Conflict Of Mineral In Sierra Leone Between 1991–2002 Essay Example


The Sierra Leonean fight for independence, which lasted from 1991 to 2002, is one of the most important instances of civil war in recent African history( Zulu et al. 1104). [1]It was not only a gruesome concept of geopolitical tension in the Black Continent, but it was also an event that influenced the practice change of global reaction to resolving conflicts. This paper will critically examine the source of the situation, offering a greater perspective on the principal and subsidiary parties engaged and the current energy balances while also considering the influencing factors. A study of the global response to the Sierra Leonean military conflict will be presented in the second portion of the research to illustrate the success of the worldwide group’s initiatives and the valuable lessons. The technique will be analytical to highlight the relationship between the severity of the dispute and the success of multilateral responses in the ancient and modern.


History of the war

From 1991 until 2002, there was a military war in the Sierra Leone of West Africa ( Zulu et al.,1116). [2]The Rebel Groups Front (RUF), led by Foday Sankoh, tried to oust President Joseph Momah’s Sierra Leone administration on 23 March 1991, with the help of Liberian rebel leader Charles Taylor and his party, the National Patriotic Across from Liberia (NFPL). In a country of over five million citizens, the Sierra Leone American Revolution has been one of the deadliest in Africa, with more than 50,000 men murdered and half a million homeless. Because both the Sierra Leone administration and RUF were frequently funded by “blood diamonds” produced using slave workers, the fight was unusually lengthy and vicious

The RUF grabbed command of the diamond-rich areas in southern and Eastern Sierra Leone within the first year of military war. [3]President Joseph Momah was deposed on 29 April 1992 in a violent takeover named captain Valentine Strasser, who established the(NPRC) National Provisional Ruling Council According to Strasser, the corrupt Momah was unable to resurrect the economy, meet the needs people of Sierra Leone, and fight the invading rebels.

The Economics Profession of West African States Advisory Board (ECOMOG) dispatched largely Nigerian personnel to Freetown, the metropolis, in March 1993 to help the Sierra Leone military win back the diamond regions and drive the RUF to the Sierra Leone-Liberia boundary. Some observers had suggested the battle was over by 1993 when the RUF discontinued most of its bombing campaigns. The Sierra Leone state was backed by ECOMOG, the Guinea, United Kingdom, and the U.s., while the RUF was aided by (under Charles Taylor’s leadership) Liberia Burkina Faso, and Libya.

The Sierra Leone administration engaged Executive Outcomes (E.O.), a mercenary company based in South Africa, to ultimately destroy the RUF in March 1995. ( Zulu et al. 1117) Nevertheless, in March 1996, Sierra Leone voted for democracy, and the fleeing RUF negotiated the Abidjan Peace Accord, bringing the conflict to a close.[4] However, in 1997, the May Sierra Leone Military personnel band launched a coup and declared the National Army Republican Council (AFRC) to be the nation’s economic new administration. They encouraged the RUF to join together, and the two forces now dominate the nation’s capital, Freetown, with minimal opposition.

The war started over by Johnny Paul Koroma’s national regime. (Johnson,1120) However, theft, murder, and rape largely by RUF forces happened shortly after the new state’s proclamation, revealing its weakness. ECOMOG forces reappeared under the authority of the Koroma administration, and finally took Freetown but were incapable of controlling the surrounding districts. The RUF maintained the civil war.

In January 1999, leaders of other countries pushed to motivate the Government and the RUF to negotiate.[5] The Lomé Peace Accord was signed on 7 July 1999, in exchange for a cease-fire and establishing a Un mission to monitor the demilitarization operation.The RUF commander, Foday Sankoh, was given the republican nomination and possession of Sierra Leone’s mineral deposits. (Batty, 370) The RUF’s adherence to the denuclearization program was slow and patchy, and by May 2000, the rebels were advancing on Freetown again. The Sierra Leone Army successfully destroyed the RUF until they could capture Freetown ownership, thanks to U.N. forces, Guinean, and British fighters’ air support. President Tejan Kabbah, who had just been appointed, proclaimed on 18 January 2002.

