Construction Of Bridge And Tunnel Construction Sample Paper

The sides of the shaft can be supported by palisading in concrete. Construction is carried out utilizing a assortment of sheet pile subdivisions, stacking cocks and methods depends on application, environmental factors and works handiness. The sheet hemorrhoids are supported by prestressing saloon behind the sheet hemorrhoids, as shown in Fig 4. Sheet stacking can besides be used as groundwater exclusion as a mean of groundwater control ( Fletcher & A ; Lavan, 1987 ) & A ; ( Woodward, 2005 ) .

However, this method is really expensive but would be more cost-efficient if it is used as lasting construction. Besides any major break can do hapless criterions of wall building which may be hard and expensive to decide when it happens. Besides that, the quality of the work is straight dependent on the undersoil strata since the dirt forms a impermanent shutter against which the unmoved concrete is cast ( Puller, 1998 ) .

Another method of groundwater control is by utilizing Ammonium/brine infrigidation ( stop deading ) . It is a impermanent cut-off barrier to except groundwater in most concentrated and near-saturated dirts by take downing the land temperature to organize a wall with immediate ice cylinders, as shown in Fig 8. The formation of ice in the nothingnesss will halt the H2O flow into the site of work, as shown in Fig 9 ( Woodward, 2005 ) .

The bad side of this method is that the intervention takes clip to develop ; 2-3 months for system installing, 1.2-2.5 months to organize freezing, and 4-7 months to keep freezing during building ( Bickel, Kuesel & A ; King, 2002 ) . Besides that, the initial installing costs are highly high and infrigidation works is expensive and it merely economic at greater deepness. Strict site control is required and therefore leads to higher cost as good. Furthermore, the land may heave during stop deading which will impact the next constructions, every bit good as melt may go forth nothingnesss in the dirt which cause colony under burden and self-weight ( Puller, 1998 ) .

After the completion of shaft, tunnel drilling will later get down. During the drilling of tunnel, groundwater control is cardinal to forestall structural failure as building of tunnel will alter the groundwater government of vicinity as tunnel normally acts as a drain ( Bell, 2004 ) .

NATM is flexible to follow different digging geometries and able to make really big cross subdivisions. This is so a lower cost for making the tunnel and low cost demand for TBM equipment at the beginning of the undertaking. NATM is easy to put in a rainproof membrane. Besides that, it is flexible to supervise distortion and emphasis redistribution so that necessary safeguards can be taken. NATM besides gives less overall support cost as sufficient support for the burdens and land conditions without being inordinate can be identified and the primary support such as shotcrete can be installed easy by supplying a good contact surface between support and land. NATM offers short lead-in clip before start of plants which is really much cost-efficient as clip cost money ( Karakus & A ; Fowell, 2004 ) & A ; ( Harris, 1996 ) .

The building of the span wharf will be foremost constructed. Cofferdams and coffers are used for diggings either in boggy or unstable land that requires sidelong support, or when diggings are made below H2O degree. They enclosed an country down to foundation degree from which H2O is excluded sufficiently to allow digging and arrangement of a foundation construction to take topographic point. The chief factors act uponing the pick between caissons and coffers are ground conditions and proposed deepness of the foundation degree ( Bell, 2004 ) .

Whether created in-situ or utilizing precast sections, the balanced cantilever or increase launching method is one of the most dramatic ways of constructing a span. Work starts with the building of the abutments and wharfs. Then, from each wharf, the span is constructed in both waies at the same time. In this manner, each wharf remains stableand hence aa‚¬E?balancedaa‚¬a„? until the single structural elements are eventually fitting and are connected together. In add-on, the sections are increasingly tied back to the wharfs by prestressing sinews or bars threaded through each unit ( Fletcher & A ; Lavan, 1987 ) .

It is undeniable that this method minimises the break to bing traffic webs under the span ( waterways ) and provides clear, unobstructed entree to all work fronts.AA Besides, support falsework which is expensive and risky is besides reduced due to impermanent plants being relocated by gauntry or lifting frame and there is no hazard of differential colony of falsework under the H2O or land. The impermanent tonss of gauntry or lifting frame are introduced straight into wharfs. Besides that, faster rates of hard-on are possible and therefore lead to shorter building continuance and salvage the sum undertaking cost. Besides, the optimisation of crew size and decrease in crane demand cut down the labor and machinery costs every bit good. This minimisation of costs will hold low cost impact on the entire undertaking cost ( VSL, n.d. ) , ( Rosignoli & A ; Ing, n.d. ) .

