol, L. (2005). The effects of the 150-credit hour requirement for the certified public accountant (CPA) exam on the career intentions of women and minorities. Journal of Education for Business, 81(2), 99-104.
IFAC. (20090. About IFAC. Web.
Valayutham, S. (2003). The Accounting profession’s code of ethics: is a code of ethics of a code of quality Assurance, Critical Perspectives on accounting, 14(4), 483-503.
Plan Of Interview The Intensive Care Unit Nurse
The intensive care unit nurse is the position I am going to interview. The question where the candidate must provide the most precise response would involve a real-life scenario. The answer must include a detailed description of actions that should be taken in a stressful situation. The special skill required to perform is the practical and theoretical knowledge of filtration system of ventilators for respiratory problems.
The case involves the infection control guideline for highly contagious coronavirus patients whose respiration is carried out via ventilators. The Covid-19 patient is prescribed consistent ventilation, preventing further contamination and breathing difficulties by using proper knowledge of breathing devices’ application. It is claimed that intensive care nurses operate in severe conditions, because it “require complex and continuous assessment, high-intensity interventions and uninterrupted vigilance” (Castellan et al., 2016, p. 1274). Indeed, specific information as well as critical thinking are required in the provided scenario. Continuous ventilation necessitates the usage of a tested spray to disinfect the rooms to avoid subsequent contagion. The question is whether the candidate will exercise practical knowledge via the application of proper spraying appliances regularly and timely. Therefore, the applicant is expected to pay attention to the specificity of the case, using relevant information.
Since a ventilator aids in the air flowing through a tube, it is crucial for the prospective nurse to monitor it periodically. The exploitation of filtration on the expiratory part of the ventilator is needed to ensure its workability. As the patient is threatened to experience severe respiratory issues, the candidate must be able to detect the correct type of filtration system. Moreover, frequent change and monitoring of pipes is another critical aspect of the situation. Here, I expect the applicant to abide by the persistent routine of a regular inspection of the tubes and their efficiency. Hence, the given scenario also comprises the conventional side of nursing and precise knowledge of medic technologies.
The evaluation depends the following criteria
Excellent – the candidate possesses the knowledge of filtration system, spraying a room to avoid contamination, changing tubes on a regular basis.
Good – the candidate does not possess the knowledge of specific filtration system, spraying a room to avoid contamination, changing tubes on a regular basis.
Unsatisfactory – the candidate does not possess the knowledge of filtration system, spraying a room to avoid contamination, changing tubes on a regular basis.
Castellan C., Sluga S., Spina E., & Sanson G. (2016). Nursing diagnoses, outcomes and interventions as measures of patient complexity and nursing care requirement in Intensive Care Unit. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(6), 1273-1286.
Operation Overlord And The Principles Of War
War on terrorism is an essential topic in the modern world because there exist some forces that can threaten international peace and security. That is why peaceful nations should consider these threats and develop plans of how to mitigate them jointly. The previous and most complex war operations are a useful source of this information, and Operation Overlord is among them. The Allied forces took the Battle of Normandy to start the successful invasion of German-occupied Europe during World War II. Following a set of challenges, the Allies decided that “D-Day would be 6 June.”
The military operation can only be successful when it follows all the principles of war. In Operation Overlord, the Allied forces managed to preserve all of them, including the principles of objective and simplicity, mass, surprise, security, the economy of force, offensive, maneuver, and the unity of command. Each of these principles is connected with essential phenomena that increase the probability that an operation will end successfully. Thus, the security principle stipulates that a military operation should begin at a specific time or place to catch the enemy at a weak moment. As for Operation Overlord, the Allies used numerous deception plans to confuse the Germans.
It is possible to conclude that Operation Overlord was successful because the Allies managed to follow all the principles above. In other words, additional problems could emerge if the Allied forces failed to follow any of the guidelines. The lesson to extract is that nations should take sufficient efforts to plan joint and coalition operations, and it is necessary to draw specific attention to the principles of war.
Hogg, Ian. Great Land Battles of World War II. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002.
Marathon Music & Video. Special Edition, D-Day, Code Name: Overlord, The Build Up. Eugene: Entertainment Distributing, 1999. Videocassette.