Nature of the conflict

The character of the war is influenced by several factors related to socio-economic deprivation caused by government incompetence, a fight for dominance of the country’s natural riches, and interaction unrest. ( Batty, 374) While the obligation of the first Head of state, Sir Milton Margai, appeared to ensure stability from the colonialism to an individual civilized [6]nation, the shift to totalitarianism in 1964 began an illiberal twenty-seven years of immiseration corporate greed and securing preferences on a representative of the country’s élite, particularly throughout Siaka Stevens’ principle from 1968 to 1985.

As a result, there has been a power fight in the region in both interest groups that have not benefited the general public, and as the Government’s distribution of basic services proceeded to degrade, and monetary policy started to climb alongside the rates of basic goods, the population’s disenchantment with the governing elite grew till it RUF entered the political landscape in 1991.

The verdict from earlier is yet another insult to working people.[7] We are condemned to repeat our past mistakes if we ignore the past lessons. ( Johnson,1120), We saw what happened in the 1920s and during the Great Depression when companies could put “yellow dog contracts” on their employees, prohibiting them from exercising strength via collective effort. It doesn’t make a lesson any less true just because it was taught long ago. Collective worker action is as necessary as it has always been, and allowing employers to take away employees’ ability to organize is as wrong as it has always been. We, the people, understand the importance of labor unions in America. To undo the damage caused by yesterday’s verdict, we must now call on our political representatives to stand with regular working Americans.

The origin of the conflict might thus be regarded as the result of the Government’s failure of the heritage of extraction structures that sought to limit wealth and influence to a series loop of persons, resulting in a lack of wealth distribution to the Government’s basic services. Things quickly got more violent than predicted when the RUF attacked Sierra Leone, claiming to want to remove the corrupt All Women’s Congress.

[8]Though RUF leaders and Sankoh may have begun with legitimate concerns about people suffering under the APC’s parasitic organizations, which might have prompted them to sign a petition early on, the situation swiftly altered and spiraled out of control. (Batty,360)With the fall of the state, which began under Stevens, who bolstered the authority of parasitic entities, and concluded under Momoh’s leadership, when the National Provisional Ruling Council and central Government vanished, unrest erupted across the country. Sankoh received help not just from Sierra Leonean rebels but also from Charles Taylor and his Liberian troops. They purported to participate in the assault due to the fluidity of foundational affiliations here between two adjacent countries.

Parties involved ( primary and Secondary)

Given the complex circumstances that contributed to the Sierra Leonean conflict’s outbreak, it’s critical to identify the key and subsidiary affected parties. The Sierra Leonean Army (SLA) was controlled by the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) ( Zulu et al. 1121). The Sierra Leonean Revolutionary United Front (RUF), which Charles supported [9]Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), the All-People’s Congress (APC) political groups, as well as the Civil Defense Unit, earlier known as Kamajors, were the main players in this long and tough conflict (CDU).

Secondary parties involved in the civil war included the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, which was affiliated with the RUF; Gambia, Libya, and Burkina Faso were mentioned.[10]The Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), the South African terrorist organization Executive Outcomes (E.O.), United Kingdom special forces backed by the Guinean Air Force, and finally, U.N. peacekeeping forces as part of UNAMSIL, which includes soldiers largely from Russia, India, and Ukraine, were supplementary groups that aided the weak Sierra Leonean legislature. The complicated interplay that led to the Sierra Leonean war rebellion makes distinguishing between direct and indirect causes essential.

[11]The RUF began as a small group of fighters led by Foday Sankoh, a defunct SLA lieutenant colonel who had just been educated in Muammar Qaddafi’s guerrilla prison in Libya. Liberian military units and their ruler Charles Taylor, who influenced the RUF’s extreme tactics of rape, looting, and maiming, backed the RUF in addition to Sierra Leonean army personnel. Both Sankoh and Charles Taylor conspired to control the diamond industry, and as a result, they eventually ended up dictating a US$ 250 million annually barter

While intrinsically motivated behaviors did not have particular presidential aspirations, Taylor intended to force Sierra Leone to disengage from the ECOMOG to acquire the authority of the production and trafficking – the notion being that these ambitions might be aided by assisting the RUF to regain leadership of Freetown.

