Conflict Resolution For Nurses And Other Providers Sample Assignment

Introduction

This paper discusses an argument between a nurse and a physician that appeared because of the patient’s desire to be assessed by the caregiver. It suggests the possible way of its elimination according to the Twelve Skills of conflict resolution. The paper reflects on the actions the involved parties can take to prevent the adverse outcomes of the dispute and discusses the issues they should take into consideration.

Discussion

Relationships between nurses and other healthcare providers may not be simple because they often involve conflicts. There are various reasons behind them including physician dominance, violence and bullying, lack of trust and respect, work-related stress, and competency issues (Faisal, 2017). This paper presents a discussion of the conflict between a nurse and a physician. The patient, a 58-year old woman of Indian background, was in the hospital for abdominal cramps.

When she learned that the physician is male, she asked if the nurse could examine her and order necessary treatment without his assistance. The caregiver could not prescribe medications without the doctor’s authorization, so she asked to assign the patient to a female medical practitioner instead. The male physician was furious because, in his opinion, the patient and the nurse were doubting his professionalism. The woman, however, had made such a request because of her cultural background.

The disputes caused by anger and frustration are among the primary types of conflicts between the hospital’s staff (Jerng et al., 2017). To eliminate adverse outcomes of the arguments, healthcare providers may utilize the Twelve Skills of conflict resolution suggested by the Conflict Resolution Network (2018). These skills include the win-win approach, empathy, co-operative power, creative response, willingness to resolve, appropriate assertiveness, mapping the conflict, managing emotions, negotiation skills, development of options, third-party mediation, and broadening perspectives (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018).

The win-win approach is designed to shift the conflict from attack and defense to co-operation. It implies the recognition of differences between individuals involved in the dispute (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). In the presented conflict, the nurse can ask a male physician what the best solution for him is. She should underline that his professional competencies are not doubtful and ask what his needs are. When the physician and the nurse describe the problem from their point of view, it would be easier for them to eliminate negative emotions.

The creative response approach allows us to see problems as opportunities (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). In this case, the physician can view the situation as a chance to gain education about cultural aspects that can influence patients’ decisions. For the nurse, it is an opportunity to become aware of possible outcomes of similar situations and prevent them in the future by establishing effective communication with physicians.

Empathy is a skill that allows for openness between people while engaging in active listening (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). In the presented conflict, both parties should get all the information about each other’s concerns by asking questions. After they had explained the problem from their perspectives, they should reflect on it and discuss the feelings they experience. Such an approach can help to reduce high emotion and allow for productive dialogue. Managing emotions by asking questions on what actions of the nurse, the doctor, or the patient have caused frustration is another skill that is necessary for ensuring positive communication outcomes.

To implement the co-operative power approach, the parties should legitimate each other’s concerns. For example, if a physician calls the nurse unprofessional because of her decision, she can ask what competencies she should acquire for improvement. They can also implement the willingness to resolve an approach to estimate their attitude towards the situation (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). For example, in the physician’s case, he may project his self-consciousness onto the nurse and the patient, thinking that they doubt his expertise. To resolve the conflict, he needs to acknowledge his projection and work on it.

Another skill of conflict resolution is mapping (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). The nurse and the doctor may reflect on who is involved in the dispute, and what their needs and fears are. For example, the nurse may fear that the patient will not feel comfortable if assessed by a male practitioner.

The doctor may be concerned about the possible threat to his reputation. When the reasons for conflict are clarified, there is the development of options approach the parties can use to eliminate them (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). For example, they may study Indian cultural background or develop a strategy of consequence confrontation if the patient will not be assigned to a female physician.

The Conflict Resolution Network (2018) also suggests the principles of negotiation that include focusing on needs, making clear agreements, and responding instead of reacting. The physician may use them to control his emotions, and the nurse can identify whether there are ethical implications behind her decision to ask for another physician’s assistance. They can also utilize mediation methods by using a caring language and validating each other’s opinions on the case (The Conflict Resolution Network, 2018). Finally, broadening perspectives can allow the parties to become more realistic about the significance of the problem and see the impact of their decision on the patient’s satisfaction and well-being.

Conclusion

Arguments between nurses and other healthcare providers may be inevitable but can be solved by the methods of conflict resolution. The parties may utilize necessary communication skills to define each other’s needs and concerns and ensure positive outcomes of an argument. In the presented case, the nurse and the doctor should become aware of the personal factors affecting their behaviors, and try to consider them.

References

Faisal, A. (2017). Nurse-physician conflict and power dynamic. JOJ Nursing and Health Care, 5. Web.

Jerng, J. S., Huang, S. F., Liang, H. W., Chen, L. C., Lin, C. K., Huang, H. F.,… & Sun, J. S. (2017). Workplace interpersonal conflicts among the healthcare workers: Retrospective exploration from the institutional incident reporting system of a university-affiliated medical center. PloS One, 12. Web.

The Conflict Resolution Network. (2018). CR kit. Introduction – Conflict is the stuff of life. Web.

Larry Purnell’s Model For Cultural Competencies

Introduction to the Model

Purnell’s Model for Cultural Competences was developed at the end of the previous century by the professor Larry Purnell. While educating undergraduate students, he found out that nurses are to be aware of the ethno-cultural beliefs of patients and created a model that can be used in the organizing framework. The author created a range of questions that should be referred to when evaluating culture in clinical practice settings (Purnell, 2005).

