Connection Between Modernist Literature Artists And Current Works Of Art

Modernism in literature focused on the contemporary issues that called for self-consciousness and the desire to overturn the traditional ways of writing in poetry and fictional narratives. This was shortly after the horrors of the First World War, which saw the urge to reassess society and literature. Early modernist writers then developed new ideas and themes to uncover the supposedly rational world. Following the recent focus on literary works, modernist writers were keen on innovating literary techniques such as monologue symbolism as well as introducing multiple characters. The use of monologues in works of literature was aimed to elicit emotions and personal experiences. For this reason, modernist literature gave writers the freedom to express themselves more experimentally. The use of symbolism in works of literature helped build the connection between the reader and the text. William Butler Yeats is one of the notable modernist writers through his poem “Adam’s Curse,” which displays the society’s lack of understanding about literary works, the difficulty of creating something beautiful, and the poet’s expression of love. To bring out the connection between modernist literature and current works of art, this essay aims to explore the relationship between Yeats’ poem, “Adam’s Curse,” and a contemporary poem, “The Hill We Climb” by Amanda Gorman, through the similar use of symbolism, personal experience, and multiple characters.

The use of symbolism as a literary technique reached its peak during the modernist movement, and this is revealed through the works of Yeats in Adam’s Curse. In literature, symbolism refers to using images, symbols, and metaphors to display deeper meanings that go beyond the surface-level narrative. Yeats uses symbolism to explore the themes of consciousness, identity, and human experience. Yeats uses the “Moon” symbolically in Adam’s Curse to represent a change. Traditionally, society members observed the moon to predict a change in time. In Adams’s Curse, the moon symbolically represents the poet’s romantic feeling that have changed over time. The moon strides in to the speaker as “Worn and hollow” (Yeats, line 31). This shows that the speaker has matured from his youthful naivety and romantic hopes. Additionally, the moon explores the theme of consciousness present to the speaker. The speaker knows their unique thoughts, feelings, and the environment. Today, writers have taken into action symbolism in their works of literature to challenge readers to question their beliefs and life assumptions. Additionally, in the poem “The Hill We Climb,” contemporary writers such as Amanda Gorman use the hill to demonstrate the challenges facing America and the world today symbolically.

As stated earlier, modernist literature aims at allowing the writers to express themselves while shunning the traditional conventions. Yeats’s poem “Adam’s Cu8rse” must have been spurred by his pain of losing his lover. Yeats must have felt the same pain as Adam in the Bible after being chased from the garden of heaven. With modernist literature, writing about this experience is well-recognized and acceptable. The poem serves as a memory of one of the speaker’s best moments in the past, which the speaker wishes tib er brought back. Using poetry relieves the writer of getting back what cannot be brought back in reality.

Similarly to the loss that was experienced during the First war, modernist writers wrote poems to relieve themselves and the people from the trauma they had experienced. Additionally, the poem gives meaning to the struggles of humans while trying to dignify hard work and suffering. Like other modernist writers, the poem embraces the power of hard work to achieve more incredible things in life. “scrub kitchen pavements or break stones…in all kinds of weather” (Yeats, line 8). Today, contemporary writers often explore their personal and emotional experiences, thus delving into themes such as memory, identity, and trauma. For example, Amanda Gorman uses her experiences as a powerful call for hope, healing, resilience, and unity for America.

To present a variety of viewpoints, modernist poets chose to use multiple characters but in the first-person perspective. This helped explore the subjectivity of each character in the poem. Since modernism was an extensive change that affected several facets of expression, writers chose multiple voices to express the same. Additionally, modernist writers imagined a world with various layers, and using numerous characters would be adequate to unleash these layers. Yeats in Adam’s Curse introduces multiple characters to bring out the theme of romantic disillusionment. In a changing society, Yeats introduces three characters in the poem whose different voices show different perspectives on life and love. The speaker has become disillusioned by love. Although it is not revealed the gender, the speaker is juxtaposed to “labor” and hence is a man (Yeats, line 22). There is also the speaker’s lover who has rejected his love. The other character is a close friend to the speaker’s lover, and all these characters present the speaker’s anguish and pain brought by lack of love. Amanda Gorman uses the word “we” to show the unison and inclusivity of different persons. Today, contemporary writers strive and appreciate diversity, thus resulting in the use of multiple characters. Modern literature aims to give voice to other individuals and the freedom to freely express themselves and reflect on the current reality.

To sum up, modernist literature paved the way for self-expression and several new literary techniques. Modernist writers embraced the new world and societal changes and wrote about these changes. Yeats’s works of poetry take the structure of modernist literature because of his great poetic feature of recreating personal life, feelings, thoughts, and dreams. In doing so, Yeats uses literary devices such as symbolism. Today, contemporary writers are influenced by Yeats’s work as they use symbolism, personal experiences, and multiple characters.