The RUF did not use usual political techniques such as holding protests in rural towns and numerous cities but rather utilized ruthless measures to eliminate all those who did not favor their objective. [12]Youngsters who were usually poisoned and brainwashed, ‘sobs’ servicemen who became rebels and finally leaders of the NPFL – made up a large element of the RUF.

The Executive Results was a corporate South African defense firm that not only trained the regular army, Fer but also instructed for aviation and artillery, such as gunships. ( Johnson 122), A former British officer, Anthony Buckingham, and founder of Heritage Exploration and Production in England, provided funding for the EO[13]. Its goal was to battle the RUF and expel them from the territory considering diamond rights. The E.O. never was compensated for all of its fees during the 18-month Sierra Leone deployment and had to rely on Angolan earnings to fund the activities. The RUF was allowed to launch new attacks after the E.O. left the country because of the Justice ministry for a more robust cease-fire. Due to the President’s need for a more successful peace process, the E.O. retreated from the nation, allowing the RUF to launch what was required, notably the storming of Freetown on 6 January 1999.

Response from the international community

General Secretary Kofi Annan assigned an Ethiopian ambassador B. Dinka, to remain with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to encourage negotiation between combatants and try to repair security in February 1995. ( Johnson, 88) He collaborated on the Abidjan Pact peace deal in November 1996, but it was disrupted by the 1997 coup, which resulted in President Kabbah’s banishment to Guinea. Following that, F.G. Okelo, Ugandan envoy, began to negotiate the demise of the AFRC junta. In October 1997, the U.N. Security Council placed a fuel and arms blockade, assuring that ECOWAS could send ECOMOG forces.

The Security Council established the UNOMSIL (United Nations Monitoring Mission in Sierra Leone) with a six-month authority in June 1998, with Okelo as its leader. They were able to verify all continuous infractions of international norms under the shelter of ECOMOG soldiers. Following the ECOMOG troops’ reconquest of Freetown, Okelo actively sponsored discussions between the rebels and the parliament, resulting in the Lomé peace deal and the formation of a new administration.

The Six R2P Criteria

[14]To comprehend whether the tactical intercessions completed by the ECOMOG troops, the British armed force and the U.N. peacekeepers were supported, it is valuable to investigate whether the Sierra Leonean common struggle situation fulfilled the six Responsibility to Protect standards for military mediation.

  • As far as ‘worthwhile motivation,’ the huge scope death toll because of the RUF attacks in the provincial and metropolitan region of the nation and the insufficiency of the focal Government to safeguard its residents most certainly legitimizes the mediations of all military in Sierra Leone. The complete loss of life of guiltless residents adds up to around 50,000.

For what the preparatory standards are concerned:

  • The ‘right aim’ of stopping human enduring all through the nation legitimizes the mediation of the military in the country. Nonetheless, in the Sierra Leonean case, superior coordination of multilateral tasks would have likely stopped the contention years sooner – particularly assuming UNAMSIL had been carried out before and on the off chance that the Executive Outcomes powers had been conceded authorization to stay in the nation longer, keeping away from that hole of time which permitted the revolutionary powers to sack the capital, Freetown.
  • The ‘final hotel’ rule has been fulfilled. More discourse endeavors, including the Abidjan Accord and the Conakry and Lome arrangements, were not to the point of getting harmony and shielding the regular folks’ privileges. It may be effortlessly confirmed that the final hotel rule had been fulfilled sometime before the real U.N. peacekeepers entered Sierra Leone and that they ought to have presumably supported the ECOMOG troops in overcoming the RUF and getting harmony in the country.
  • As far as ‘relative means,’ the tactical mediation of the ECOMOG troops alone was not to the point of overcoming the agitator powers. The E.O. was not supported to the point of doing their main goal, causing us to accept that there was presumably the need for superior coordination between the various powers to safeguard the regular citizens. (Zulu et al. 1123) The British Operation Palliser helped the U.N. peacekeepers and different powers by sending off a tactical intercession that endured three months from May to September 2000 and ended up being a proportionate mission given that it killed the agitator powers from key vital focuses like the Lungi Airport of Freetown, and along these lines worked with the DDR interaction all through the nation before leaving in September 2001.
  • At long last, for the ‘sensible possibilities’ of the tactical intercessions are concerned, the ECOMOG troops most likely underrated everything that was going on and the trouble of killing the RUF powers. In this respect, as many U.N. peacekeepers were abducted in 2000, the Security Council had the right instinct to grow the number of troops and workforce of the UNAMSIL through Resolutions 1289, 1299, and 1346 to increase the possibilities of achieving the mission.

