Consumer Behavior: Impact Of The COVID-19 Pandemic Essay Example

Consumer marketing involves the personal acquaintance of a potential customer with a product and is aimed at stimulating sales of a product in a specific place and at a particular time. The main goal of consumer marketing is to increase the volume of sales of a product or service, the advantage of which is the direct communication of the consumer with the proposed product. It has always been this way, but the pandemic has made its own adjustments to the everyday life of people. The article examines how free samples are returning to various trade areas, and the attitude of consumers, the main objects of sale, to this situation is observed.

After the pandemic was declared in March 2020, retailers worried about the potential spread of coronavirus and, therefore, ruled out free sampling of everything from food or makeup to toys. For consumers, sampling is engaging, funny, and makes an opportunity to discover something new. What is more, it is a critical tool to keep shoppers coming back and battle against the line retailers such as Amazon. For now, with universal vaccinations and the weakening of the COVID-19 threat in the United States, various stores feel confident enough to revive a long tradition and introduce a selection of free sample products.

Analysts point out that the ability to taste food dramatically affects consumer behavior. It makes consumer behavior more loyal, thereby increasing the percentage of a potential purchase. Sampling converts browsers into buyers at a 20% higher rate than if customers were not allowed to test (D’Innocenzio, 2021). The conversion rate is 30% higher when sampling cosmetics. Impulse drives 25% of the retail business, so promoting new products would be much more difficult without testing.

However, it is not clear whether buyers are ready to try, come into contact with the product, as this could be a threat due to the pandemic. Taking into account this information, some retailers are introducing various security protocols that could alleviate these problems. For example, Walmart and Sam’s Club sell pre-sealed product samples on weekends. Companies are even more cautious about product testing in the beauty industry. Some major cosmetics chains are still figuring out how to return product testers to stores. Target is offering a sampling of beauty products when customers can take home individually packaged items. Toy retailers are also replacing traditional sampling with the safer one. Camp Toy Store has individually wrapped craft kits in the store instead of letting kids dig around for art supplies. There are also items for testing toys that can be easily cleaned, such as remote control toy cars instead of dolls with faux hair. Some firms give up sampling, switch to online sales, and offer various services at home. It helps ensure the buyer’s comfort and safety since the consumer controls the environment and hygiene in their own home.

To conclude, the current situation makes all spheres of human existence change and adapt. Consumers come out of COVID-19 with very different habits, and the main challenge for businesses, both small and large, is to find an approach in the new environment. Consumer marketing has been and remains one of the most effective areas since it directly affects customer behavior and decisions. All factors must be taken into account, and a safer environment for consumers must be created to bring benefits to the customer and profit to the seller.


D’Innocenzio, A. (2021). Free samples are back, but with safety in mind. New York Daily News.

Government Censorship On The Internet: An Extended Outline


In the 21st century, the Internet has become a global phenomenon, fully reflecting its name as a worldwide web. State-regulated censorship on the Internet is one of the key topics of heated debates within this context. From one perspective, the contemporary paradigm of human rights emphasizes the essential nature of the freedom of speech. Preventing certain information from circulating on the world wide web may be deemed as a violation of this integral right. On the other hand, censorship often serves to eliminate the threats that persist in the digital environment, becoming a matter of society’s safety, as well as national security. This essay argues that while governmental censorship can support the well-being of the nation, it should be applied with increased caution to respect the freedom of speech.

First Claim and Evidence: Censorship for Child Safety

Censorship on the Internet can be an effective mechanism of filtering the information that is detrimental to society, namely the children who are in the stage of forming their mindsets. The colossal of the Web is undeniable, as it permeates most spheres of human activity. However, the accessibility of the Internet has entailed a surge in potentially damaging and sensitive content. McIntyre (2018) refers to the U.K.’s experience in blocking adult and extremely violent content, which is said to have a negative effect on the mental development of children. Singh (2018) concurs, adding that without filtering, the risks of online experiences outweigh their opportunities for children’s development. This position appears valid, as certain varieties of the content may be harmful even for adults. In the case of children, exposure to adult imagery and extremist ideas may have long-term repercussions.

Second Claim and Evidence: Censorship for State and Global Security

At the same time, the risks of unfiltered information extend beyond its impact on specific individuals and communities. In fact, the Internet in its current state creates a favorable environment for the development of threats to global security. According to Meserve and Pemstein (2020), the benefits of instant communication have been abused by terrorist organizations. With the spread of anonymous message boards, it became easier for them to coordinate their activities internationally. Moreover, the development of darknet portals contributes to the growth in other illegal sectors, such as drug, human, and weapon trafficking (Tsesis, 2017). Considering the circumstances, the provided point of view is essential to the discussion. In this regard, the comparison is drawn between the Internet user inconvenience and the lives of thousands of people.