Work Cited

Yeats, William, Butler. “Adam’s Curse” The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats. Poetry Foundation, 1989, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43285/adams-curse

Crisis In Hinduism: Temple Management And Access In Contemporary India

Issue summary

There has recently been a significant problem with the administration and accessibility of Hindu temples in India. The media’s focus on this multi-faceted problem has shown the difficulties experienced by believers and the broader consequences of religious activities in the nation. The administration of temples and the disputes over who enters holy places are central to the current problem. Multiple pieces from respected publications explore the complex nature of this issue. These include pbs.org, The Washington Post, and The New York Times. At stake are disagreements about who should be in charge of the temple, how much money should be made public, and the power struggle between various social and religious groups.

The conflict between more old-fashioned methods of government and more progressive policies is one central theme running through the pieces. The government is increasingly interfering in and overseeing temples formerly run by local communities or hereditary trusts. This change has ignited discussions over the independence of religious organizations and the maintenance of long-standing traditions. Conflicts like this may disrupt people’s religious experiences as they see power clashes in the middle of a sacred place of worship. As claims of mismanagement and theft emerge, financial anomalies exacerbate the situation. The discussion has shifted to focus on how the temples should use the money they receive in contributions. Controversies like this disgrace religious organizations and erode the faith of their followers.

Furthermore, the problem is broader than the temple grounds; it affects societal cohesion and exacerbates community conflicts (Dube, 20220). The complex link between religion and the public realm in India is fully displayed in disputes over temple access, which often include broader socio-political concerns. How these situations are reported in the media helps shape public perception and the story about the problem.

Perspectives and Problematic Aspects

A significant problem within Hinduism, the accessibility and administration of temples in modern India, has sparked arguments and discussions on many fronts. Viewed through the prism of religiously oriented media and periodicals, the issue centers on viewpoints and problematic features linked to the management and accessibility of Hindu temples. One crucial viewpoint concerning the proper administration of Hindu temples is who should be in charge. Hereditary trustees or local committees used to run many of India’s temples. However, recently, there has been a movement to have the government step in and oversee these religious organizations( Bradbury, 2022). The change has ignited discussions about the need to keep religion and state apart, with supporters calling for a more open and responsible system and opponents expressing worries about possible meddling with religious freedom. Corruption and inefficiency within the temple administration exacerbate the situation. There have been allegations of financial mismanagement, embezzlement, and lack of transparency, which have cast doubt on the integrity of the individuals responsible for protecting the holy sites. In addition to undermining public faith, these problems can spark more extensive discussions over the need for changes in temple administration. Issues of entry to Hindu temples, including limitations based on gender and caste, are another facet of the problem(Shah, 2021). Some Indian temples have long had admittance requirements that exclude lower-caste people and women of menstrual age. Criticism of these practices has sparked legal challenges and social organizations calling for equal access to religious venues for everyone. Discussions on Access to temples center on the conflict between protecting religious traditions and encouraging inclusiveness.

Proposed solutions

It is essential to consider the many viewpoints within the Hindu community while tackling the suggested remedies to the problem of Hindu temple administration and accessibility. Establishing open and responsible governance systems for managing temples is one possible remedy. Specifically, this means putting safeguards in place to keep tabs on how temples handle their finances, ensuring that all that money goes toward serving the community and keeping holy places in good repair ( Bradbury, 2022).On top of that, a rising chorus of voices demands that devotees have a more prominent voice in temple administration decisions. Proponents of the reform believe that a more participatory strategy, including community-elected leaders, may help instill a feeling of duty and ownership in the adherents. Taking this tack may rid religious organizations of management problems while encouraging a more welcoming and collaborative atmosphere for all members. In addition, issues of equality and accessibility in temple places must be addressed. Legislation guaranteeing all people, regardless of gender, caste, or background, equal Access to religious places has been put forth and is gaining support. Such measures align with social justice and equality and seek to break down historical boundaries within Hinduism, promoting a more equitable vibe. It is also recommended that the Hindu community launch awareness and education efforts to foster mutual understanding. These efforts may change the paradigm and encourage a more cohesive approach to temple administration and Access by encouraging conversation and disseminating knowledge about the significance of inclusive practices.

References

Bradbury, J. (2022). The (Im) possibilities of a Hindu Left in Contemporary India. In Marxism, Religion, and Emancipatory Politics (pp. 221–240). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Dube, M. P. (2020). Crisis of Indian Secularism.

Shah, R. S. (2021). The freedom of religious institutions and human flourishing in India: A present and future research agenda. Religions12(7), 550.

Daily Patterns Of Marijuana And Alcohol Co-Use Among Individuals With Alcohol And Cannabis Use Disorders

Summary

Metrik et al. (2018) investigated daily patterns of marijuana and alcohol co-use among individuals with cannabis and alcohol use disorders (CUD/AUD). Analyzing data from veterans, they found that on marijuana use days, participants were more prone to heavy drinking, especially those with AUD or both AUD/CUD diagnoses. Interestingly, those solely diagnosed with CUD were less likely to engage in heavy drinking on marijuana use days. These findings demonstrated the strong correlation between marijuana use and heavy drinking, especially in those with AUD, highlighting the critical need for alcohol therapies that target marijuana use concurrently as a risk factor for both excessive drinking and AUD.

