Consumer Behavior In Business Administration Free Sample

Executive Summary

Consumer behavior is a transitional topic that is highly dependent on various factors and has been a constant subject of change post world war 11. In the essay, cultural aspects of societies that include values, language, religion, economics, and business ethics have been dissected to try and give an insight into how consumers come to make choices. Managers consider consumer behavior of high value since it enables them promote their firm by closely monitoring on the customer. The essay addresses how consumers arrive at a decision based on their attitudes regarding a good or service and how these attitudes shift along with changes in quality of life, technological advancements, design, and other trends. Characteristics primarily determine a product’s success, and managers use customer behavior patterns as a promotional tool. Due to continuous trends in consumer behavior tied to cultural diversities, organizations have had to make adjustments to adapt to the global market’s needs. The essay discusses some of Mercedes international’s adaptations in its marketing strategies to suit the different cultural segments and achieve its goal. In their pursuit to glue customers to their products, organizations encounter difficulties that only lower their success rate. Solutions to these difficulties are dissected, and recommendations are given to perfect the process.


Consumer behavior in business administration is concerned with the usage and discard of items and how they are acquired. The services or products that a customer often uses are of considerable importance to the marketer since they may assist them in determining how a brand should be presented to entice customers to buy more. When it comes to consumer behavior, decision-making techniques are frequently utilized to organize theoretical concepts. Researchers proposed theoretical frameworks to understand better what occurs in a real-world scenario until a customer chooses to purchase a service or product. According to Walters (1978), the consumer decision-making framework defines the precise cause-effect relationships that pertain to customer behavior. Consumer decision-making frameworks have numerous benefits, such as (1) provision of theoretical viewpoints that clearly show the interrelationship of different factors; (3) the ability to visualize what happens as parameter settings and situational factors change; (2) the the capacity to comprehend various customer decision making and marketing strategies; and (4) the ability to contribute significantly to the development of theory. The essay underpins the consumer cultural variations and the resultant effect on buying behavior based on the cross-cultural marketing strategies that employ specific consumer behavior theories.

Cross-Cultural Marketing of Mercedes Benz Brand

Mercedes Benz is a multinational firm that sells cars worldwide. This corporation has maintained its prosperity via segmenting the market without compromising its status. The company intends to advertise its vehicles in numerous cultural areas. A diverse marketing communications strategy is essential to guarantee that Mercedes Benz’s primary brand is customized to its diverse intended audience. Awareness of the cultural roots of cross-cultural marketing demands cultural knowledge. Marketing and advertising need such distinctions. Culture has a role in different marketing and communications tactics that may be utilized to adapt the message. This approach will guarantee that the primary message is transmitted to diverse target audiences by analyzing cultural context, assessing cultural distinctions, concentrating on trends, and examining cultural differences.

Cultural Adaptations to Marketing Strategies


By exchanging opinions with other players, the Cross-Cultural Marketing Strategy for Mercedes Benz guarantees that the primary content impacts the target audience’s purchase behavior. The communication must originate from a reliable source that includes words meant for the recipient. Ensuring that the information is presented to the receiving culture instead of the original culture ensures that the actual content will transcend cultural boundaries. Because various people see and utilize Mercedes Benz goods differently, the communication strategy considers these differences. Because the way customers behave and engage with interests may differ depending on their cultural background, it is critical to understand the cultures that the firm aims to target. The Mercedes brand will cover critical variables like geographical location and population. The marketer will be able to assess if a geographical location is homogeneous with culture, whether geographical limits are comparable to cultural divides, or if the brand will match the culture’s expectations as a result of this. Mercedes Benz has been able to evaluate the cultural differences to define the intended audience formulation strategies

Following Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory, it is imperative to understand the marketing strategies apply to the cultural setting. To understand diverse cultures, diverse questions like social beliefs, values, behaviors, and traditions of institutions and organizations passed from generations require various business techniques and unique marketing mixtures (Wu 2006). To effectively reach the target audience from different cultures, Mercedes needed to employ strategic market segmentation. That is to say, dividing markets into groups or submarkets with similar characteristics in terms of geographical location, tastes and preferences, and cultural adaptations. The segmentation aids in identifying in-groups that make an impact on customer behavior. Marketing professionals have utilized this information to create customized campaigns for specific target audiences for marketing the Mercedes brand.

Cultural Adaptations to Marketing Strategies

Certain cultures associate time with significance, requiring that something significant be built up thoughtfully and gradually over time. Like those seen in countries like the United States, individualistic cultures are more likely to respond favorably to advertising that emphasizes the advantages to the individuals and emphasizes personal accomplishment and individuality (Han & Shavitt 1994). Advertising’s reliance on celebrities is a kind of collectivism since a celebrity serves the purpose of giving a face to a brand among a sea of identically branded goods. To this effect, Mercedes international is employing collectivist advertisements in nations such as Korea and China, where they believe that whatever group appeals are more effective. Advertisements in individualistic cultures seek to create personal connections and confidence between seller and buyer rather than persuading consumers. Adverts in Korea are more concerned with evoking pleasant sensations than presenting the information. Differences in the time and frequency of the Mercedes brand name in television adverts are mirrored in the diverse reasons. Korean television commercials tend to introduce the brand, business name, or product far later than American television commercials. It is more common in Chinese advertisements than in American advertisements for the brand to be acknowledged later on.

