Conservation Model And Domestic Violence Sample Assignment

Netto, Moura, Queiroz, Tyrrell, and Bravo (2014) provide credible information regarding women’s experiences of domestic violence in the context of the conservation model. The major strength of the study is the collection and analysis of personal views of the females about the issue. The researchers managed to obtain vivid examples of psychological challenges and health problems that women exposed to violence by intimate partners encounter in their lives. It is possible to say that the selection of qualitative and exploratory methodology is well justified in the given research and perfectly fits the overall study purposes and goals.

The analysis of the findings within the framework of the conservation theory given by Netto et al. (2014) is consistent, and its outcomes seem to be logically correct. In agreement with the conservation model, every human being is a dynamic whole, and every change in the behavior is regarded as a reaction to the changes in any life subsystem: physical or psychological state, and personal or social realms. The analysis reveals that domestic violence provokes a chain of negative reaction in females’ structural, social, and personal integrity, and energy. For instance, they may have insomnia which results in psychological stress and substance abuse which adversely affects their self-esteem and ultimately results in social isolation.

Nurses may use this knowledge to approach different patient groups. For instance, by using this model to analyze patients with dementia and identifying the challenges and problems they face in every realm of their life, care providers may succeed in developing an individualized approach to every patient and, in this way, improve the treatment outcomes and increase patient satisfaction.

According to the conservation theory principles, along with the physical conditions, nurses should evaluate the psychological, and social-emotional integrity of patients. Based on this, the model meets the present-day standards of holistic care.

References

Netto, L., Moura, M., Queiroz, A., Tyrrell, M., Bravo, M. (2014). Violence against women and its consequences. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 27(5), 458-64.

Mass Media In “Encoding/Decoding” By Stuart Hall

There is no use denying the fact that nowadays mass media could be taken as one of the most powerful remedies that has a great influence on people. Coherent society could easily be called the era of digital technologies and various means of media as these phenomena have a great role in the modern world. Due to the blistering development of various means of communication, which became possible due to a great number of scientific discoveries, people obtained the unlimited access to information. They became able to get to know about the events that happen somewhere in another country to a person who was unknown for them.

However, having obtained this possibility, people find themselves dependent on various means of media as mainly due to their work society gets to know about some facts or events. Moreover, the influence of the mass media has been increasing because of the great role of information in the modern world and the way in which it is presented. The thing is that nowadays people have mediated access to various data as it is influenced by the point of view of sources that present it. With this in mind, it is possible to state the fact that in coherent society media is the most powerful remedy that influences the mentality of millions of people. With this in mind, it is possible to analyze some paper devoted to the given issue in order to obtain the main ideas or perspectives on the functioning of this instrument.

Thus, the article Encoding/Decoding by Stuart Hall is chosen as the background for the discussion. The given paper was written in 1973. However, some concepts and ideas presented in it still have not lost their topicality. It should be said that the author addresses the issue that was very topical at that period of time. The second half of the 20h century could be characterized by the blistering development of various means of media.

That is why, it is quite obvious that the level of interest towards them increased. Trying to investigate new and fast developing issue, a great number of various researchers devoted their works to the sphere of mass media and its main concepts. Though, Stuart Hall was influenced by the main tendencies peculiar to the society and wanted to suggest his own vision of some models peculiar to the sphere of mass media. Additionally, it should be said that the given article is the part of an edited book that is also devoted to this very issue. This fact could be taken as a good evidence of a great interest which existed towards the issue of mass media and its concepts.

Thus, analyzing the main ideas presented in the above mentioned article, it is possible to say that the author revolves around some models that tend to describe the process of communication in terms of the functioning of mass media (Hall 129). Hall underlines the fact that the traditional model has been criticized for linearity and inability to take into account all factors that influence the process of communication (129). Moreover, the author also suggests another approach that exists in science and is also used to describe the main processes that occur in the sphere of mass communication.

This approach has several advantages that could be taken as the main factor for its usage in practice. However, Hall tends to show that all these approaches are not ideal as nowadays the sphere to which they belong becomes more and more complicated. The author also wants to outline the fact that the main object of these practices is various meanings and messages that are organized in the form of sign-vehicles (Hall 130). Cogitating about the importance of this object, Hall also underlines the fact that it is created due to the interaction of various chains of codes and within the rules of a certain language for people to able to understand it (130).