Mojarrad et al. (2014) conducted a prospective cohort study focusing on individuals with substance dependence, exploring the impact of marijuana use on achieving abstinence from drugs and heavy alcohol use. Analyzing data from a chronic disease management trial, they discovered that among participants with substance dependence, marijuana use correlated with a 27% reduced likelihood of achieving abstinence from drugs and heavy alcohol. These results made it clear that using marijuana at the same time as other drugs was a big problem for people who were trying to stop using their main drugs. This means that clinicians need to pay more attention to dealing with marijuana use in people who are also addicted to other drugs.

What I Learned About the Topic

Research on the co-use of marijuana and alcohol among individuals with cannabis and alcohol use disorders (CUD/AUD) reveals intricate associations. Metrik et al. (2018) illuminated that on days of marijuana use, there is a notable inclination toward heavy drinking, particularly among those diagnosed with AUD or both AUD/CUD. Surprisingly, individuals solely diagnosed with CUD exhibited a reduced tendency for heavy drinking on marijuana use days, emphasizing a nuanced relationship between diagnoses and co-use patterns. In parallel, Mojarrad et al. (2014) uncovered a concerning trend: among individuals grappling with substance dependence, marijuana use hindered achieving abstinence from drugs and heavy alcohol by 27%. This highlighted a significant barrier to abstinence efforts, signaling the need for clinicians to address concurrent marijuana use in those battling other substance dependencies. Collectively, these studies show how complicated the interactions are between marijuana and alcohol, especially when it comes to substance use disorders. This means that different types of diagnoses need different kinds of interventions to deal with the different effects of co-use.

Comparison

To find the sources, I utilized Google Scholar by entering the topic “Daily Patterns of Marijuana and Alcohol Co-Use among Individuals with Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders.” After hitting search, I filtered the results for empirical studies, focusing on relevance and publication date. Metrik et al.’s (2018) study emerged, providing insights into daily associations between marijuana and alcohol use among individuals with CUD/AUD. Mojarrad et al.’s (2014) research surfaced through similar steps, delving into marijuana’s impact on achieving abstinence among those with substance dependence.

Distinguishing the two sources, the study by Metrik et al. (2018) followed a structured academic format, delineating their research method, results, and conclusions in a traditional scholarly style. In contrast, the work by Mojarrad et al. (2014) maintained an empirical foundation but appeared less formal, emphasizing practical implications over intricate statistical details. While both studies were published in reputable journals, the research by Metrik et al. (2018) boasted a larger sample size, enhancing its statistical robustness compared to Mojarra et al.’s study, which featured a smaller sample and prioritized practical applications.

Several variables, including sample size, statistical analysis, methodological rigour, and ramifications, affect how credible a scientific study is. Because of several important characteristics, the research conducted by Metrik et al. showed a higher degree of confidence. Firstly, their comprehensive approach encompassed a larger sample size, enhancing the generalizability of their findings. A larger sample often reduces the chances of biases and increases the study’s statistical power. Metrik et al. (2018) have, in addition, carried out comprehensive statistical studies that offer a more nuanced understanding of the connections between alcohol use, marijuana use, and certain diagnostic situations such as CUD/AUD. The study’s reputation within the scientific community is enhanced by the reliability and robustness of its conclusions, which result from the rigorous statistical technique used.

Conversely, while Mojarrad et al.’s study maintained empirical validity and significance, it had certain limitations that impacted its credibility compared to Metrik et al.’s research. Mojarrad et al. (2014) focused more on the practical implications of their findings rather than delving deeply into detailed statistical analyses. Furthermore, their study had a smaller sample size, potentially limiting their conclusions’ generalizability. While valuable in providing applied insights, the emphasis on practical implications might have slightly reduced the study’s scientific credibility regarding comprehensive statistical analysis and generalizability to broader populations.

What I have learned about the research process throughout this semester

This semester, delving into research has highlighted the importance of systematic exploration and critical analysis. It has taught me the significance of refining search queries to target specific information, sifting through diverse sources for credibility, and evaluating each source’s relevance and reliability. Understanding the nuances between various study designs and methodologies and the impact of sample sizes on credibility has been enlightening. Additionally, discerning how different studies contribute to knowledge within a field and recognizing the strengths and limitations of each has been integral to forming a comprehensive understanding of research methodologies and outcomes.

References

Metrik, J., Gunn, R. L., Jackson, K. M., Sokolovsky, A. W., & Borsari, B. (2018). Daily Patterns of Marijuana and Alcohol Co-Use Among Individuals with Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorders. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research42(6), 1096–1104. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13639

Mojarrad, M., Samet, J. H., Cheng, D. M., Winter, M. R., & Saitz, R. (2014). Sci-Hub | Marijuana use and achievement of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs among people with substance dependence: A prospective cohort study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 142, 91–97 | 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.006. Sci-Hub.se. https://sci-hub.se/https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871614009144