U.N.’s Present Policy

[15]In 2008, the Security Council Resolution 1829 laid out the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Mission in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL) with the order of zeroing in on political and formative issues and, in this way, supporting the local Government. (Johnson, 100)A portion of these issues include:

  • Offering political help on a public and nearby premise, endeavoring to address any dangers of contention or strains.
  • Checking that organizations have majority rule bases and stand to the law, helping counter all unlawful exercises, such as opiate and precious stone pirating.
  • Ensuring that the Anti-Corruption Commission endorses great administration changes
  • Coordination with the Peacebuilding Commission and every one of the undertakings supported by the Peacebuilding Fund
  • Foundation of a solitary incorporated office with successful coordination techniques among the other U.N. organizations present in the country
  • Need for participation between the UNIPSIL, ECOWAS, other U.N. missions, as well as the Mano River Union
  • Underlining the job of ladies in struggle counteraction and the peacebuilding system, considering that the orientation point of view must be kept by UNIPSIL consistently.

In March 2014, Ban Ki-Moon the secretary-general declared the finish of peacekeeping tasks in Sierra Leone and insisted that:( Johnson 111), “Sierra Leone addresses one of the global best instances of post-struggle recuperation, peacekeeping, and harmony working Here we enjoy seeing extraordinary steps towards harmony, solidness, and long-haul advancement.”

Notwithstanding the end of the peacekeeping activities, the U.N. organizations will, in any case, stay in the nation, checking over all the admiration of basic freedoms and orientation equity.

After War

The British recruited a 200-strong combat detachment from the nation on 28 July 2002, leaving behind a 140-strong army training staff with orders to institutionalize the Navy and SLA. [16] ( Baty 369)UNAMSIL began a gradual decline in staff from a record of 17,800 in November 2002. Under British persuasion, the evacuation was stalled, and the UNAMSIL presence remained at 12,000 personnel in October 2003. UNAMSIL’s forces were reduced to slightly more than 4,100 by December 2004 as quiet situations remained. UNAMSIL’s mission was expanded twice by the U.N. Security Council, once in June 2005 and then until December 2005. UNAMSIL concluded the evacuation of all soldiers in 2005 December. The United Nations Consolidated Office took over in January 2006.

The Lomé Peace Accord requested for the creation of a Commission of Inquiry to allow victims and offenders of rights abuses during the disagreement to share their experiences and heal. Following that, the Sierra Leonean government requested assistance from the United Nations in establishing a unique Court for Sierra Leone, whose purpose was to strive against those who “bear the largest burden for such crime committed against compassion, war crimes, and serious inhumane acts, while misdeeds under applicable Sierra Leonean court within the territorial waters of Sierra Leone since 30 November 1996.” In the summer of 2002, both the Transitional justice Council and the Special Judiciary were established.