According to Geert Hofstede’s research, Chinese tradition has a higher degree of ‘uncertainty avoidance’, which indicates that obscurity and insecurity are mostly uncomfortable in society (Wu, 2006). This explains why the Chinese are wary of taking chances and strive to prevent losses at all costs. Contrarily, persons in Western cultures have a low degree of uncertainty avoidance and do not see ambiguity or uncertainty as a danger. To this effect, commercials on Chinese televisions are based on the use of a clip to demonstrate how the Mercedes product will improve the lives of Chinese people. A Chinese person displays pleasant feelings and experiences after using Mercedes automobiles and other products to show the brand’s benefits to other Chinese people.

Weaknesses of Consumer Behavioral Theories

According to this view, consumers are logical individuals who invest a significant period searching for information, evaluating various options, and selecting the ideal goods that effectively meet their needs. As a result, scholars argue that individuals may just invest a little amount of time and attention for many items and never participate in some of the successive processes that have been identified as crucial in the final decision stage. Furthermore, Critics say that cross-cultural marketing methods generalize consumers’ decision processes. There is a presumption that the more essential a commodity is, the more difficult it is for buyers to make an informed decision. That is why not all customers go via the whole five decision-making procedures; instead, some customers skip certain stages and make choices based on their perceptions when the item is not essential to them (Burns and Gentry, 1990).

Although the study’s results on the effect of metaphorical expressions on thoughts and behaviors are significant for comprehending how advertisement works, the designers do not acknowledge the respondents’ country cultures as if their conclusions are universally acceptable. As a result, the findings are only partially valid. Some of the most pressing issues in advertising studies are the efficacy of different operational strategies and the timing of standardizing various aspects of marketing. To answer these questions, we will have to assume that people look at advertising in a piecemeal fashion. On the other hand, consumers take the picture holistically how people say things are not the best approach to assessing how advertising operates in various cultures. Customers often accept advertising based on how it is communicated to them. In light of this, individualistic cultures may get irritated by collectivist commercials and vice versa.

Opportunities for Improvement

There lie great opportunities for making strides in achieving top-notch marketing strategies across diverse cultures based on understanding particular groups’ essential peculiar cultural components. Many organizations have embraced agility in their marketing strategies because they are ready to adapt to trends to navigate barriers to effective cross-cultural communication. Organizations may stifle innovation when they get too entrenched in their doing things. Because continual development needs a certain degree of adaptability and open-mindedness, businesses must instead concentrate on it. Trying new techniques of executing ideas to understand better other people’s viewpoints is a great approach to integrating this principle in cross-cultural marketing.

Over the recent years, organizations have made efforts towards acknowledging cultural diversities hence becoming aware of cultural differences and their effect on social and economic toll on the marketing of products. Several organizations have made a concerted effort to better understand and empathize with the perspectives of their target audiences. Internal communications have been audited at all levels of the company. The purpose and corporate values, whether or not they are diverse, and whether or not the global market’s varied cultures have been considered carefully are all examined during this whole process. To effectively serve the global market and meet your objectives, corporations should undertake this journey to have a clear picture of the current status of their company’s culture and marketing strategy.

Recommendations for Improvement

In the plight of the ever-diversifying cultural parameters, it is paramount that organizations should adopt the following to bypass the cross-cultural marketing barriers; (1) have proper knowledge of global cultures and incorporate them into communication; (2) accept cultural differences without making a judgment; (3) seek common ground, shared agreement, and reduction of the complex procedure of operating under diverse cultural circumstances; (4) manage cultural differences by acknowledging neither cultural aspects is superior hence minimizing impacts of cultural variations on marketing techniques chosen,


An organization’s ability to succeed in the global marketplace in the twenty-first century will need a full awareness of cultural diversity to take advantage of the many economic possibilities created by the global village. There will be more and more cultural distinctions in global marketplaces as the cycle of globalization progresses. Advertisers employ cross-cultural marketing to reach customers from diverse cultural backgrounds than their own. Social conventions, beliefs, religion, economic systems, and business ethics are just a few instances of the cultural variables that must be considered. The essay uncovered significant cultural variations that demonstrate the existence of universal cultural truths. Cultural viewpoints, cultural factors, cross-cultural marketing weaknesses based on consumer behavior theories, and recommended actions to address the obstacles that firms experience due to market variations have all been explored. Regional differences and their effects on advertisement appeals have been thoroughly discussed in this essay hence shading light into the cultural translation of Hofstede’s theory of consumer behavior in societies.

When it comes to figuring out cultural variations in consumer behavior, the Hofstede model of national culture has shown to be an effective tool. It is necessary to have a theoretical understanding of the different representations important to these business domains to apply the model to the promotion of products, which initially sought solutions to job value disparities. Because of the increasing severity of competition to acquire worldwide clients, exploring consumers’ decision-making processes is considered an extremely significant issue in market research (Lee & Back, 2008). Cross-cultural disparities and marketing weaknesses may be solved by learning the alien culture, languages of other nations, respect for clients’ cultures and religions, and comprehending subtleties in language. Organizations may overcome cross-cultural marketing issues worldwide by using all of the recommendations mentioned above.


Burns, A. C., & Gentry, J. W. (1990). Toward improving household consumption behavior research: avoidance of pitfalls in using alternative household data collection procedures. ACR Lee, J. S., & Back, K. J. (2008). Attendee-based brand equity. Tourism management, 29(2), 331- 344.

Han, S. P., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of experimental social psychology, 30(4), 326-350.

North American Advances.

Walters, C. G. (1978). Consumer Behavior: Theory and Practice, Homewood, Richard D. Irwin, In.

Wu, M. (2006). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions 30 years later: A study of Taiwan and the United States. Intercultural communication studies, 15(1), 33.