Additionally, the author also suggests the idea that the current television communicative process is the program which is comprised of several issues (Hall 131). Emphasizing the fact that one of the main aims of mass media is the establishment of clear and efficient process of communication, the author says that all components of this program becomes extremely vital. Moreover, Hall tends to prove the idea that production of the program, that will result in the creation of the process of communication, is organized around the construction of a certain message that should be delivered to the audience with the help of various means of mass media (131).

This mediated contact is very important for the functioning of the whole sphere and, that is why, great attention is devoted to the structure of the whole program. That is why such aspects as routines of production, technical skills, professional ideologies and assumptions about the audience are taken into account and analyzed (Hall 130). Only basing on the ideas accepted due to the analysis of all these issues, the program that describes the would-be process of communication could be approved and used by various means of media.

Nevertheless, the author also suggests the idea that the broadcasting structures should contain encoded messages in the form of meaningful discourse in order to be realized and used in practice (Hall 134). The author tends to show the fact that strict and distinctive rules of language are also very important for the sphere of communication and, that is why, all products and programs should be organized in accordance with the main peculiarities of the language of the audience. Being quite obvious, this statement, however, is emphasized by the author in order to show the impact which the language has on the whole sphere of mediated communication and mass media (Hall 139).

Besides, the author also states the fact that before any message, conveyed with the help of various means of media, has the effect on the audience, it should be appropriated as a meaningful discourse in and be meaningfully decoded in order to be clear and understandable for the audience. Thus, it becomes obvious that the author wants to underline the fact that the efficiency of the message and mass media depends on the level of interaction and mutual understanding between the main organizers of the process and people who should receive this very message.

Besides, it should also be said that Hall not only points out his ideas, however, he tries to provide a clear evidence for all his ideas in order to make the whole paper credible. First of all, he provides a diagram that aims at showing the way in which the program as a meaningful discourse is organized and that distinguishes the main components of this phenomenon. Moreover, the author performs the analysis of various levels of the process of communication and meaningful discourse.

Outlining two main types of the discourse, which are visual and aural, the author states that the television sign could be taken as the combination of these very types of discourses (Hall 139). That is why, performing their analysis, Hall tries to show the credibility of his ideas and necessity of deep investigation of some main aspects of language in order to understand the main peculiarities of organizing the process of communication with the help of mass media.

Thus, it is possible to say that the ideas outlined by the author could be taken as quite logical and credible. The thing is that the author manages to combine concepts from various spheres of science in order to analyze the issue of communication in mass media and show the main tendencies of its development. Moreover, the evidence, used by the author to prove his assumptions, could also be taken as clear and credible. That is why, resting on these facts, it is possible to agree with the author’s position and add the fact that the development of concepts that describe the process of communication has not stopped and there are many concepts nowadays that suggest a new vision of the issue.

In conclusion, it should be said that the authors augments about the issue of communication and the nature of its models seem to be quite logical. Supported by the clear evidence, they make a reader agree with the authors assumptions and accept his vision of the main peculiarities of communication and meaningful discourse.

Sources Cited

Hall, Stuart. “Encoding/decoding”. Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Ed. Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies. London: Hutchinson 1980. 128-138. Print.

Multiple Intelligences Theory In Education

Introduction

The paper provides a model of the innovative school development, which is based on the multiple intelligences concept. The approach was elaborated by the professor from Harvard University, Howard Gadner. In contrast to the traditional understanding of human mentality, Gadner’s methodology claims that intelligence should be viewed as a unique potential, which allows developing diverse skills and competencies.

Divergences between two doctrines

The essential divergences between two doctrines of intellectual development refer to several factors. Primarily, the customary view of human mentality reveals that people possess a distinct amount of intelligence when they are born. Furthermore, the educational approaches, which are built on traditional intelligence method, emphasize that a certain set of mental skills can’t change through the lifetime, which is why the teaching programs encompass the same materials for everyone. In the opposite, multiple intelligences theory refers to the idea that a person is born with a set of competencies, which evolve in different combinations and may be improved through drills and directed study (Sternberg, 2000).

The development of a school profile, which is based on the approach of multiple intelligences, may be characterized by a diversity of educational doctrines, which are used throughout academic involvement. Specifically, the system of education has to be based on the subjects, which allow the learners developing a full spectrum of their intelligence possibilities. The advantages of the program are already estimated in the leading countries of the world. Thus, the research studies show that the level of educational progress in the USA has increased with the introduction of MI-based instruction. Specifically, the American educators link the MI learning improvements to the test scores, and student discipline progresses as well as the overall learning involvement progression (Furnham, Hosoe, & Li-Ping Tang, 2002).