In decision, in order to hold low cost impact of the tunnel building cost, Earth force per unit area balance ( EPB ) method of Tunnel Boring is suggested where the typical costs is lower than Slurry Pressure Balance ( SPB ) . In contrast with conventional method, the impermanent land support can be reduced or eliminated where important cost and clip can be saved. As for span, the segmental method of building is favorable as labor and falsework or formwork can be minimized to the lower limit. Besides, important period of clip can be saved, which is besides one of the cost-incentives standards.

Who Is The Quantity Surveyor Construction

Quantity surveyor is the person/ house who manage the cost relating to the building undertakings, such as new buildings, care work and redevelopments. Quantity surveyor proctors the cost of every facets of a building undertaking as a cost expert, every bit good as seeks to minimise the costs of the undertaking and to do more cost nest eggs while guaranting the entire cost of undertaking does non transcend the estimated cost.

Historical background of measure surveying

Beginning of Quantity Surveying

Harmonizing to the AIQS Publication, by article of A Brief History of Quantity Surveying ; “ It is believed that the antediluvian Egyptians used a system of measure appraising but it was non until the seventeenth century Restoration of London after the Great fire that Quantity Surveyors developed as an business. ”

“ In these early yearss the measure surveyor acted for the maestro shopkeepers, mensurating the work after completion. ” ( Blackburn, 1998, p3 )

Although Quantity Surveyors were likely active in Australia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Singapore, USA, Some Europe state, and all Asian county since lone ago.

By and large, Historical background of measure surveying is based on ;

Functions of measure of measures,

Contract certification,

Procedures used in measure surveying work,

Other measuring attacks,

Agreed regulations of measuring,

National criterion edifice elements, etc.

In the 17th century the designers were responsible for the hard-on of edifices, every bit good as their design, and they employed a figure of chief craftsmen who performed the work in each trade. ( Seeley and Winfield ‘s Building Quantities Explained )

Up to the center of the 19th century it was the pattern to step and value the edifice work after it had been completed and measures of measures were non prepared. ( Seeley and Winfield ‘s Building Quantities Explained )

Key Roles and Responsibilities in Traditional systems

In old yearss measure surveyors responsibilities were limited to mensurating measures for find out the value of proposed work or value of completed work. This traditional function specially affect for little and average size undertaking based on step and value system. Besides the prepared Bill of Quantities for tendering, interim rating and concluding payment procedure intents.

By and large, when survey important function and duty of traditional Quantity Surveyor can be described as follows ( Pre Contract phase and station contract phase ) ;

Elemental Cost Estimate.


Bill of Quantity Preparation.

Tender Document Preparation.


Estimating and Tendering.

Tender Evaluation.

Tender Clarification Meetings.

Negotiation Meetings.

Kick of Meeting.

Advancement on Site.

Variation Order Calculations.

Variation Order dialogue.

Payment Certifications.

Fiscal Statements.

Concluding Histories.

Hence, The Contractor or Consultant/ Client ‘s Quantity Surveyors were involved with these functions and responsible for expression after fiscal involvements as they expected in his investing.

Procurement methods

In older yearss besides quantity surveyors had cognition refering specific procurance methods affecting with measure appraising function, it can depict merely as follows ;

Form of Contracts ; JCT signifier ( Joint Contract Tribunal ) , FIDIC signifier, NEC signifier, ICTAD signifier of contract in Sri Lanka.

Types of Contract are ; Traditional Methods such as Cost Reimbursement ( Cost plus contract, Cost plus fixed monetary value contract, Cost plus mark contract, etc. ) , Lum-sum Contract, Measure and pay contract,

Measurement and Preparation of BOQ ; they were used criterions method of measurings for readying of Bill of Quantities and required quantification procedure ( SMM7, CESSM3, POMI, etc. )

Preparation of Tender/ Contract Documents ; harmonizing to the criterions of signifier of stamp ( Bid ) , Form of understanding, direction to stamps, status of contract, general conditions, specification, drawings, BOQ, Specimen criterion signifiers ( Bonds and Guarantees ) , Contract paperss,

Tendering & A ; Estimating ; involved with naming stamps, opening stamps, stamp evaluate based on preset estimation, fixing concluding study for stamp award.