Contemporary Issues In International Human Resource Management Essay Example

Critically evaluate the human resource practices and challenges in one emerging African country using the academic topics covered in the module


“Human Resource Management,” or HRM, is a critical component of every business. In the words of Aust et al. (2020), HRM practises are all about maximising the productivity of an organization’s personnel. It is possible to obtain an advantage over your rivals in the market by using these tactics. It entails a variety of methods and tactics aimed at enhancing a worker’s productivity. “Hiring individuals, giving training, setting the compensation and dispatching the salary, and developing rules for the organisation” are all part of HRM procedures.

Human resource management approaches and techniques may vary widely, depending on the kind of organisation or region in which the business is located. In contrast to industrialised nations, procedures in poor countries might be very different. Depending on the local economy and available resources, some procedures are carried out, according to van Rossenberg et al. (2022). Development nations will have much less resources than their industrialised counterparts. As a result, their approaches to human resources management will be unique. This response focuses on Ethiopia’s HRM practises, which is a growing nation in Africa. Because of the country’s low economic and resource resources, HRM practises in this country may differ greatly from those in more developed nations. The following are the most prevalent HRM techniques used in the nation.

Reward System

In Ethiopia, it is common practise to award workers for their excellent job. Stahl et al. (2020) claim that rewarding workers on a regular basis might encourage them to improve their work performance. A raise in pay or a bonus or incentive are two possible forms of compensation. This may also involve promotions or other forms of affirmation from the business. It’s a smart idea to use a “reward system” to keep staff pleased. This also allows the firm or organisation to maximise the potential of its people.

Employees who are content with their jobs are more likely to put in additional effort to improve their performance. The “reward system,” according to Martono et al. (2018), is a crucial aspect of HRM practises for improving employee performance. It is common for employees to get bored and unsatisfied with their jobs, and a bonus or raise in pay is a pleasant change that boosts morale. If you’re in a location where money is scarce, it might be a powerful drive for others to become involved. This “reward system” is very successful in countries like Ethiopia.

Performance Appraisal

Recognition and evaluation of excellent performance is an essential practise in human resources management (HRM). Employees and employers both benefit from acknowledging hard effort. “Performance evaluation,” according to Islami et al. (2018), is a significant aspect of HRM practises in Ethiopian organisations. If the employee is recognised for his accomplishments, he may be inspired to work more effectively and provide his finest job. The organisation may benefit from an improvement in staff productivity since more work can be completed in a shorter amount of time.

In addition, organisations may discover a latent talent or ability in an employee and put it to use for the betterment of the business as a whole. This method may assist a firm acquire an advantage over its rivals in the market and aid to bring in greater success. Lin and Kellough (2019) claim that an employee’s efforts are valued when they assist the organisation meet or even surpass its objectives. An employee’s productivity and efficiency during a certain time period is evaluated or reviewed.

Recruitment and Selection

Policies governing the hiring of new workers and the selection of those individuals for certain job functions are part of most HR processes. Policies for recruiting new employees vary widely from firm to company, according to Hamza et al. (2021). Employees are hired based on a comparison of their qualifications with the job’s specifications. This includes determining the compensation expectations of individuals who meet the job requirements. This method is used to boost an organization’s “employee strength” and thereby increase productivity.

An effective “recruitment and selection” process may assist an organisation achieve its stated goals and objectives. Recruitment and selection, according to Abbasi et al. (2020), is critical to the success of an organisation or corporation. An increase in a company’s workforce translates directly into an improvement in its productivity and, therefore, its bottom line. Employers often choose a candidate for a job based on the candidate’s knowledge and abilities to perform the duties of the position.

Training and Development

In the field of human resources management, “training” is a critical component. Everyone in an organisation should not be expected to possess all the necessary skills and information from the beginning. Training methods are thus established for both new and experienced staff. In most cases, new employees are given a thorough orientation to the everyday tasks they are expected to complete. Older workers, on the other hand, often get training that focuses on developing a certain talent. For example, according to Ojo et al. (2020), a company’s position in the market may be maintained by using continuous development and training techniques. Because of this, the corporation has a leg up on its competition.

The technique of “training and development” aids an organization’s personnel in realising their full potential and completing more work in a shorter period of time. Instilling a desire to learn new things in the minds of workers is a positive thing since it enhances both their professional and personal life. Managers and HR officials keep a close eye on employee performance and make recommendations for training or development as needed depending on what they see.

Authority Relations

When it comes to an organization’s ability to operate, the relationship between its leaders and its workers is critical. Authority relations, as defined by Mira et al. (2019), refers to the practise of deciding whether or not to terminate an employee’s employment. It is common for them to lay out the conditions under which an employee may continue to work for a firm or organisation. Workers’ attitudes toward authority and vice versa are both captured by this word. It’s well accepted that fostering a positive work atmosphere led to greater outcomes for the company as a whole.

In this context, a manager’s “delegation” of tasks to subordinates is also included. It involves delegating a portion of the work to others and relying on them to get the job done. Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the ability to make choices, control the work of others, and command subordinates as “authority”. The phrase refers to the degree of control an individual has over their workers as well as the kind of the connection that exists between them and the person exercising that control. This link has a direct impact on the productivity and efficiency of the whole organisation.

Labour Market

For the success of a company and an organisation, it is critical that workers interact with one other. Employees may benefit from one other’s knowledge and talents so that the overall productivity of the company increases. Culture of the “labour market” is very essential in organisations, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia, as noted by Snieska et al. (2020). Workers and employees may communicate with one other in the “labour market,” which is what the word refers to.


HRM authorities compete with each other to recruit the finest and brightest employees in the workforce.