MI-based education

The principle of grouping the students in multiple intelligences classroom stems from the grounding idea of the given theory, according to which every learner possesses seven intelligences that can be used in different combinations. The implications of forming MI-based groups presuppose the exclusion of special education concerns. Thus, in contrast to the traditional class formation, which reveals that exclusively linguistic and mathematical learning modes are correct, MI-based education suggests that even the learners with a bright revelation of musical or intrapersonal intelligence may show excellent academic results.

Therefore, the educational program, in the designed school, roots from the possibility to include every child in a cooperative group of learners, which does not only provide the opportunities for learning excellence but excludes the notion of “learning disability.” According to the doctrine, the analyzed educational program allows non-discriminatory grouping. In the opposite, the designed form of instruction encourages a selection of the students with diverse backgrounds and learning potentials. In this way, the learners may observe and analyze the methods of disclosing various types of intelligence types. However, the educators must take into consideration the fact that the designed group shapes require multi-sided student approaches as well as individualized instruction methods.

The MI-based curricula must reach beyond the conventional understanding of the subjects, which are introduced in schools. Thus, while traditional schooling prioritizes such disciplines as arithmetic and writing, the program that is based on multiple intelligences, emphasizes that arts and music as equal to the former ones. The strategy contributes to the idea that children, who possess musical intelligence, should not feel marginalized. In addition, the study of every MI discipline has to be adjusted to the values of alternative learning.

Thus, every subject must be approached in the manner of in-depth elaboration while traditional disciplines’ study implies information delivery. The second critical issue in the designation of MI-based curricula is an introduction of the complete subject variety in the primary school so that to provide opportunities for early academic involvement. Eventually, when children are able to get involved in all possible spheres of learning activities from the first days of their school commitment, the educators may perceive the ways, in which they group their mental intelligences. Therefore, an early addiction to learning, as well as the inclusion of the diverse disciplinary development, serves as the major advantages of multiple intelligences curricula.

With these points in mind, the designed school offers the following set of disciplines: arithmetic, reading, grammar, sciences, art, music, geography, physical training, astrology, communication basics, history, physics, chemistry, literature, and creative writing. The selected subjects have to be introduced on all levels of academic learning: from primary to high school. Nevertheless, the gradation of material difficulty has to be well-differentiated. The assessment complies with Gadner’s spectrum project, which prioritizes observation and all-covering examinations rather that casual paper tests.

The implementation of MI approach at school complies with Gadner’s theoretical claim, according to which seven intelligences have to be clearly separated from each other. As a conclusion, the demarcation must be viewed not only in instruction peculiarities but space organization as well. Therefore, it is suggested to employ the construction of seven learning centers, which might be differentiated through the inclusion of thematic appliances (Feldman, 2014). Naturally, the centers for study must correspond with seven intelligence types.

Mainly, in one classroom, the practice of disclosing linguistic intelligence should be encouraged while the other targets the elaboration of logical-mathematical competence, etc. The division contributes to the creation of centralized instruction, which prioritizes and develops human abilities. However, the school administration makes sure that the learning centers are situated in close distances from each other since the students are supposed to sustain their academic practices in the modes of all seven intelligences, which is why classroom switch must become a casual process. The approach ensures that the students may learn one and the same issue in seven ways, which enhances the chances for academic progress.

Conclusion

The use of Gadner’s intelligence approach requires special teaching preparation since the modes of instruction in MI-based school differ from those, which are practiced in traditional learning environments. Specifically, the educators must take into notice that MI instruction is highly individualized. Therefore, the learners can’t be educated in the same manner since every student reveals his/her personal study potential. The essential task of the educator is to shape individual intelligences so that the learners could use their skills in an optimal way. The primary theoretical information set, which must be mastered by MI professionals, refers to the detailed analysis of individual competencies.

Thus, a teacher must also be proficient in child psychology since the interpretation of intelligence types falls into the sphere of educator’s competencies. Moreover, a MI specialist has to be well-acquainted with the methodologies of individualized instruction as well as with the materials, which are used in all identified learning classrooms. Finally, a MI educator is characterized by professional flexibility. Since the learners tend to change the ways, in which they master the material, the teachers must always be ready to changing program directions and switching to different instruction modes.

References

Feldman, R. (2014). Child development: A topical approach. New York: Pearson.

Furnham, A., Hosoe, T., & Li-Ping Tang, T. (2002). Male hubris and female humility? A crosscultural study of ratings of self, parental, and sibling multiple intelligence in America, Britain, and Japan. Intelligence, 30(1), 101-115.

Sternberg, R. (2000). Intelligence and education. Cambridge University Press, 67(7), 519-533.

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