From our contention investigation and progressive conversation on the global mediations in the Sierra Leonean common clash, it has been feasible to examine how the absence of political responsibility for the benefit of the public authority to serve its residents as opposed to safeguarding the interests of the élite, steadily prompted the breakdown of the state and opened the entryways for what might have been at first viewed as an unreasonable territorial virus of viciousness from adjoining Liberia. The way that numerous Sierra Leoneans at first invited the appearance of the RUF in their towns conveys their feeling of franticness and dissatisfaction concerning the patrimonial express that had been ruining the country for a long time and which composed one more dull part of the country’s set of experiences of complaints. The prolongation of the contention for more than a decade addressed the absence of an organized multilateral activity that would experience got harmony significantly quicker and empowered the radicals to keep supporting their cannons with the blood jewel exchange. Albeit the ECOMOG ought to have been upheld a whole lot sooner by a planned U.N. mission, the U.N. peacekeepers completed an essential errand of harmony working in the nation, upheld by the British Pallisser Operation, which permitted all gatherings to find a seat at the arranging table and shut down the contention. How many exchanges, endeavors of harmony, strategic endeavors, and arrangements during the 11 years of contention struck and rendered the Sierra Leonean struggle one of the most complicated and vicious occasions of the post-Cold Wartime. For the U.N., the Sierra Leonean mission addressed a ‘first time’ under numerous viewpoints, like the formation of a multi-faceted peacekeeping with an order of incredible effort in the compassionate, political, and [17] security fields – consequently, the primary effective endeavor of harmony working in the U.N.’s set of experiences. As Ban Ki-Moon expressed at the end function of the UNIPSIL in Freetown in March 2014: “Numerous pleased children and girls of Sierra Leone have shown that an individual’s expectation is more grounded than any cleaver. That a shared objective can beat an automatic rifle. Furthermore, our decision will crush even the most destructive weapons. Sierra Leoneans showed the world numerous examples. However, none is more significant than the force of individuals to shape the future.

Work Cited

Batty, Foden. “Enacting the Mines and Minerals Act (2009) of Sierra Leone: Actors, Interests, and Outcomes.” African Studies 72.3 (2013): 353-374.

Johnson, McKenzie F. “Fighting for black stone: extractive conflict, institutional change and peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” International Affairs 97.1 (2021): 81-101.

Stanford University,

Zulu, Leo, and Sigismond Wilson. “Whose minerals, whose development? Rhetoric and reality in post‐conflict Sierra Leone.” Development and Change 43.5 (2012): 1103-1131.

[1] Zulu, Leo, and Sigismond Wilson. “Whose Minerals, Whose Development? Rhetoric and Reality in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” Development & Change, vol. 43, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1103–31

[2] Zulu, Leo, and Sigismond Wilson. “Whose Minerals, Whose Development? Rhetoric and Reality in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” Development & Change, vol. 43, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1103–31

[4] Zulu, Leo, and Sigismond Wilson. “Whose Minerals, Whose Development? Rhetoric and Reality in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” Development & Change, vol. 43, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1103–31

[5] Batty, Foden. “Enacting the Mines and Minerals Act (2009) of Sierra Leone: Actors, Interests, and Outcomes.” African Studies, vol. 72, no. 3, Dec. 2013, pp. 353–74. EBSCOhost,

[6] Batty, Foden. “Enacting the Mines and Minerals Act (2009) of Sierra Leone: Actors, Interests, and Outcomes.” African Studies, vol. 72, no. 3, Dec. 2013, pp. 353–74. EBSCOhost,

[7] Johnson, McKenzie F. “Fighting for Black Stone: Extractive Conflict, Institutional Change and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” International Affairs, vol. 97, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 81–101. EBSCOhost,

[8] Batty, Foden. “Enacting the Mines and Minerals Act (2009) of Sierra Leone: Actors, Interests, and Outcomes.” African Studies, vol. 72, no. 3, Dec. 2013, pp. 353–74. EBSCOhost,

[9] Zulu, Leo, and Sigismond Wilson. “Whose Minerals, Whose Development? Rhetoric and Reality in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” Development & Change, vol. 43, no. 5, Sept. 2012, pp. 1103–31. EBSCOhost,



[12] Johnson, McKenzie F. “Fighting for Black Stone: Extractive Conflict, Institutional Change and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” International Affairs, vol. 97, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 81–101. EBSCOhost,