The opposite is true: Employees compete with one another for the greatest jobs, best salaries, and best benefits. HRM practises are directly influenced by the productivity and growth rate of the labour market. It decides when to bring on new employees and when to let go of the ones already on board. The expansion of enterprises’ capacity to hire new employees is closely related to the expansion of the labour market. Furthermore, the greater the rate of employment achievement, the lower the unemployment rate.

In Ethiopia and other developing nations, the HRM methods described above are commonplace. Companies benefit from adopting these strategies.

Synthesise the reasons why international assignments may fail using views and concepts found in academic articles


In “international assignments,” many parties work together on a single project under the umbrella of international collaboration. The completion of the assignment is impossible without the participation of one or both of the parties, and neither side can do it alone. Duvivier et al. (2019) claim that most “international assignments” are done in the context of multi-national corporations (MNCs) that have offices throughout the globe. Employees are sent from their residences in one nation to another to complete work tasks assigned by the firm. There are a number of elements that contribute to the success or failure of “international assignments.”

As a rule, professionals who have been working with the organisation for a long time and have a thorough understanding of how it operates are most qualified to manage “international tasks.” Even yet, training is provided in advance of the assignment to help the individual get acclimated to the new surroundings. Li et al. (2020) claim that educating employees and transferring them to international locations is frequently done at the company’s cost. As a result, the business should be able to bear the additional costs. When an employee is transferred to a foreign country on a “international assignment,” they must keep the employer informed of their progress at all times.

Even after extensive training, an individual may get overwhelmed in a new setting. Depending on the scenario, the employer may provide further assistance or support to the employee. The success of a project or activity may be greatly improved by aligning it with its goals. With the help of the employee’s skills and experience, and the assistance of ground workers, this is often accomplished. In order to ensure that the task is completed correctly, the employee must be given instructions by those in positions of authority within the firm. In multinational firms, training personnel in “foreign or international assignments” is critical since the need may arise at any moment to transfer an employee to a foreign country for business purposes. Because of this, businesses should put a large amount of money into this activity.


Finally, the company should offer the employee with a place to stay in the other country. According to Collings and Isichei (2018), a company’s performance depends heavily on its employees’ well-being and the quality of their living quarters. In these economic negotiations, the employee effectively represents the firm, thus gratifying the employee is a good start. When working with other firms, certain standards must always be kept in order to preserve a positive image for the organisation. Every business or organisation that engages in “international assignment” abides by the standard guidelines. Even with a strict set of guidelines in place, there is always the possibility for something to go wrong. That’s what seems to happen more often than not.

It is the company’s lack of organisational behaviour and support that is mostly to blame for the failure of “foreign assignments”. It’s important to remember that dealing with other cultures demands a high level of accuracy and expertise, which might have terrible results if you don’t have it. “Inadequate or rigid assignment policies” may be to blame for the failure. With relation to job duties and shifts in working hours since the employee may be working from a time zone other than their own, flexibility is critical. When it comes to meeting a deadline, a lack of flexibility might be an issue.

It is the responsibility of the employer to assist the employee in preparing for the travel, as well as in doing business, as stated above. If the organisation fails to assist the employee in properly preparing for the task, it may result in a failure. As part of this preparation, you may need to assist the individual in becoming used to their new surroundings and environment. In addition, the organisation must assist the employee in overcoming linguistic and cultural differences. On the other side, a lack of these training methods may generate issues for the employee, resulting in the assignment not being finished by the deadline specified.

The outsourced employee’s living quarters should also be taken care of by the firm or organisation. For Shah and colleagues (2021), it is normal for a corporation to cover the employee’s travel and living costs when he or she is relocated to another country. Being able to concentrate on the work at hand is made easier when the individual has a pleasant place to call home. This is a great way to get the task done fast and more efficiently. When it comes to “foreign assignments,” a company’s investment is critical.

International assignments can only be successful if employees and employers are in constant contact. Employees are expected to keep the firm updated on the progress and evolution of the job at hand, according to Zaharie et al. (2020). The corporation, on the other hand, needs to maintain track of the development of the project. The consequences of poor communication may be felt by the organisation and its employees alike. Once they’ve completed one stage, the individual may be unsure of what to do with their following step in the procedure. To get out of a rut, you’ll need some direction from the firm. It’s also possible that a lack of advice and assistance from the organisation might cause a snag in the project’s successful completion.

Employees with a wealth of foreign expertise must always be sent on overseas missions by companies or organisations. When it comes to getting the work done, having a wealth of business experience and expertise is a must. Because of this, sending an employee who isn’t well-versed in dealing with “foreign assignments” might cause issues for the organisation. At work, the individual may get agitated or anxious. An employee’s lack of experience may work against him or her since any circumstance may develop in which the employee’s fundamental knowledge and skills are insufficient. Furthermore, these jobs put the employee’s self-assurance to the test, and the more experience an employee has, the more comfortable he or she will be handling challenging circumstances.

The worldwide market is always changing, making it difficult to keep up with all of the policy adjustments made by various corporations or governments. This is where Chan et al. (2021) say it’s simple to make mistakes. As a result, it is important to properly review and re-examine all company policies, as well as any extra laws and regulations, before beginning a new firm or doing an assignment. If you don’t do your homework, you might run into a variety of issues with this subject. A traveller to a distant nation may find himself in a scenario that is substantially different from what he expected. To execute the work that had to be done under such a situation is very difficult, and frequently impossible. As a result, all multinational organisations must keep a careful eye on the ever-changing rules and must constantly adapt to the changing times and organisational changes. For “foreign assignments,” the employee’s personal issues may also have contributed to their failures. An employee’s productivity and efficiency may suffer if he or she is distracted by feelings of disorientation and loneliness while working in a foreign country. Keeping track of one’s own finances is essential since most employers don’t pay for an employee’s personal costs. Lack of cash in a foreign place might be difficult enough, but they can also impact and slow down the work that has to be done.