Cost Control ; during the building period, Quantity surveyor prepared cost study for advice the client by foretelling expected concluding history.

Interim Valuation/ Final statements ; prepared by Contractor Quantity surveyor in order to all work done under original range and applied scientist / client Quantity surveyor were certified.

Colony of Contract claims and dispute declaration ; Giving notice, modern-day records, break claims, EOT boodle

Contemporary Background of Quantity appraising

The measure appraising profession mostly developed through the twentieth century and up to this century,

Harmonizing to the PP presentation ‘moss building cost direction Iraqi National Congress ‘ as Contemporary Role ;

Client advocator and representative

Construction design and economic sciences

Construction planning & A ; procurance

Construction disposal and direction

Undertaking direction

Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Cost Control procedure are besides really of import procedure affecting usage in this degree. It is a pre-costing method of a undertaking.

Equally good as Quantity surveyor proctors the cost of every stages of a building undertaking as a cost director to minimise the costs of the undertaking and do more cost nest eggs for the undertaking success.

What is background of modern Quantity Surveyor pattern?

The Modern measure surveyors provide services that cover all facets of procurance, contractual and undertaking cost direction. They can either work as advisers or they can be employed by a contractor or sub-contractor. Equally good as freshly developing countries of undertaking direction and value direction ( Definition of Quantity Surveyors – ) .

“ Measure Surveyors will go antique unless they find a new function. ” ( Egan, 1999, p1 )

The function of the Quantity Surveyor has changed therefore well in recent old ages, so so in several project employ themselves as ‘cost advisers ‘ and ‘project directors, largely due to the recession. Equally good as engage to advice on the cost deductions of building.

However, QS ‘s are traveling off from their traditional function and are now offering services such as Value Engineering, Business Risk Management, Management Consultancy, Facilities Management and Project Management.

What are the important key functions which have been changed as modern pattern?

There are some specific functions that identified has being changed into modern measure surveyor function since in resent period.

Those are as follows ;

Investing assessment

Investing assessment is an indispensable portion of capital budgeting, therefore within modern Quantity surveyor pattern would worry concluding returns of the investing.

Advice on cost bounds and budgets

When come ining to building investing demand good defined budget, it is imperative that you know your building budget bounds. Hence clear advice on cost bounds and budget demand to be changed.

Whole life bing

Whole-life assessment or life-cycle costing, besides known as “ cost-in-use ” , describes the mold technique aimed at get bying with the mixture of capital and running costs of edifices and the consequence on ownership of a edifice. ( Ferry and Brandon, 1991: 43-44 ) .

Value Management

Value Management is a systematic attack and procedure before referred to as value technology, to guarantee bringing of a map or merchandise at the lowest cost without hurt to quality, public presentation or dependability ( Ashworth, 2004: 409- 421 ; Green, 1992 ) .

Hence under modern pattern of QS Value management/ technology is critical procedure severally happen out unneeded cost on each activity.

Hazard analysis

Designation of possible hazards in progress is an of import and major duty. The Quantity Surveyor is able to take necessary actions to avoid or minimise the hazards by placing them early. Safety of work, Economic affairs, Weather conditions, political affairs, etc ; besides includes in hazard direction under modern pattern.

Insolvency Servicess

The measure surveyor is cost adept, therefore in modern pattern, he should back up to execute the insolvency services, such as, bankruptcies and settlements.

Cost technology Servicess

The measure surveyor should guarantee that uninterrupted, accurate cost information, analysis, Cost coverage, and Cost planning, Cost control, Cost Checking and cost influences are reported to the client & A ; design squad. The measure surveyor should include all costs in the cost program or estimation of concluding cost. The cost contriver should hold a clear apprehension of cost and budget marks to enable him to rede the developer about possible future over-runs and pro-actively to supply alternate solutions ( Ferry and Brandon, 1991: 9 ) .