[13] Johnson, McKenzie F. “Fighting for Black Stone: Extractive Conflict, Institutional Change and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone.” International Affairs, vol. 97, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 81–101. EBSCOhost,



[16] Batty, Foden. “Enacting the Mines and Minerals Act (2009) of Sierra Leone: Actors, Interests, and Outcomes.” African Studies, vol. 72, no. 3, Dec. 2013, pp. 353–74. EBSCOhost,

Conflict Resolution In Teams And Groups Free Writing Sample

A team is a collection of people who have definable membership, group consciousness/solidarity, and a sense of shared purpose, are interdependent, able to interact and sustain one other, and have the ability to work together. A team is built when a need the provision of problems solution is required, when decisions by agreement are essential, when there is an elevated level of an option and unreliability, when dedication is needed, when a big scale of proficiency and different expertise is required, when balanced views are sort and when member’s aims can be clustered towards a common goal (Goswami, 2019).

The model shows a path-goal mechanism in which a leader is expected to be supportive, directive, participative, and achievement-oriented. Situational forces behind this model include the work environment and the subordinate characteristics. When combined with leader behavior, all these breed influences in which the subordinate outcomes are motivations, satisfaction, and outstanding performance. Conflict is a battle among integral groups over goals they believe are irreconcilable resources they think to be insufficient. When approaches are made to solve a conflict, then the process is defined as conflict resolution (Hendrycks, 2021) to be agreed, agreeing when arriving at convenient solutions under the pressure of time, avoidance, for example, when potential disturbance counterbalances the benefits of decisions and accommodating when building social credits for later issues.

Importance of impact of problem-solving on team leadership

Problem-solving has promoted cooperation in team leadership since open communication, and face-to-face verbal commitment have provided space to uphold the trustworthiness of others. Social trust is also built between teammates. Believing that another person’s activity will be advantageous to one’s interests enables persons to operate together as a unit, gathering their resources to attain more than they could independently. Another factor influencing teamwork is a person’s social character. When group members place soaring merit on their group membership, their character (their personal view) can be organized by the goals and worths of that group. The power of a person’s identity within a group is a key identifier behind participation in wide-ranging cooperative efforts. Another factor is culture. Culture strongly affects people’s beliefs and their ways of interaction.

Social comparison helps individuals in a team to gauge and sharpen their skills. It also provides a drive that one needs to ascend to the occasion, increase stimulation, and make progress towards one’s goals. Teamwork provides the need to belong to an individual and promotes a person’s self-esteem. Problem-solving has also encouraged the need for social facilitation and group decision-making. Problem-solving has inclined some modes of resolving conflicts. These include participating when quick, crucial action is important, collaboration when one’s aim is to learn (Li, 2021), agreeing when opponents with the same power are committed to collectively complete goals, circumventing when matters seem incidental or suggestive of other issues and obliging when harmony and stability are important.

Short Story

For example, team leadership and conflict resolution can be applied in computer science, developing software to solve interactive health-related conflicts in hospitals. Internet of Medical Things is a perfect example of a teamwork-based model to ease the work overload in hospitals, speed the working processes, (Currie, 2020), reduce costs, and introduce remote interaction between patients and health workers via machines. Conflict, in this case, is a positive one. Programmers with high precision in software development cooperate and generate ideas to solve this conflict. The conflict here is to create a system using a programming language once provided with a dataset.

The idea is to reduce the interaction between health workers and patients by introducing automation and machine interaction through medical technology. The team selects the leader who will supervise the project as the working teammates are involved in advanced research for this project. Views are collected from each party (empathy) on how to develop a possible solution for this project. The team can then weigh different arguments on the limitations of the project and its contributions. If the project has been approved, then the project’s building begins. In this way, a conflict has been resolved.

Additional Resources

The Internet of Medical Things is an advanced modern technology and innovation to reduce the interaction between patients and health workers via interactive machines enhanced by software development through the combined use of network flow metrics and patient biometrics.