The failure of “international assignments” is mostly due to language and cultural obstacles and discrepancies. Because commercial transactions cannot proceed if the parties cannot communicate effectively because of the language barrier, this may be an essential consideration. In the words of Tahirsylaj et al. (2018), the assignment may have fallen apart because of linguistic problems and a lack of comprehension. Furthermore, every nation has its own own culture and way of life. The person in charge of the task in a foreign country must show respect for their culture and conduct themselves properly. This has a direct impact on company practises; thus, care should be used. A “foreign assignment” might go horribly wrong for any number of reasons, some of which have already been stated. International company has a lot of moving parts, and keeping track of them all may be time-consuming. As a result, these tasks have a high probability of failing. Some unexpected issues may also arise, resulting in headaches for everyone.

Analyse the work of the international trade unions and ILO with regard to gender equality, use relevant websites as well as peer-reviewed articles.


Modern society is grappling with two major questions: equality for women and gender neutrality. Equal rights for men and women in every facet of life are essential if society is to work properly, and this is why it is so crucial. The right of women to work and to assume social responsibility benefits society as a whole since both genders contribute to economic growth in this manner. To put it another way, communities that treat men and women equally are safer and healthier, according to Gupta et al. (2019). Gender equality and gender neutrality are seen as fundamental human rights by many.


ITUC is a worldwide trade union organisation that upholds the “Fundamental Workers Rights” advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO). For Falk and Hermle (2018), protecting employees from discrimination is a vital role for our bodies. It’s not hard to see how ensuring gender equality fits into this area. Working women throughout various nations are protected by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Currently, the “International Trade Union” is the world’s most powerful trade union in recent years. On the other side, the ILO or “International Labor Organization” is a United Nations body that protects and enforces the rights of workers across the globe. This organisation also aids in the abolition of employment discrimination.

Opportunities both for men and women are provided through the international organisations indicated above. We can only hope that more women in government and business will lead to further advancements and progress if they are better represented in all entities. Gender equality efforts are currently widespread, but more must be launched in order to boost economic output. The GDP may be greatly boosted by “reduced gender pay gaps” and “increased involvement of women in the labour force.” Using this method may assist alleviate the current economic crisis in a number of nations.

It is clear that women from many nations are underrepresented in national and social bodies in today’s world. It has been noted that women’s rights are given greater attention when they are present in councils or other bodies and are able to speak for themselves. In the “promotion of women’s economic, social, and political rights,” organisations and movements that concentrate on the representation of women in the workplace play an important role. They will continue to be “key engines” in society’s significant developments as long as they exist. “Decision-making processes” are more diverse and reflect fresh ideas when women are involved, according to Shannon et al. (2019). Both men and women might benefit from these concepts. Equal pay, a work-life balance, and protection from harassment and violence are all examples of women’s rights that pertain to gender equality. When they are incorporated into company policy, “important labor-market outcomes” for women are the result. “Pay discrepancies between industries and enterprises” may be reduced through collective agreements between men and women. Several organisations have implemented “job categorization and pay systems” with gender-neutral work assessments in order to alleviate the prejudice caused by gender disparities and gender biases. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has shown that nations with a high level of wealth tend to have a smaller wage difference between men and women. This suggests that nations that recognise women’s abilities to work alongside males tend to have stronger economic infrastructures (ILO, 2022). For the “International Trade Union” to take the gender equality movement seriously, it needs a “integrated and revolutionary strategy.”

According to the “1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing Declaration, Platform for Action,” the goal is to empower women and establish gender equality. Protocols such as this are on the to-do list (ILO, 2020).

Women are more likely to be poor than males

For many women in certain areas of the globe, money and the independence it provides are a need, not a luxury. Berlan and Harwood (2018) state that when women lack resources and money, they are more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. As a result, they are unable to escape and begin a new life on their own, and they are compelled to endure. “Changes in family structure, gender wage discrepancies, the predominance of low-paying industries, lack of support from family,” among other things, are the most prevalent reasons of poverty among women

Access to training and education for employment is unevenly distributed

The gap between men and women extends beyond the workplace and into the realm of higher learning. For the most part, women in the developed world don’t go on to higher education. They are urged to get married and establish a family, rather than discouraged from doing so. As for guys, they may go to school as much as they choose. This is a morally repugnant practise that impedes the development of civilization. In addition, women are urged to choose occupations that don’t need a lot of time commitment rather than ones that they like doing themselves. It’s frustrating when family members don’t encourage you to continue your education or research in order to get a great profession. As a result of recent efforts, things are looking up.

Women’s health

Society places a high value on the well-being of women. Gay (2018) argues that women’s health should be prioritised above men’s health. The primary reason for this is because women are tasked with caring for whole families, and the wellbeing of those families is directly tied to the fitness of the women in those families. Women are also the main carers for their newborns during and after the delivery period. To ensure the health and well-being of the female members of the family, proper care and attention must be paid to their well-being.

Women’s violence

As part of the subject of women’s rights, violence is a prominent issue. A family member or even a stranger may inflict this kind of assault on a victim. Working in an environment where harassment and abuse are commonplace is a disgrace to any company. These violations of human rights are punished by law, according to fundamental human rights. According to Akhmedshina (2020), women’s abuse involves both psychological and physical assaults.