Purnell believed that following his model, professionals can develop cultural competence and adjust care so that it becomes consistent with the consumer’s culture. The model is depicted as a set of rings: society, community, family, and person. The last one consists of 12 cultural domains that are to be taken into consideration (“overview/heritage, communication, family roles and organization, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behaviour, nutrition, pregnancy and childbearing practices, death rituals, spirituality, healthcare practices, healthcare practitioners”) (Ivanov & Blue, 2008).

Application of the Model in Nursing Practice

Being a nurse, I would definitely make use of Purnell’s Model for Cultural Competences. To my mind, it can help me in my working practice, providing an opportunity to communicate effectively and efficiently with my patients so that they do not feel abused. I believe that theoretical knowledge of this model can be advantageous because I will know what should be considered before maintaining any actions.

For example, I can refer to the literature to get to know more about cultural domains of particular populations. Thus, I will be prepared to work with the patient. If I lack some knowledge or is not familiar with some culture at all, I would question the consumer regarding the domains that are related to the particular situation (Lewin, 2009).

Clinical Scenario

Being a nurse, I need to work with diverse population. It may happen that one of my patients is a 54 years old Muslim from Egypt. She is rather religious and feels uncomfortable when interacting with male nurses. When she is in a poor condition, I am to administer the medication. In order to comfort her and ensure that I am ready to do my best to make her feel better, I will ask if she had some preferences in the way the treatment should be delivered. Like many other Muslims, she might tell me to give her a pill and a glass of water with my right hand (Hoskins, 2014). It will not take much time and will not be difficult for me, but my patient should feel more relaxed. As a result, she will be likely to tell me if her health condition alters instead of avoiding assistance.

Conclusion

Taking everything mentioned into consideration, it can be concluded that Purnell’s Model for Cultural Competences is mainly used by professionals to ensure culturally congruent care. It serves as a guideline for the nurses, providing them with the opportunity to pay attention to all critical cultural domains and avoid possible misunderstanding that can spoil decent relations between professional and patient.

It requires some time to remember Purnell’s Model, as it is rather extended and detailed. Still, it will help to make advantageous nursing decisions that deal with cultural care preservation, negotiation, and restructuring. Even though cultural competence is difficult to obtain, the discussed model can help to streamline this process. Thus, its utilization in nursing practice is likely to be extremely advantageous.

References

Hoskins, T. (2014). A Muslim’s heart. Colorado Springs, CO: Tyndale House.

Ivanov, L. & Blue, C. (2008). Public health nursing: Policy, politics & practice. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Lewin, R. (2009). The handbook of practice and research in study abroad. New York, NY: Routledge.

Purnell, L. (2005). Purnell’s Model for Cultural Competences. The Journal of Multicultural Nursing & Health, 11(2), 7-15.

Financial Concept Map In Nurse Manager’s Interview

The figure below illustrates a financial concept map that has been designed on the basis of an interview with a nurse manager.

 "Financial Concept Map."
Figure 1. “Financial Concept Map.”

As it might be seen in the figure above, a nurse manager carries out four major functions: planning and development, monitoring, reporting, and communication.

As such, first and foremost, a nurse manager is responsible for the development of an annual budget. The budget is designed on the basis of a critical evaluation of previous budgets with regard to the recent changes in the organization’s demands and needs (Titzer, Shirey, & Hauck, 2014). The developed budget should be accompanied by the relevant rationale so that it is further accepted by the superior management.

Secondly, a nurse manager is supposed to report all the budget-related trends to the supervisor. The reports are expected to be provided on a regular basis, i.e. at least once a month. The end-of-year data is normally reviewed together with the Chief Nurse or other responsible bodies from the financial department. Regular and consistent reporting is essential to ensure effective budget management (Shirey & Ebright, 2012).

Additionally, a nurse manager is in charge of monitoring all the budget-related trends. It might involve tracking the way employees manage the assigned allocations as well as the way they use the supplied resources and materials. In the event of a budget misuse, a nurse manager is obliged to report the incident to the supervisor. From this perspective, a nurse manager performs a particularly important function that requires prompt and rational decision-making (Shirey & Ebright, 2012).

Finally, a nurse manager is expected to perform the budget-related communication. Otherwise stated, it is essential that he or she keeps all the key stakeholders informed on the way the money is managed. Similarly, a nurse manager needs to explain the stakeholders’ expectations regarding the budget to the staff. This responsibility is one of the most challenging since it requires a nurse manager to possess good negotiation skills (Zwink et al., 2013).

As a result, it might be concluded that a nurse manager performs a wide range of important responsibilities within a budget dimension. Thus, this person plays a role of a liaison between the staff and the key stakeholders ensuring that the financial interests of all the groups are properly managed.

Reference List

Titzer, J., Shirey, M., & Hauck, S. (2014). A nurse manager succession planning model with associated empirical outcomes. Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(1), 37-46.

Shirey, M., & Ebright, P. (2012). Nurse manager cognitive decision-making amidst stress and work complexity. Nursing Management, 21(1), 17-30.

Zwink, J., Dzialo, M., Fink, R., Oman, K. S., Shiskowsky, K., Waite, K., DeVine, D., Sander, C. L., & Le-Lazar, J. (2013). Nurse manager perceptions of role satisfaction and retention at an academic medical center. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(3), 135-145.

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