Duty of Jesus

Jesus was a charismatic, visionary, and transformational leader. He appointed 72 disciples to help in ministry work. Out of the 72, he set 12 to be part of his spreading the gospel. Jesus highly ventured hierarchical leadership. There is a division of task and specialization. Some disciples were evangelists, singers, prayer warriors, and tax collectors. Jesus transformed the world into a cheerful God fearing globe just through leadership. He tried to solve a conflict of sin in humans and reconcile with God to his people. Team leadership eased his work even after returning to heaven. He showed service to people; not only was he a leader, but he too became a servant. He cultivated a supportive group which were willing to work with him in his ministry

Practical tips for personal/professional setting

International cooperation is a major impact on the development of most projects developed by a visionary team. Generation of new ideas and technology from other organizations into one’s organization leads to speedy growth. Holding virtual meetings, video conferencing, and audio-visuals to ease physical planning costs, travel duration to the site of engagement, and avoid late room booking. Interactive team work where all are leaders to terminate the hierarchical organization setting. Early formulation and distribution of plan before the meeting give teammates time to brainstorm and research on topics of interest related to the agendas. one can work with a small team to produce productive results, employing social media platforms as meeting spaces for hosting occasions.

Post-meeting communication gives way forward for the next meetings, new projects, or future agendas. Organize parties or holidays to free teammates and make the love of being part of the development team. Create elevator speeches for the team to induce new ideas and projects to the organization, avoid fallacies, and induce frequent performance evaluations to the team to determine the level of performance of each teammate. Training can also help managers identify areas in which employees lack analytical thinking for immediate and future performance. Reward systems as a form of appraisals, particularly merit-based compensation plans, thus ensure strict time management to complete the projects in time and boost the team’s speed.

Self-Reflection Question

  1. Is there a need for physical meetings for a large team if advanced technology is reserved?
  2. Apart from emanating organizational models (hierarchical), is there room for a more developed model if the present model has a lot of limitations?

Physical meetings, as articulated, have some specific advantages, especially for a small team population. People communicate in words and body language, such as facial expressions, body gestures, head nodding, etc. The smaller group is easy to work with. Some physically planned meetings in the case of a large team can have a lot of limitations, for example, poor facilitation by the organizing team leaders, poor preparation, impartiality, disorganized meetings, and lack of conformity of agenda. Arrangements can be held in a noisy environment. Late room booking can lead to inconveniences in the sessions. However, with the newest technology, there is improvised space via social media platforms. It can support a large group of individuals, and there is an interaction between the individuals and efficient facilitation of the meetings.

More advanced technology is being evaluated such that meetings will be held and work supervisions through integrated systems and automation will be invented. System to identify gaps in the projects and signal the team with immediate effect a. Hierarchical organization is the most currently used model in interactive teamwork. With it having some advantages like authority from the top and management of projects by leaders from the top to local teammates, it somehow undermines the social network of the teammates. The Hierarchical model has caused a lot of laziness from the top leaders, misuse of funds and resources, exploitation of less fortuned teammates, poor planning and organization of meetings, slow development, and slow generation of new ideas. In coming years of advanced technology, could there be a more equally well-organized model which can put all brains into brainstorming for more projects of developments and innovations without?


Currie, C. S., Fowler, J. W., Kotiadis, K., Monks, T., Onggo, B. S., Robertson, D. A., & Tako, A. A. “How simulation modeling can help reduce the impact of COVID-19.” Journal of Simulation 2 (2020): 83-97.

Goswami, A. K., & Agrawal, R. K. “Explicating the influence of shared goals and hope on knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in an emerging economic context.” Journal of Knowledge Management. (2019).

Hendrycks, D., Carlini, N., Schulman, J., & Steinhardt, J. “Unsolved problems in ml safety.” arXiv preprint arXiv (2021).

Li, Y., Li, K., Wei, W., Dong, J., Wang, C., Fu, Y., … & Peng, X. “Critical thinking, emotional intelligence and conflict management styles of medical students: A cross-sectional study.” Thinking Skills and Creativity 100799 (2021).