Women’s contributions to the economy

In every country’s economy, women play a critical role. The more developed and economically stable nations reveal that their workforce is made up of equal numbers of men and women. On the other side, nations with a low economic standing often reveal that women in the household do not make any money all. When both men and women work, families are more financially secure and can afford a higher quality of living, according to a study by Bonnet and colleagues (2019). Families with solely a male breadwinner may, on the other hand, encounter financial difficulties at times.

Women’s ability to make decisions

When women participate in public discourse, they have a voice and a role in society as a whole. When it comes to speaking on behalf of other women, it has been shown that women are more suited than males to grasp the issues at hand. Women have been increasingly involved in the decision-making process as a result of changes in the social structure. For the first time, women have the chance to voice their opinions and claim their civil liberties. Having a mix of men and women on boards has also been beneficial to businesses.

The young lady of the house

Children are the most significant segment of society because they symbolise the future and the potential of society. The destiny of a family depends on the well-being of its female members, and parents have a duty to do so. In several developing nations, the female child is still not receiving an adequate education. When they’re teenagers, their parents have a propensity to want to have them married off. This is an outright crime that has to be put an end to. In the eyes of society, a female kid is a symbol of hope and opportunity. Society has a responsibility to assist people in achieving their full potential and becoming whatever, they choose to be (Amnesty, 2022).

Women’s liberties and freedoms

All of the fundamental human rights that men enjoy are also applicable to women. The rights of women, according to Amnesty International, include the right to have a happy life free of violence or prejudice. As a result, they are entitled to the same rights as males in terms of education, employment, and any other activity that the government deems appropriate. Women make up half of the population, and they have the right to participate in the decision-making process.


The “Institutional procedures for gender equality” stipulates those women have the same rights as males, as stated in the mandates. Discrimination against women must be eradicated at all costs, according to this statement. Gender equality policies may also be developed and implemented with the aid of this tool.

Answer 4


In the first session, we learned about the basics of human resource management or HRM, but there is still more to learn about management. As a future manager, these subjects and points will benefit me a great deal. The most important thing I’ve learned from this is that I need to be more concerned about the people who work for me and provide them with the resources they need to perform at their best. I can improve my relationship with my workers by improving the way I treat my employees, i.e., by improving my communication skills. The importance of treating everyone equally and actively listening to their thoughts cannot be overstated.

Working with others to improve the company’s performance should be my guiding principle. In the words of Mousa and Othman (2020), an organisation is constantly looking to get the most out of its people for the benefit and success of the company. Employees’ issues may be resolved by establishing a safe environment where they can openly discuss their concerns. I have the ability to help my subordinates do their duties more effectively and efficiently. Any company wants the most out of every one of its workers, and I can help them get it. Furthermore, individuals may feel proud of themselves for completing the task perfectly.

Practices in Human Resources

I’m able to learn about the strengths and weaknesses of my staff and work with them to improve their abilities. In addition, I am able to foster an environment of mutual respect and learning among my coworkers. Sharing one’s abilities and talents in this manner allows everyone to learn from one other and even teach each other new ways of completing a job. The organisation as a whole may profit from these methods since the overall productivity of the activity at hand can be greatly increased. People that are excellent at what they do may be given responsibilities and tasks, and I can assist them put their skills to good use for the company.

Taking part in social events with my coworkers may go a long way toward improving communication among us. Furthermore, my management style should be devoid of any kind of prejudice. No employee should be subjected to racial or cultural bias. When it comes to business, innovation is an essential component, according to Papa et al (2018). I can assist my subordinates in coming up with creative solutions to problems and then test those solutions to see whether they are better and more efficient than the standard ones. This mindset may boost the organization’s competitiveness and aid to reach the company’s objectives within a certain time frame. I may assist the workers by listening to their concerns and working with them to find a solution. Furthermore, I have the authority to fire personnel who are unwilling or unable to cooperate or act reasonably in the workplace. In order to uphold the organization’s norms and regulations, I need to be stern and ready to take disciplinary action when necessary. My efforts should have a positive impact on the whole organisation and aid in the achievement of its objectives.

Assignments abroad and the difficulties they pose

“International Assignments” are very difficult to complete, and they often result in a failure. However, I am certain that if I maintain a strict work ethic and adhere to sound procedures, I will be able to complete my “foreign tasks” effectively and efficiently. Adaptability is critical when it comes to “foreign tasks,” according to Conroy and colleagues (2018). I’m confident in my ability to be adaptable and tweak standards and regulations in ways that benefit both the individual and the company as a whole. If anything goes drastically wrong with the initial plan, I need to be ready to pivot.

I want to provide enough time to help the employee who will be transferred to another nation become used to their new surroundings. I can better prepare them for their new jobs by educating them about the customs and traditions of the area they will be working in. As a result, I can provide advice on how to deal with their counterparts and show them various tactics for resolving disagreements and getting out of difficult circumstances in another nation. According to Marques et al. (2021), “foreign assignments” might be challenging because of language barriers. So that business may progress without hiccups, I can set up lessons and provide resources to aid with the acquisition of the fundamentals of the language spoken in the destination country.

Long-term “foreign assignments” need that workers locate suitable housing so that they may remain on the job for the duration of their stay. According to Kandogan (2018), finding a quality place to live in a short amount of time is quite tough. By pre-arranging certain housing arrangements for the employee travelling overseas, I can assist. My contacts within the firm allow me to reserve a hotel room for the duration of my visit. If the client doesn’t want to stay in a hotel, I may also recommend places to stay in the area.