Sub contract disposal

Quantity Surveyor should hold ability to choose, control and mange them reexamine the advancement of subcontracts and keeps senior direction up to day of the month.

Technical direction

Apply all techniques for cheque the concluding measure with contract measures, examine the records available, discuses facets with relevant staff, and analyze the process used.

Undertaking direction

Soon measure surveyor significantly affect with project direction service since cost factor is critical of import facts for quality, Time and Cost manage.

Facilities direction

This is the new field for measure surveyor, involves for all edifice direction services.

Advice on contractual differences

Quantity surveyor should give advice ever to the client to minimise contract difference harmonizing his particular cognition of contract conditions.

Employers ‘ agent

Quantity surveyor should move as client agent harmonizing to the RICS professional ordinance and consumer protection usher 2000.

Contract Procurement methods and procedure

Since ground yearss building industry usage pull offing contract, Design physique contract, Construction direction and Build operate and transportation contract procurement methods for the contract procedure. Hence as modern pattern of Quantity surveyors function has to alter their traditional function with thorough cognition of this methods and procedure.

What are the of import influence factors that changed function?

The hereafter development of measure surveying services is likely to be influenced by the undermentioned of import factors: ( Beginning: Powell 1998 )

Client focal point ;

Construction cost is really of import constituent for client to construct his undertaking within allocated budget, including whole life costs, therefore Quantity surveyor function would be changed based on undertaking cost to file away the client aspire.

Information and communicating engineerings ;

The Quantity Surveyor should continuously touch in field of IT developing and using them twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours plants. Upgrading cognition such as ; cad application, spreadsheet application, direction application, rating, drawings, fiscal application, etc. every bit good, Information engineering applies non merely to utilizing computing machines for their work but besides in footings of pass oning with the outside universe through the cyberspace and the electronic exchange of information amongst the squad and the different professions involved.

Somerville and Craig ( 2003 ) have clearly shown that cost nest eggs are achieved when traveling from a paper-based system to an electronic papers direction system. However under communicating, Quantity surveyor should better communicating accomplishment based on the personal qualities included, as illustration: Independence, Adaptability, Initiative pickings, A willingness to larn An ability to reflect on what has and what has non been achieved.

Research and its distribution ;

A research on past work in the field will assist to set up or corroborate facts, repeat the consequences of old work, work out new or bing jobs, support premiss, or develop new theories.

Graduate capableness ;

Harmonizing to the RICS publication, it examined the demands of measure surveyors instruction, preparation and go oning professional development are an of import constituent on all undergraduate and graduate student classs. It is indispensable facts to go on to develop if it wished to keep its function within the building industry.

Particular they identified demand of to be developed countries such as ; Construction engineering, Measurement regulations and conventions, Construction economic sciences, Financial direction, Business disposal, Management, Documentation, Analysis, Appraisal, Quantification, Communication. ( ‘The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor, RICS 1971 ‘ )

Practice size ;

Measure surveyors have work experience in multi-disciplinary pattern for many old ages. Davies, composing in RICS Business ( 2006 ) , refers to measure surveyors now being the key advisors on building and development schemes, but that they must go on to reinvent themselves to stay in this place. The QS patterns that survived so looked overseas, particularly to the roar in the Middle East and at the same clip began widening their services.

Complete apprehension of the procurance procedure ;

The Quantity Surveyor should hold really clear understood refering selected procurement methods to avoid difference during the implementing phase arise from stakeholders due to disagreements in procurement systems.

wide-ranging on mechanical and electrical installings ;

By and large in the universe, day-to-day run into new engineering into MEP field of building industry, hence it straight influences to alter the traditional function of measure appraising pattern.

Effective alteration direction ;

Change direction involves incorporating and transforming behaviours, attitudes and actions to back up organisational sustainability. The most effectual alteration direction techniques involve proactive communicating with all stakeholders.

Why required to alter as Modern Quantity Surveyor

The measure surveyor should understand the challenges and chances presented by the demands of clients in relation to be, contracts, communicating and claims and possibly concentrate their development on the of import links between these maps. Equally good as, the future way of measure surveying will be influenced by industrialisation, structural transmutation of economic systems, information engineering discoveries and increased globalisation of building markets.