Confucianism And Daoism Assignment Sample Essay

China’s two major indigenous theological and philosophical traditions, Confucianism and Daoism, originated around the same time in the sixth century in what are now the adjacent eastern Chinese counties of Shandong and Henan, respectively (Matthyssen, 2021). Both traditions have saturated Chinese society for about 2,500 years. Both Daoism and Confucius had a founding, although in the case of Daoism, the identity of Laozi (had served in the sixth century) is exceedingly enigmatic, and much of his traditional biography is almost certainly fantasy. According to a widely circulated but implausible story, Confucius, the founder of Confucianism, once met Laozi, who was not pleased (Lewin & Ergas, 2018). However, their respective traditions share similar ideals (about humanity, the ruler, society, heaven, and the world) and have influenced one another.

The Confucianism sacred texts were formalized by Zhu Xi, who referred to them simply as the Four Books: the Confucius Analects, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Mencius Book, and The Great Learning (Matthyssen, 2021). Confucianism focuses on ancestor worshiping and human-centered ethics to maintain a peaceful life. The Chuang-Tzu and the Tao-te Ching are the two most essential ancient books for Daoism. The Tao-te Ching text is considered the earliest and most widespread Taoist. The Tao-te Ching text is Daoism’s most important text. According to tradition, Lao-tzu wrote these texts. The Tao Te Ching text is the earliest Taoist work, while the Chuang-tzu gives a more comprehensive and complete description of Taoist beliefs (Matthyssen, 2021). Although Taoism originated in China, its primary texts have attracted followers from all across the world.

According to Lewin and Ergas (2018), Confucianism and Daoism emerged as philosophical belief systems and ways of living. Unlike Confucianism, though, Daoism developed into a self-aware structure with a coherent theory, institutional leadership, and cultic practices. Since religious Daoism’s beliefs eventually deviated from the ideology from which they emerged, later scholars started to differentiate between the religious and philosophical versions of Daoism, with some people seeing the latter as a strange adulteration or misinterpretation of the earlier ideology. Most current scholars today accept the religious and intellectual readings of Daoism as enriching and actively impacting each other, distancing themselves from that critical viewpoint as simple (Matthyssen, 2021). Furthermore, whereas Daoism encompasses existence and what is spontaneous and natural in human existence, to the point of denouncing most of China’s advanced civilization, morality, and learning, Confucianism views human social structures such as the school, family, community, and nation as critical for life to flourishing and morality to excel, since they are the only domain in which those accomplishments, like Confucius, envisioned them, are possible.

Lewin and Ergas (2018) indicate that Daoism evolved into a democratic ideology that sought spontaneity and naturalness. Confucians were opposed by Daoists, who believed that an individual should not follow social teachings. According to the latter, human beings need to want spontaneous and natural behavior. Daoism likewise emphasizes people’s inherent equality and the urge to return to their natural form. Daoist believers had their own priesthood, temples, and holy writings. In China, their saints were revered and worshipped. The power of military and political relations was rejected by Daoism (Lewin & Ergas, 2018). It was unimportant to them to keep up with international events. They despised egoism and aggressive economic society. They wanted to get away from the wrath and violence. Daoists were on the lookout for life’s natural flow. It was a real-life application of the discipline.

Confucianism has distinct perspectives on ordinary life and the role of community. Adherence to values and norms is one of its primary themes. Individual’s relationships should conform to a set of obligations and responsibilities. Each individual should be aware of and confident in his or her particular role. People who conduct responsibly can help to develop and reform society. Only by exploring the surrounding world can one become intelligent. An attitude of openness improves a person’s character while education brings real concepts and opinions. A well-educated and smart person benefits his family (Matthyssen, 2021). Families, in turn, control the government. Only when there is unity in families can the world achieve peace.


Matthyssen, M. (2021). The Daoist Sage Fool and the Confucian Learned Man. In Ignorance is Bliss: The Chinese Art of Not Knowing (pp. 17-72). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Lewin, D., & Ergas, O. (2018). Eastern philosophies of education: Buddhist, Hindu, Daoist, and Confucian readings of Plato’s cave. In International handbook of philosophy of education (pp. 479-497). Springer, Cham.