In “foreign assignments,” the employee requires as much financial assistance as he or she can get. In order to aid the workers throughout their task, I may set aside a little amount of money for them to use as they like. I can also set up transportation for employees who live in rural places to go to and from work, and vice versa. As an option, the employer or organisation may purchase the employee’s aircraft or rail tickets.

I need to keep in touch with the workers who have been transferred overseas to ensure that the project is progressing as planned. In addition, clear and concise communication may assist in reducing uncertainty and resolving disagreements. In order to assist in the resolution of difficulties and assist in the resolution of problems, I believe that excellent communication is a need. Using this strategy, I can keep tabs on the development of the project and provide instructions to the workers to speed up or slow down as necessary.

Equal Rights for Women and Men

To preserve social stability, “Gender Equality” in the workplace is critical. Respectable workplaces, companies, or organisations adhere to gender equality and gender neutrality at all times according to Gupta et al (2019). Respecting both men and women is a fundamental human right, and this is the course I aim to take for the rest of my professional life. For the record, I am open to hiring both men and women, but only if they are capable of executing the work at hand. I’ve come to realise that, in many professions, women are as good as or better than males.

In no circumstances can it be acceptable that harassment and abuse of women in the workplace take place. To that end, I aim to enforce a zero-tolerance policy against any of my subordinates who are proven to have engaged in illegal activity. It is my goal to create a work environment where both men and women may work together and develop friendships. I’d want to encourage everyone to work together for the good of the company as a whole so that the team may reach the objectives it set out to accomplish. A level playing field for both sexes should be ensured.

Favoritism and unethical behaviour should be avoided at all costs in the workplace. It is my intention to stay impartial and not provide preferential treatment to any of my coworkers over the others. I should treat every one of my subordinates fairly and make every effort to do as much work as feasible while doing so. It’s critical to constantly strive to improve one’s performance and effectiveness. Throughout my career, I plan to treat my subordinates with the utmost respect. Because of this, I plan to listen carefully to the concerns of everyone and to provide the best answer I am able. These considerations make it clear that my goal is to be as gender-neutral as feasible. According to Chung and Van der Lippe (2018), the organization’s policies and practises should be gender-neutral, meaning they should not favour the male or female workforce. All of my coworkers deserve to have a positive working connection with me; therefore, I try to be there for them whenever they need it. My goal as a manager is to use what I’ve learned to assist my colleagues and subordinates succeed. The firm or organisation I’ll be working for would benefit greatly from my skills and abilities, and I’d want to utilise them to assist them achieve their objectives. Using my managerial talents, I plan to assist the company establish a dominating position in the market and fly above its rivals in the long run. As a result, I would want to assist my coworkers and subordinates whenever they need it, and to advise and support them as needed. In addition, I’d want to improve my ability to supervise the work of others by acquiring new skills and information.

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Co-Occurring Disorders Diagnosis ADHD And Alcohol Use Disorder Free Writing Sample


Substance abuse is a common affliction that causes severe morbidity, death, and financial strain on victims’ families, the victims themselves, and the healthcare system. Persons with mental illnesses are disproportionately represented in substance use disorders. Co-occurring disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use have become rampant among populations globally. As a result, to tame the current co-occurring disorders challenge, the American Psychiatric Association has established a standard version called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, often called DSM-5, with a standard structure that contains the names, symptoms, and diagnostic features of each recognized mental disorders that also includes addictions. Therefore, DSM-5 has exhibited high-end effectiveness in the diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring disorders.

DSM-5 Criteria for Co-Occurring Disorders Diagnosis ADHD and Alcohol Use Disorder

To be diagnosed with ADHD using the DSM-5 criteria, an individual needs to meet the following criteria as stipulated in the American Psychiatric Association. First, the person must show a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity with the characteristics of impulsivity that cause interference with functioning and development. Secondly, the aspect of inattention is incorporated in the diagnostic process of ADHD. Symptoms that show inattention include an individual failing to give close attention to details or intentionally making careless mistakes in classwork or during other activities, the person normally fidgets with or taps hands or feet or squirms in the seat, the individual often leaves seat in scenarios when remaining seated is what is expected, the victim runs about climbs in scenarios where it is illegal or inappropriate, and the person excessively talks (Banna & Saad, 2019). Therefore, from the aforementioned criteria, among other diverse strange behaviors, psychiatrists incorporate DSM-5 in the diagnosis of ADHD.

Correspondingly, alcoholism does not have an official diagnosis. In regards to the American Psychiatric Association’s fifth publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), the disorder formerly known as alcoholism is now formally referred to as severe alcohol use disorder. There are a set of eleven conditions according to DSM-5 that exhibits the co-occurring of alcohol disorder (Kranzler & Soyka, 2018). The eleven symptoms listed in DSM-5 include the scenario where alcohol is normally taken in huge volumes or over a longer time than intended, there is recurrent desire or unsuccessful efforts to stop drinking, much time is spent on deals that enables one to access alcohol drinks every time, cravings for alcohol, consistent use of alcohol that makes one unable to perform their obligations such as work at school or home or where employed, persistent use of alcohol despite having interpersonal issues, persistent use of alcohol in dangerous places, continued use of alcohol despite having recurrent physical or psychological challenges, intolerance, and having a recurrent withdrawal mood that is manifested by either in characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol or use of a substance such as a benzodiazepine to help the victim relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms (Kranzler & Soyka, 2018). If a person exhibits two or more symptoms from a set of eleven criteria, they are therefore diagnosed with an alcohol consumption disorder, which can be mild, moderate, or severe, according to the DSM-5.