Requirement of a deliver a new scope of added value services to clients, based upon increased client focal point and a greater apprehension of the map of reinforced assets including, why new edifices are commissioned. Besides many clients who operate in extremely competitory planetary markets, base their procurance schemes on the grade of added value that can be demonstrated by a peculiar scheme.

In order to run into these standards measure surveyors must ‘get inside the caput ‘ of their clients, to the full appreciate their concern aims and happen new ways to present value and thereby conversely take waste from the procurance and building procedure.

Cost Management:

The measure surveyor should be able to use all the methods, tools and techniques to outdo consequence and to the advantage of the undertaking as a whole.


Measure surveyors should be able to analyse the client ‘s demands every bit good as the interior decorator ‘s attack and the environmental influence when proposing alternate procurance methods. Quality contract certification remains a non-negotiable portion of future services. Although many new methods may be used in the hereafter, the measure surveyor should continuously guarantee that contractual expertness remains portion of the service provided.


This is an country where the measure surveyor may necessitate development, but effectual communicating with all function participants will be a major portion of future day-to- twenty-four hours activities. One has to observe the importance of communicating aimed at accomplishing consequences as one negotiates for client – and besides contractor-satisfaction in an industry which is known for its claims, differences and struggle.

Claims and differences:

The measure surveyor must cognize, understand and be able to rede, usage and use claims-adjudication and dispute-resolution methods. This is an country of growing because an effectual dispute-resolution procedure will enable the parties

and all function participants to pass more clip, money and energy on the undertaking.

Ethic & A ; Value of a Quantity Surveyor

RICS has introduce important moralss for all measure surveyors and professionals Such as ; Act with unity, Always be honest, Be unfastened and transparent, Be accountable, Act within your restrictions, Be objective at all times, Always treat others with regard, Have the bravery to do a base.

Advertorials Case Study

An advertorial is an advertizement in the signifier of an column. The term “advertorial” is a blend of “advertisement” and “editorial. ” And was coined in 1946. In printed publications. the advertizement is normally written in the signifier of an nonsubjective article and designed to look like a legitimate and independent intelligence narrative. In telecasting. the advertizement is similar to a short infomercial presentation of merchandises or services. These can either be in the signifier of a telecasting commercial or as a section on a talk show or assortment show. In wireless. these can take the signifier of a wireless commercial or a treatment between the announcer and representative Advertorials differ from traditional advertizements in that they are designed to look like the articles that appear in the publication. Most publications will non accept advertizements that look precisely like narratives from the newspaper or magazine they are looking in. The differences may be elusive. and disclaimers—such as the word “advertisement”—may or may non look.

Sometimes footings depicting the advertorial such as a “special promotional feature” or “special advertisement section” are used. The tone of the advertorials is normally closer to that of a imperativeness release than of an nonsubjective intelligence narrative. Advertorials can besides be printed and presented as an full newspaper subdivision. inserted the same manner within a newspaper as shop flyers. cartoon strips subdivisions. and other non-editorial content. These subdivisions are normally printed on a smaller type of circular and different newspaper than the existent paper. Many newspapers and magazines will delegate staff authors or free-lances to compose advertorials. normally without a byline recognition.

A major difference between regular column and advertorial is that clients normally have content blessing of advertorials. a luxury normally non provided with regular column. A related pattern is the creative activity of stuff that looks like traditional media ( for case. a newspaper or magazine ) but is really created by a company to market its merchandises. One familiar illustration is air hose in-flight magazines. which may have studies about travel finishs to which the air hose flies. [ 2 ] Historically. advertorials were less frowned upon and newspapers would even “show how magazine advertisement is functioning the public” . [ 3 ]


Daytime plans having light talk designed to pull in chiefly a female audience. frequently use advertorial sections which feature presentations of merchandises. services. and bundles by concerns. A representative of a concern will hold a treatment with a regular host. along with possibly doing a particular offer for viewing audiences. These sections are designed to give a concern a elaborate presentation of their service that might non be possible in a traditional thirty-second or one minute advertizement

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