Third Claim and Evidence: Censorship and Freedom of Speech

Nevertheless, freedom of speech remains one of the integral human rights recognized by the global community. Accordingly, the pursuit of safety protocols should not interfere with it. Internet censorship usually exists in the form of blocking specific pages and resources that are said to contain harmful information. However, some governments go beyond the necessary measures, abusing such censorship policies to suppress political opposition and unfavored views (Ververis et al., 2020). As a result, such nations as China build their Great Firewalls that mostly serve to support the ruling regime (Wang et al., 2017). In this context, balance is the key to maintaining the right course of action. In other words, state security and citizen well-being should not be confused with the personal interests of the ruling elite.


Ultimately, state-regulated censorship of the Internet pursues several essential purposes. Among them, the protection of the nation and its residents from harmful information is the most important task. By censoring such data, governments disrupt illegal activities while ensuring that new generations grow in a positive environment. However, this tool is often abused for the sake of power and national control, which should be accepted. The solution to the issue lies in stronger international regulations on the Internet. It appears relevant for global organizations to develop effective policies that can be spread among all governments. In them, the line between national security and censorship abuse is to be clearly defined.


McIntyre, T. J. (2018). Internet censorship in the United Kingdom: National schemes and European norms. In L. Edwards (Ed.), Law, Policy and the Internet. Hart Publishing.

Meserve, S. A., & Pemstein, D. (2020). Terrorism and internet censorship. Journal of Peace Research, 57(6), 752–763. Web.

Singh, R. D. (2018). Mapping online child safety in Asia and the Pacific. Asia & The Pacific Policy Studies, 5(3), 651–664. Web.

Tsesis, A. (2017). Terrorist incitement on the Internet. Fordham Law Review, 86(2). Web.

Ververis, V., Marguel, S., & Fabian, B. (2019). Cross-country comparison of internet censorship: A literature review. Policy & Internet, 12(4), 450–473. Web.

Wang, Z., Cao, Y., Qian, Z., Song, C., & Krishnamurthy, S. V. (2017). Your state is not mine: A closer look at evading stateful internet censorship. IMC ’17: Proceedings of the 2017 Internet Measurement Conference, 1(1), 114–127. Web.

Socioemotional Development In Late Adulthood

Aging is a part of human life and entails not only physiological but also psychological, emotional, and social changes. First of all, negative or positive perception of this process depends on social connections and support, as well as a person’s attitude. Socioemotional development in late adulthood can vary depending on a person’s qualities, lifestyle, and community. However, successful aging primarily depends on a variety of activities, a positive attitude towards past events, as well as the selection and compensation of opportunities.

At a more mature age, many people may become increasingly dependent on other people due to physiological changes. This factor can have an impact on their emotional and social well-being. Older people increasingly rely on the help of family members, relatives, and long-term care professionals. As a result, they may experience feelings of shame or guilt, as well as symptoms of depression, especially when caring for elders is considered a burden in society. When moving to a nursing home, they can also face isolation due to the need to leave their familiar community. Older adults, as their dependence increases, also run the risk of being abused by the caregiver. This circumstance can also have an impact on the emotional state of a person.

Social connections and support play a key role in positive aging. From this perspective, socioemotional selectivity theory implies that as a person gets older, the number of friends decreases, but they become emotionally closer. Often, older people feel lonely, as their relatives can lead their own independent lives, and their friends can die. The emerging state of isolation can have detrimental effects on well-being at an older age. However, many people cope with this circumstance by leading an active lifestyle and participating in community life, for example, in a nursing home. In this case, the theory of activity proposes that the more diverse a person’s activity is, the more he or she is satisfied with his or her life. Moreover, if it is impossible to fulfill the roles habitual for middle-adulthood age, at a late-adulthood age, it is necessary to find a substitution for them. A more active and involved life is associated with increased satisfaction.

Many people, as they enter a more mature age, may experience a crisis between integrity and despair. Erickson suggested that in late adulthood, people tend to review all the events and achievements of their lives. Thus, depending on satisfaction with the result of his life, a person ends it either with a sense of integrity or despair. This process consists of identifying not only positive moments but also reflecting on failures and troubles. As a result, many people may experience regret, which causes feelings of despair and negatively affects their well-being. On the contrary, a positive outlook on past events leads to greater satisfaction with life in later adulthood.

Selective optimization with compensation theory can help older people cope with emotional, physiological, and social changes. According to it, people in late adulthood need to identify and optimize their strong sides and compensate for weak ones. For example, if one cannot drive a car anymore, one needs to find a new type of transport. This strategy will not only help focus on the positive aspects but find new ways of being active and involved, which is necessary according to the theory of activity.

Socioemotional development in late adulthood is based on social activity and a person’s personal attitude towards aging. Older people may experience feelings of depression and isolation, as well as guilt and shame due to increasing dependency. They often have fewer social connections, but the quality also increases. The determining factors are social support and a positive attitude. Increased activity and involvement can increase satisfaction, while feelings of regret decrease it. Thus, socioemotional development in late adulthood implies psychological and social transformations.

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