Incidence of the ADHD Disorder, both Independent of and Co-Occurring with the Alcohol Abusing Population

Several incidences exhibit the onset of ADHD where the excessive intake of alcohol as drug and substance abuse is a contributing factor. Co-occurring disorders adversely affect the obscuring of one another, making it hard to achieve appropriate diagnoses in the patient population (Treatment Improvement Protocol 42, 2020). For instance, the co-occurring incidences of anxiety, depression, and ADHD are often mimicked among patients with drug and substance abuse.

Notably, acute intoxication experienced from instantaneous alcohol can cause manic- and hypomanic characteristics, and victims with withdrawal symptoms who exhibit agitation and mood-based challenges can also be diagnosed with ADHD or alcohol disorder, therefore, causing difficulty for healthcare providers to make an appropriate diagnosis (Iqbal et al., 2019). The independent incidences in alcohol disorder and ADHD is that it is easy to substantiate addiction in alcoholism since it is caused by excessive drinking of alcohol, unlike ADHD whereby there is no evidence of contributing factors as it is caused by internal or external factors such as unfortunate events in life, peer pressure, and lifestyle. Therefore, while trying to achieve an appropriate diagnosis, it is imperative for healthcare providers to keenly analyze underlying signs and symptoms.

Theories on Causes of ADHD and Alcohol Disorder

There are diverse theories on the causes of ADHD. Psychodynamic theories associate the cause with lack of appropriate parenting, stressful family scenarios such as loss of loved ones, genetics (where symptoms tend to run in families, lead exposure, drug, and substance abuse, medications taken during pregnancy, among other factors (Iqbal et al., 2019). On the other hand, alcohol disorder is linked to theories such as peer pressure, depression, stressful life situations, addiction, etc. Therefore, from the aforementioned causes, it is candid to note that ADHD and alcohol disorder can be described as co-occurring disorders due to the similarity of causes and symptoms.

Significantly, the behavioral theories are the most appropriate in explaining the ADHD and alcohol syndrome co-occurring disorders. The behavioral theories involved include the executive dysfunction theory, delay aversion, state regulation, and dynamic development theories (Champ et al., 2021). The executive dysfunction theory is based on the cognitive process such as planning, sequencing, holding attention, and reasoning. On the other hand, the delay aversion theory by Sonuga-Berke describes inattentiveness and hyperactivity in scenarios where the delay is inevitable (Champ et al., 2021). The dynamic development theory by Sagvolden and colleagues explains ADHD manifestations from the neurotransmitter throughout to the societal levels. Therefore, since ADHD and alcohol disorders exhibit similar symptoms, the aforementioned theories can help explain the conditions.

Experiences of Individuals with ADHD and Alcohol Disorder Co-Occurring Syndromes

Individuals with ADHD have impaired attention, whereby they cannot pay attention to tasks they undertake at a specific time. Besides, these individuals are restless, and as a result, they do excessive movements as they cannot settle in one place for a long time. Also, they break down easily due to lose or wing moods that are characterized by anger and resentment. Notably, people with alcohol disorder exhibit addiction whereby they are constantly drinking even when they are supposed to attend to other errands, they make poor judgment due to impaired psychological capability, and most of them are always untidy.

Evidence-Based Treatment for ADHD and Alcohol Disorder

The appropriate evidence-based treatment for ADHD is to offer behavioral interventions. Behavioral interventions guide healthcare providers or counselors to monitor behaviors and offer appropriate rewards for the desired positive behaviors to increase positive behavior in the future (Banna & Saad, 2019). Planned or taking back the reward might also be applied to reduce negative behaviors. However, before administering the behavioral therapy, victims must first undergo guidance and counseling to help them acquire a positive attitude towards their behaviors. Behavioral therapy can also be applied to alcohol disorders to foster positive behavioral change.

Particular Considerations for Counsellors Working With ADHD and Alcohol Disorder Clients during Screening/Assessment and Treatment Phases

Counselors are highly tasked to make a keen assessment of patients suffering from ADHD and alcohol disorder to ensure the onset of the treatment exercise to the end bears positive results. Factors that a counselor should consider when assessing or screening ADHD and alcohol addiction clients include investigating the daily activities that the client undertakes, the career of the individual, family history regarding the disorder, the problem that brought the client for evaluation, and the temperance and resilience of the client (Iqbal et al., 2019). On the other hand, before undertaking treatment for the victim, the counselor should investigate the past medical history of the client and the extent of the damage caused by the disorder. Therefore, this will help the counselor determine whether the pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment approaches can be used as interventions for the patient.

The prognosis for Diagnosis of ADHD and Alcohol Disorder

The prognosis for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and alcohol disorder is evidence-based. As noted in the evidence-based treatment, the appropriate therapy is to apply the behavioral interventions where behavior change is observed. It is easy to realize behavioral change for ADHD and alcohol disorder patients by countering the co-occurring behaviors. Besides, monitoring behavior is imperative in making appropriate decisions on further intervention strategies. Therefore, the prognosis for ADHD and alcohol syndrome co-occurring disorders is evidence-based.


From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that ADHD and alcohol disorders exhibit almost similar characteristics in terms of symptoms and treatment strategies. The co-occurring disorders show aspects of anxiety, acute depression, restlessness, among other features that make it difficult for healthcare experts to make an appropriate diagnosis. This can lead to wrong treatment interventions. However, it is prudent to note that ADHD and alcohol disorder have significantly similar intervention strategies. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these co-occurring disorders do not pose dangers when the wrong diagnosis is applied, and it is imperative to apply non-pharmacological interventions.


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Iqbal, M. N., Levin, C. J., & Levin, F. R. (2019). Treatment for substance use disorder with co-occurring mental illness. Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing), 17(2), 88–97.

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